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DATE DUE 






MY ^ 1995 































DEMCO, INC. 38-2931 


The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated 



FLORENTINO GARCIA MARTINEZ 


The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated 


The Qumran Texts in English 


Wilfred G. E. Watson Translator 


E. Jf. Brill Leiden New York Cologne 



' 6 8 




Cover illustration: liQTemple Scroll 1 , cols 15-16 (translation on pages 156-157) 
Copyright Bruce and Kenneth Zuckerman, West Semitic Research 
Rolling Hills Estates, California, USA 

Original title: Textos de Qumran 

Copyright © 1992 by Editorial Trotta SA, Madrid, Spain 

English Edition (with corrections and additions) 

Copyright © 1994 by E. J. Brill, Leiden, the Netherlands 

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored 
in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, me- 
chanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission 
from the publisher. 

*■-7 

Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by E.J. Brill 
provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to Copyright Clearance Center, 
222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910, Danvers ma, 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. 

Printed in the Netherlands 


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 
Dead Sea scrolls. English 

The Dead Sea scrolls translated: the Qumran texts in English / 
by Florentino Garcia Martinez, 
p. cm. 

Includes bibliographical references and index. 

ISBN 9004100482 (pbk.). -ISBN 9004 10088 1 (cloth) 

1 Garcia Martinez. Florentino 11 Title. 

BM487.A3 1994 
296. i’55-dc20 

94-17429 CIP 

Die Deutsche Bibliothek-ciP-Einheitsaufname 

The Dead Sea scrolls translated : The Qumran texts in English / 
by Florentino Garcia Martinez. -Leiden ; New York ; Koln : Brill, 1994 

isbn 90-04-10088-1 Gewebe isbn 90-04-10048-2 kart. 
ne: Garcia Martinez, Florentino [Bearb.] 

wg: I2;i3/522i dbn: 94.090756.9 /wt 94.04.14 


Contents 


VI 


CONTENTS 


PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH TRANSLATION xix 
& 

TRANSLATOR’S NOTE xxii 
foreword xxiii 

INTRODUCTION XXXt 

1 The Dead Sea Scrolls xxxii 

II History of discovery and publication xxxvi 
t 1947-1956: The First Manuscripts xxxvi 

2 1949-1955: Excavation and publication of Cave 1 xxxvii 

3 1951-1962: Excavation of Khirbet Qumran and the ‘Small Caves’ xxxviii 

4 1952: Cave 4 xlii 

5 1956-1977: Cave 11 xliii 

hi The dispute over authenticity and antiquity xlv 
iv A sectarian library xlix 

v Identity and origins of the Qumran Community lii 
vi History of the Qumran Community Iv 
vii Further reading Ivii 


NOTES TO THE INTRODUCTION lix 

RULES 1 


1 The Rule of the Community 3 

a The Cave 1 Copy 3 
lQRule of the Community (lQS) 3 
b The Cave 4 Copies 20 

4QRule of the Community" (4Q255 [4Qpaps"]) 20 
4QRule of the Community* (4Q256 [4QS*]) 20 
4QRule of the Community^ (4Q257 [4Qpaps‘ J) 21 
4QRule of the Community^ (4Q258 Uqs^]) 22 
4QRule of the Community’’ (4Q259 [ 4QS '"]) 26 
4QRule of the Community* (4Q260 j 4 QsQ) 29 
4QRule of the Community 71 (4Q261 [4QS^]) 30 
4QRule of the Community* (4Q262 [4QS *]) 31 
4QRule of the Community' (4Q263 [4QS ']) 31 
4QRule of the Community 7 (4Q264 [4QS 7 ]) 31 
C Copies from other caves 32 
5QRule of the Community (5Q1 1 [5QS]) 32 


CONTENTS 


2 The Damascus Document 33 

a Copies from the Genizah 33 
Damascus Document" (cd-a) 33 
Damascus Document* (cd-b) 43 
B Copies from Cave 4 47 
4QDamascus Document" (4Q266 [4QD"]) 47 
4QDamascus Document* (4Q267 [4QD*]) 48 
4QDamascus Document (4Q268 [4QD"]) 57 
4QDamascus Document 1 * (4Q269 [4QD'*]) 60 
4QDamascus Document'’ (4Q270 [4QD < ’]) 62 
4QDamascus Document^ (4Q271 [ 4Qtyj) 67 
4QDamascus Document^ (4Q272 [4Q1/]) 69 
4QDamascus Document* (4Q273 [4QD*]) 70 
c Copies which come from other caves 70 
5QDamascus Document (SQ512 [5QD]) 70 
6QDamascus Document (6Q15 [6qd]) 71 

3 Fragments of other Rules 72 

4QSerek Damascus Rule (4Q265 [4QSD]) 72 
5QRule (5Q 13) 73 


HALAKHIC TEXTS 75 

1 Flalakhic Letter (4QMMT) 77 

A Composite text 77 
B Translation of the individual copies 79 
4QHalakhic Letter" (4Q394 [4QMMT"]) 79 
4QHalakhic Letter* (4Q395 [4QMMT*]) 81 
4QHalakhic Letter" (4Q396 [4Q.mmt‘ |) 81 
4QHalakhic Letter'* (4Q397 [4QMMT'*]) 83 
4QHalakhic Letter" (4Q398 [4QpapMMT"]) 84 
4QHalakhic Lette/(4Q399 [4QMMT-*]) 85 

2 Other halakhic texts 86 

2Qjuridical text (2Q25) 86 
4QOrdinances" (4Q159 [4QOrd"]) 86 
4QHalakhah (4Q251 [4QHalakhah"]) 87 
4QPurification rules A (4Q274 [4QTohorot a]) 88 


Vlll 


CONTENTS 


4QPurification rules b (4Q275 [4QTohorot b]) 8g 
4QPurification rules R* (4Q276 [4QTohorot b*]) 8g 
4QPurification rules B c (4Q277 [4QTohorot b'J) 8g 
4QPurification rules c (4Q278 [4QTohorot c]) go 
4QPurification rules d (?) (4Q279 ? [4QLeqet]) go 
4QDecrees (4Q477) go 
4QOrdinances* (4Q513 [4QOrd*]) gi 
4QOrdinances < ' (4Q5 14 Iq.QOrd']?) gi 

LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 

1 The War Scroll 95 

A The Cave 1 copy 95 
lQWar Scroll (iqm [+1Q33]) 95 
b The Cave 4 copies 115 
4QWar Scroll" (4Q491 [ 4Q vCJ) 115 
4QWar Scroll* (4Q492 [4QM*]) 120 
4QWar Scroll' (4Q493 [4QM']) 120 
4QWar Scroll^ (4Q494 [4QM </ ]) 121 
4QWar Scroll' (4Q495 [4QM']) 121 
4QWar Scroll* (4Q496 [qQpaps/]) 121 
c Texts connected with the War Scroll 123 
4QWar ScrolF (4Q285 [ 4Q ?]) 123 

tiQBlessings (iiQi4[iiQBer]) 124 
4Q War Scroll* (4Q471) 124 
4Q Words of Michael (4Q259) 123 

2 The Rule of the Congregation 126 

tQRule of the Congregation (iQ28a [tQSa]) 126 

3 Description of the New Jerusalem 729 

2QNew Jerusalem (2Q24 [2QNJ ar]) 729 
4QNew Jerusalem" (4Q554 [4QNJ" ar]) 729 
4QNew Jerusalem* (4Q555 [4QNJ* ar]) 131 
5QNew Jerusalem (5Q15 [5QNJ ar]) 131 
nQNew Jerusalem (11Q18 [11QNJ ar]) 133 


CONTENTS 


IX 


4 Other texts 136 

4QFlorilegium (4Q174 [4Qf'lorilegium]) 136 
4QTestimonia (4Q175 [4QTest]) 137 
4QAramaic Apocalypse (4Q246) 138 
4QFour Kingdoms" (4Q552) 138 
4QFour Kingdoms 1 '’ (4Q553) 139 
liQMelchisedech (11Q13 [1 lQMelch]) 139 

EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 141 


1 Targums 143 

a Targum of Leviticus 143 
4QTargum of Leviticus (4Q156 [4QtgLev]) 143 
B Targum of Job 143 
4QTargum of Job (4Q157 [4QtgJob]) 143 
1 tQTargum of Job (1 1Q10 [1 lQtgJobj) 143 

2 The Temple Scroll 134 

tiQTemple Scroll" (11Q19 [tiQTemple"]) 134 
1 tQTemple Scroll* (1 1Q20 [1 lQTemple*]) 179 

3 Peshanm 183 

A Commentaries on Isaiah 183 
3Qlsaiah Pesher (3Q4 [3QpIs]) 183 
4Qlsaiah Pesher" (4Q161 [4QpIs"]) 183 
4Qlsaiah Pesher* (4Q162 (4QpIs*]) 186 
4Qlsaiah Pesher 1 (4Q 163 [4QpIs‘ r ]) 187 
4Qlsaiah Pesher 1 * (4Q164 I^QpIs 1 *]) 190 
4Qlsaiah Pesher f (4Q165 |4QpIs‘’]) 191 
B Commentaries on Hosea 191 
4QHosea Pesher" (4Q166 [4QpHos“]) 191 
4QlIosea Pesher* (4Q167 [4QpHos*]) 192 
C Commentaries on Micah 193 
tQMicah Pesher (iq 14 [tQpMic]) 193 
4QMicah Pesher (4Q168 [4QpMic(?)]) 194 
d Commentary on Nahum 193 
4QNahum Pesher (4Q169 [4QpNah]) 193 
E Commentary on Habakkuk 197 
tQHabakkuk Pesher (tQpHab]) 197 


X 


CONTENTS 


F Commentaries on Zephaniah 202 
lQZephaniah Pesher (1Q15 [lQpZeph]) 202 
4QZephaniah Pesher (4Q170 [4QpZeph]) 203 
G Commentary on Malachi 203 
5QMalachi Pesher (5Q10 [5QpMal(?)]) 203 
H Commentaries on the Psalms 203 
4QPsalms Pesher" (4Q171 [4QpPs"]) 203 
lQPsalms Pesher (4Q 16 [lQpPs]) 206 
4QPsalms Pesher* (4Q173 [4QpPs*]) 206 

4 Other texts 208 

4QTanhufnin (4Q176 [4QTanh]) 208 
4QCatena (4Q177 [4QCatena“]) 209 
4QAges of Creation (4Qi8o [4QAgesCreat]) 211 
4QAges of Creation (4Q181 [4QAgesCreat]) 272 
4QCatena* (4Q182 [4QCatena*) 213 
4QHistorical Work (4Q183) 213 
4QGenesis Pesher" (4Q252 [4QpGen") 213 
4QGenesis Pesher* (4Q253 [4QpGen*) 215 
4QGenesis Pesher' (4Q254 [4QpGen‘) 213 

PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 277 

i Paraphrase of the Pentateuch 219 

A 4QReworked Pentateuch" (4Q158 [4QRP"]) 219 
b 4QReworked Pentateuch*’" (4Q364-365 [4QRP*"]) 222 
C Other texts 224 

2QApocryphon of David(?) (2Q22 [2QapDavid?]) 224 

4QExhortation based on the Flood (4Q370) 224 

4QApocryphon of Joseph (4Q372 [4QapocrJoseph"]) 225 

4QApocryphon of Joseph (4Q373 [4QapocrJoseph*]) 226 

4QNarrative (4Q462) 226 

6QGenesis (?) (6Q19) 227 

4QWork with Place Names (4Q522) 227 

6QDeuteronomy (?) (6Q20) 228 

4QNarrative (4Q458) 228 

4QBiblical Chronology (4Q559) 228 


CONTENTS 


2 Genesis Apocryphon 230 

lQGenesis Apocryphon (1Q20 [lQapGen ar]) 230 
lQGenesis Apocryphon (lQapGen ar) 230 

3 Book of Jubilees 238 

4Qjubilees a (4Q216 [4Qjub"]) 238 

liQjubilees (11Q12 [nQjub]) 241 

4Qjubilees c (4Q220 [ 4C4J ub‘ |) 242 

4Qjubilees^ (4Q219 [4Qjub^]) 242 

4QjubiIees^ (4Q221 [4Qjub^]) 243 

3Qjubilees (3Q5 [3Cjub]) 244 

2Qjubilees" (2Q19 [2Qjub"]) 244 

4Qjubilees^ (4Q176, fragments 19-21 [4Qjub*]) 244 

lQjubilees" (1Q17 [ iQjub a ]) 245 

lQjubilees* (1Q18 [ltjub*]) 245 

2Qjubilees* (2Q20 1 2(jJ ub*]) 243 

4QPseudo-Jubilees‘ (4Q227 (4QpsJub' |) 245 

4 Books of Enoch 246 ' y 

4QEnoch" (4Q201 (4QEn" ar]) 246 
4QEnoch* (4Q202 [4QEn* ar]) 248 
4QEnoch' (4Q204 [4QEn‘ ar]) 250 
4QEnoch <i (4Q205 [4QEn‘ / ar]) 234 
4QEnoch <? (4Q206 [4QEn < ' ar]) 256 
4QEnocl/ (4Q207 [4QE1/ ar]) 258 
4QEnocM (4Q212 [4QEn^ ar]) 238 



5 The Book of Giants 26a/ 

iQBook of Giants" (1Q23 [lQEnGiants" ar]) 260 
4QBook of Giants" (4Q203 [4QEnGiants" ar]) 260 
4QBook of Giants* (4Q530 [4QEnGiants* ar]) 261 
4QGiants‘ (4Q531 (4QEnGiants‘ ar]) 262 
6QBook of Giants (6q8 [6QEnGiants ar]) 262 

6 Book of Noah 263 

lQNoah (1Q19 [lQNoah]) 263 
4QElect of God (4Q534 [4QMess ar]) 263 


xn 


CONTENTS 


4QAramaic N (4Q535) 263 
4QAramaic c (4Q536) 264 

7 Books of the Patriarchs 263 
a Visions of Jacob 263 

4QApocryphon of Jacob (4Q537 [4QAJa ar]) 263 
b Aramaic Testament of Judah 263 
3QTestament of Judah (?) (3Q7 [3QTJuda?]) 263 
4QApocryphon of Judah (4Q538 [4QAJU ar]) 263 
C Aramaic Testament of Joseph 266 
4QApocryphon of Joseph (4Q539 [4QAJ0 ar]) 266 
D Aramaic Testament of Levi 266 
tQAramaic Levi (1Q21 [lQTLevi ar]) 266 
4Q Aramaic Levi" (4Q213 lQTLevi" ar]) 266 
4QAramaic Levi* (4Q214 [4QTLevi* ar]) 268 
4QAaronic Text A = Testament of Levi' (?) 269 
(4Q540 [4QAhA = 4QTLevi']) 269 
4QAaronic Text A = Testament of Levi* (?) 269 
(4Q541 [4QAhA = 4QTLevi* ?]) 269 
4QTestament of Naphtali (4Q215 [4QTNaph]) 270 
e Aramaic Testament of Qahat 277 
4QTestament of Qahat (4Q542 [4QTQahat ar]) 271 
f Visions of Amram 272 

4QVisions of Amram" (4Q543 (4Q f Amram" ar]) 272 
4QVisions of Amram* (4Q544 [4Q 1 Amram* ar]) 273 
4QVisions of Amram' (4Q545 [4(3' Amram' ar]) 274 
4QVisions of Amram'’ (4Q547 [4Q‘ Amram'’ ar]) 274 
4QVisions of Amran/ (4Q548 [4(3' Amram* ar]) 275 

G Hur and Miriam 275 

4QWork Mentioning Hur and Miriam (4Q549) 273 

8 Pseudo-Moses 276 

a Words of Moses 276 
lQWords of Moses (1Q22 [iqDM]) 276 
b Pseudo-Moses 277 

lQLiturgy of the Three Tongues of Fire (1Q29) 277 
4QApocryphon of Moses A (4Q374 [4QapocrMoses a]) 278 
4QApocryphon of Moses b (4Q37S [4QapocrMoses B]) 278 
4QLiturgy of the Three Tongues of Fire (4Q376) 279 


CONTENTS 


Xlll 


4QPseudo-Moses* (?) (4Q387a) 279 
4QPseudo-Moses‘ (4Q388 [4QpsMoses‘D 279 
4QPseudo-Moses‘ / (4Q389 [4QpsMoses' / |) 280 
C Pseudo-Moses Apocalypse 280 
4QPseudo-Moses Apocalypse 1, (4Q390 (4QpsMoses']) 280 
d Other texts 281 

2QApocryphon of Moses (?) (2Q2 1 [2QapMoses ?]) 281 
9 Pseudo-Joshua 282 

4QPsalms of Joshua" (4Q378 [4QPsJoshua a ]) 282 
4QPsalms of Joshua* (4Q379 [4QPsJoshua*J) 283 

10 Pseudo-Samuel 284 

4QVision of Samuel (4Q160 [4QVisSam]) 284 
6QApocryphon of Samuel-Kings (6Q9) 284 

1 1 Pseudo-Jeremiah 285 

4QApocryphon of Jeremiah c (4(2385!) [4QapocrJer c) 283 
4QApocryphon of Jeremiah d (4Q387b [4QapocrJer d) 285 

12 Pseudo-Ezekiel 286 
4QPseudo-Ezekiel a (4Q385 (4QpsEz"|) 286 

13 Pseudo-Daniel 288 

A— & 

a Pseudo-Daniel 288 

4QPseudo-Daniel" (4Q243 [4QpsDan“ ar]) 288 
4QPseudo-Daniel* (4Q244 (4QpsDan* ar]) 288 
4QPseudo-DanieE (4Q245 ^QpsDan 11 ar]) 28g 
B Prayer of Nabonidus 28g 
4QPrayer of Nabonidus (4Q242 [4QPrNab ar]) 2 #9 
c Daniel-Susannah (?) 28g 
4QDaniel-Susannah (?) (4Q551) 28(4 

14 Aramaic Proto-Esther 2gt 


4Q550 297 

4QProto-Esther" (4QPrEsther a ar]) 297 


XIV 


CONTENTS 


4QProto-Esther* (4QPrEsther* ar]) 297 
4QProto-Esther‘ (4QPrEsther‘ ar]) 291 
4QProto-Esther </ (4QPrEsther‘ / ar]) 291 
4QProto-Esther f (4QPrEsther f ar]) 292 
4QProto-Esthe/ (?) (4QPrEsthe/ ar (?)]) 292 

15 Tobit in Aramaic and Hebrew 293 

4QTobit a (4Q196 [4QTob a ar]) 293 
4QTobit* (4Q197 1 4Q , rob / ’ ar]) 295 
4QTobit‘ (4Q198 [4QTob f ar]) 297 
4QTobit l/ (4Qi99 [4QTob^ar]) 297 
4QTobit‘ > (4Q200 [4QTob‘ hebr]) 297 

POETIC TEXTS 301 


1 Apocryphal psalms 303 

A Apocryphal psalms included in copies of the biblical psalter 303 
4QPsalmsf (4Q88 [4 qPs^]) 303 
iiQPsalms a (iiqs [iiqPs“]) 304 
nQPsalms* (iiq 6 [iiqPs*]) 310 

b Independent collections of apocryphal psalms 311 
4QNon-Canonical Psalms a (4Q380) 311 
4QNon-Canonical Psalms B (4Q381) 312 

2 The Hymns 31 7 

lQHymns" (iQHodayoth a [iqH"]) 31 7 
lQHymns* (1Q35 [iqH*]) 361 
4Q427 (4QHodayot a [4QH a ]) 362 
4Q428 (4QHodayot 4 [4QH*]) 367 
4Q429 (4QHodayot‘ [4 qH‘]) 367 
4Q430 (4QHodayot^ [4QI I^j) 369 
4Q43 1 (4Ql lodayot'' [4QII']) 370 

3 Hymns against demons 371 

A Songs of the Sage 377 
4QSongs of the Sage a (4Q510 ^QShir"]) 377 
4QSongs of the Sage* (4Q511 [4QShir*]) 377 

B Psalms of exorcism 376 


CONTENTS 


XV 


iiq Apocryphal Psalms' 1 (iiq [liQPsAp"]) 376 
C Incantations 376 
4QAgainst Demons (4Q560) 378 

4 Wisdom poems 37c) 

4QWiles of the Wicked Woman (4Q184) J79 
4QSapiential Work (4Q 185) 380 

4QCryptic A: Words of the Sage to the Sons of Dawn (4Q298) 382 

4QSapiential Work (4Q413) 382 

4QSapiential Work \ h (4Q416 [4QSap.Work a*]) 383 

4QSapiential Work (4Q417 [4QSap.Work a']) 383 

4QSapiential Work a" (4Q418 [4QSap.Work a"]) 388 

4QSapiential Work b (4Q419 [4QSap.Work b]) 393 

4QSapiential Work C (4Q424 [4QSap.Work c]) 3Q3 

4QMessianic Apocalypse (4Q521) 3174 

4QWisdom Text with Beatitudes (4Q525 [4QBeat]) 795 

5 Other compositions J99 

lQMysteries (1Q27 [lQMyst]) 399 
4QMysteries‘‘ (4Q299 ^QMyst 4 ]) 400 
4Q\lysteries* (4Q300 [ 4QMy st*]) 400 
4QMysteries‘ (4Q301 ^QMyst 1 ]) 401 
3QHymn(3Q6) 401 

4QApocryphal Lamentations A (4Q179 [4QapocrLam a]) 401 
4QLiturgy (4Q409) 402 
4QBenediction (4Q500) 402 

4QApocryphal Lamentations B (4Q501) 403 . 

5QCurses (5Q14) 403 

6QAllegory of the Vine ( 6 q 11) 403 

6QHymn(6Qi8) 404 

8QHymn (8Q5) 404 

nQHymns" (11Q15) 404 


LITURGICAL TEXTS 403 


1 Daily prayers 407 


4QDaily Prayers' 1 (4Q503 [4QPrQuot]) 407 


XVI 


CONTENTS 


2 Festival Prayers 411 

lQFestival Prayers (1Q34 [4QPrFetes]) 41 1 
4QFestival Prayers" (4Q507 [4QPrFetes" ?]) 411 
4QFestival Prayers* (4Q508 [4QPrFetes*]) 412 
4QFestival Prayers^ (4Q509 ^QPrFetes^) 412 

3 Words of the Luminaries 414 

4QWords of the Luminaries" (4Q504 [4QDibHam"]) 414 
4QWords of the Luminaries* (4Q505 [4QDibHam*]) 418 
4Q Words of the Luminaries c (4Q506 [4QDibHam‘]) 418 

4 Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice 419 

4QSongs of the Sabbath Sacrifice" (4Q400 [4QShirShab"]) 419 
4QSongs of the Sabbath Sacrifice* (4Q401 [4QShirShab*]) 420 
4QSongs of the Sabbath Sacrifice^ (4Q402 [4QShirShab']) 420 
4QSongs of the Sabbath Sacrifice^ (4Q403 [4QShirShab‘*j) 421 
4QSongs of the Sabbath Sacrifice'’ (4Q404 |4QShirShab' |) 424 
4QSongs of the Sabbath Sacrifice^ (4Q405 [4QShirShab/j) 426 
tiQSongs of the Sabbath Sacrifice (11Q17 [1 tQShirShab]) 430 

5 Blessings and curses 432 

tQRule of the Blessings (iQ28b [lQSb]) 432 
4QBlessings / (4Q280 (4QBerako/j) 434 
4QPurification Rules b" (4Q275 [4QTohorot b"]) 434 
4QBlessings" (4Q286 [4QBerakot"]) 434 
4QBlessings* (4Q287 [4QBerakot*]) 435 
4QBless, Oh my Soul" (4Q434 [4QBar f ki Napshi"]) 436 
4QBless, Oh my Soul' (4Q436 (4QBar'ki Napshi']) 437 
6QBenediction (6qi6) 437 

6 Other texts 438 

lQLiturgical Text ? (1Q30) 438 
tQLiturgical Text ? (1Q31) 438 
tQHymnic Compositions ? (1Q37) 438 
lQFIymnic Compositions ? (1Q38) 438 
tQHymnic Compositions ? (1Q39) 438 
4QLiturgical Work (4Q392) 438 


CONTENTS 


XVII 


4QGrace after Meals (4Q434a) 4jg 
4QBaptismal Liturgy (4Q414) 4jg 
4QRitual of Marriage (4Q502) 440 
4QRitual of Purification (4Q5 12) 441 

ASTRONOMICAL TEXTS, CALENDARS AND HOROSCOPES 443 

1 Astronomical Enoch 445 

4QAstronomical Enoch* (4Q209 [4QEnastr* ar]) 445 
4QAstronomical Enoch' (4Q210 HqEnastr' ar]) 445 
4Q Astronomical Enoch' 7 (4Q2 11 [4QEnastr‘ 7 ar]) 449 

2 Calendars and priestly rotas 451 

4QPhases of the Moon (4Q317 [4QAstrCrypt]) 451 
4QBrontologion (4Q318 [4QBr ar]) 457 

4QCalendrical Document A (4Q320 [4QCalendrical Doc a]) 452 
4QCalendrical Document b" (4Q321 [4QCalendrical Doc b"]) 454 
4QCalendrical Document e* (4Q327 [4QCalendrical Doc e*]) 455 

3 Horoscopes 456 

4QHoroscopes (4Q186) 456 

4Q Aramaic Horoscope (4Q561 [4QHor ar]) 456 

THE COPPER SCROLL 459 

3QThe Copper Scroll (3Q 15) 461 

LIST OF MANUSCRIPTS FROM QUMRAN 465 

1 Biblical manuscripts 467 
Non-Biblical manuscripts 468 

2 Biblical manuscripts 470 
Non-Biblical manuscripts 477 

3 Biblical manuscripts 472 
Non-Biblical manuscripts 472 


4 Biblical manuscripts 47J 


CONTENTS 


xviii 

Non-Biblical manuscripts 48] 

5 Biblical manuscripts 508 
Non-Biblical manuscripts 508 

6 Biblical manuscripts 509 
Non-Biblical manuscripts 509 

7 Biblical manuscripts 5 10 
Unidentified manuscripts 570 

8 Biblical manuscripts 510 
Non-Biblical manuscripts 511 

11 Biblical manuscripts 511 
Non-Biblical manuscripts s 12 


Preface to the English Translation & Translator's Note 


XX 


PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH TRANSLATION 


Between the publication of the first Spanish edition of Textos de Qumran in 
November 1992 and the appearance of this English translation, research on the 
manuscripts from Qumran has proceeded at a faster pace and its fruits can be 
found collected here. 

Of particular importance has been the publication of four works, very differ- 
ent in character. Each in its own way has contributed to the preparation of this 
volume and they account for the obvious differences which this English transla- 
tion displays in respect of the first Spanish edition. 

First and of most importance was the publication in the summer of 1993 of 
the complete edition on microfiche of all the manuscripts from the Dead Sea: 
The Dead Sea Scrolls on Microfiche. A Comprehensive Facsimile Edition of the 
Texts from the Judaean Desert , edited by Emanuel Tov with the collaboration 
of Stephen Pfann (E. J. Brill-iDC, Leiden 1993) which for the first time has 
placed at the disposal of all researchers the entire collection of material avail- 
able. The second was the publication of the first two fascicles of A Preliminary 
Edition of the Unpublished Dead Sea Scrolls , reconstructed and edited by Ben 
Zion Wacholder and Martin G. Abegg (Biblical Archaeological Society, Wash- 
ington 1991 and 1992) in which the text of the various copies of 4QD, 
4QMishmarot, a series of Wisdom Texts and Sectarian Scriptures have been 
reconstructed with the aid of a computer using A Preliminary Concordance to 
the Hebrew and Aramaic Fragments from Qumran Caves ihx. They have also 
made the reading of some badly preserved fragments much easier for me. The 
third was the publication by R. Eisenman and M. O. Wise of The Dead Sea 
Scrolls Uncovered (Element, Shaftesbury 1992), a book which contains the tran- 
scription and English translation of several previously unpublished texts. The 
quality of these transcriptions and translations sometimes leaves much to be 
desired (as shown in my review article ‘Notas al margen de The Dead Sea Scrolls 
Uncovered', Revue de Qumran 61 [1993] 123-150). Also, a large part of the texts 
they publish was already included in the Spanish edition. Even so, using this 
book helped me to read and translate several new texts now accessible in the 
microfiche edition. The fourth was the publication of the supplement to Klaus 
Beyer, Die aramaischen Texte vom Toten Meer. Ergdnzungsband (Vandenhoeck 
& Ruprecht, Gottingen 1994) which completes the edition of the Aramaic texts 
from Qumran with the publication of some previously unpublished. 

Thanks to these works and to continual study of the originals, this book 
claims to offer the reader a translation of the 270 most important manuscripts 
from Qumran. In other words, it is a virtually complete translation of the non- 
biblical manuscripts found there. Of course the ‘List of Manuscripts from 
Qumran’ has been brought completely up to date, taking new publications into 
account. 

Like the Spanish edition, this English translation omits any kind of note or 
explanation, since everything needed to understand these difficult texts is in- 


PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH TRANSLATION 


XXI 


eluded in my Introduction to the Literature from Qumran , a forthcoming com- 
panion volume to this book. While awaiting its publication and as an aid to the 
reader, I have added a short list of books in English to the Introduction. 

I wish to thank Dr. W. Watson for the immense work carried out in trans- 
forming the Spanish text into idiomatic and fluent English, for his patience in 
including the changes I asked him to make as a result of checking the originals 
again and for his readiness to sacrifice even some of his elegant solutions to my 
desire for a more literal translation. I thank Hans van der Meij, Acquisitions 
Editor of Brill Publishers, for the interest and care with which he has directed 
the publication process of this book at each and every stage. 

FLORENTINO GARCIA MARTINEZ 

Qumran Instituut- University of Groningen 
June 1994 


XXII 


translator’s note 


The present comprehensive translation of the non-biblical texts from the 
Qumran library was prepared from the Spanish version by Florentino Garcia 
Martinez in close collaboration with him and the publisher. The only liberties 
I have taken have been with the alphabetic acrostic poems, in an attempt to 
reflect the initial letters within these patterns. Professor Garcia Martinez was 
patient enough to work through my drafts and solve the many translation prob- 
lems that inevitably arose. To him and to Hans van der Meij, of Brill, I extend 
my thanks for their hospitality during my brief stay in Groningen and for their 
help over the past year. 


WILFRED G. E. WATSON 


*■7 


Department of Religious Studies 
The University 
Newcastle upon Tyne uk 


Foreword 


XXIV 


FOREWORD 


This book comprises an English translation of the Hebrew and Aramaic texts 
commonly known as The Dead Sea Scrolls. To be more precise, it offers the 
reader a translation of the non-biblical manuscripts found in the various caves 
in the region round Qumran since, as explained in the Introduction, the preva- 
lent terms Dead Sea Scrolls or Manuscripts from the Judaean Desert in fact de- 
note a range of manuscript collections from very different periods, varying 
widely in content and origin. 

The decision by the Huntington Library, on September 22nd 1991, to place 
copies of the photographs of the manuscripts in its possession at the disposal 
of research scholars and, above all the decision by the Israel Antiquities Au- 
thority, on October 21st 1991, to cancel all existing restrictions on the use of 
photographs of unpublished manuscripts, created a completely new situation. 
For the first time it was possible to envisage a complete edition of all the manu- 
scripts recovered from the caves. Several months of frenzied work on the many 
hundreds of as yet unpublished manuscripts of Cave 4 persuaded me that ful- 
filling such a dream was neither necessary nor possible. A large part of the 
unpublished manuscripts - like a good part of the manuscripts published al- 
ready, comprises such fragmentary remains that to translate them would be of 
absolutely no value to the reader. 

This translation then is not a translation of all the non-biblical manuscripts 
recovered from the vicinity of Qumran. However, it does claim to include all 
the most important ones. The total number of manuscripts recovered comes 
to about 800. Of these manuscripts, 225 are copies of various biblical books, 
and a translation of them would be out of place here. Of another 275 or 300 
manuscripts, so little of the text has been preserved that translating them 
would make no sense. These are minute remains of unidentified manuscripts 
and of fragments w hich mostly contain traces of a few complete words. Also, 
fragments with traces of several lines of text, but in such condition that it is not 
possible either to make sense of them or decide what work they contained. 
And, in addition, fragments, the content of which or even the work to which 
they belong can be determined with a degree of certainty, but the text is so 
short its translation would be of no use to the reader. This is not to imply that 
such minute fragments cannot be interesting, as shown by the intensive debates 
concerning the minute Greek fragments from Cave 7, as yet unidentified, or 
the dust storm of November 1991 in The New York Times concerning the five 
broken lines of 4Q285, a text related to the War Scroll. Of the other 300 or so 
manuscripts, the 200 longest and most important have been included in this 
translation. (The most complete translation so far, the third edition of the Eng- 
lish translation by Geza Vermes, published in 1987, contains only the better 
preserved sections of 62 manuscripts). Although the number of the remaining 
manuscripts, between too and 150, might still seem large, the amount of text 
which can be recovered from them is comparatively small, since all of them 


FOREWORD 


XXV 


comprise very small fragments. A rough calculation shows that the contents of 
them all could not be expected to be 5 percent of the text of the manuscripts 
included here. To give a concrete example: the five copies of the Hymns of 
Cave 4 (4Q427-43 1 ), which have not been included in the present translation, 
together comprise a shorter text than a single one of the 25 columns of iqI 1". 

The purpose of the translation offered here is to allow the interested reader, 
without any knowledge of the original languages of the manuscripts, to be able 
to enjoy the riches of a vast library, accumulated over several centuries by a 
sectarian group and stored in caves in the Desert of Judah in the year 68 of the 
first century ce, part of which has survived to our own time. This aim has 
shaped the final translation: as literal, as neutral and as close to the Hebrew and 
Aramaic text as possible, even if the outcome lacks both finesse and fluency. It 
is only in the texts which are evidently poetry that I have allowed myself some 
freedom, such as occasionally omitting the ubiquitous conjunction or using 
synonyms. 

This same purpose has induced me to translate different surviving copies of 
a single work with special attention to minute variations between them, so as 
not to prejudge whether they are actual copies of the same text, different edi- 
tions, re-use of the same material in another context, etc. I have only attempted 
to restore parallel passages when the layout of a text so restored, in the particu- 
lar script of each manuscript, seems to allow this. 

This same purpose has determined the presentation of the translations which 
attempt to reflect the actual state of preservation of the various manuscripts. 
Hence the indications of spaces left blank ( Blank ), intralinear insertions, correc- 
tions or erasure of certain words, etc. Hence the sparse restorations. Only when 
the presence of parallel passages, the repetitiousness of the formulas used or 
other equally persuasive factors permit, have I allowed myself to restore (in 
square brackets) the text actually preserved. In any case, these restorations are 
no more than suggestions and are intended simply to make the text^asier to 
read. The symbols used in the translation are as given on the following page. 

For the same practical purpose, and as an aid to the reader, each work is pro- 
vided with a title which will make identification much easier to remember than 
the serial number of the official publication. A large number of the manuscripts 
already published has been provided with titles of this kind by the editors. In 
fact, at least three mss have preserved the original title on the back. A manu- 
script fragment from Cave 1 , which contained all three compositions known as 
the Rule of the Community (tQS), Rule of the Congregation (tQSa) and the Rule of 
the Blessings , has on the outside, in large letters, ‘[Ru]le of the community and 
of [...]’. Fragment 8 of 4Q504 has the title of the composition on the back: 
'Words of the Luminaries’. And the manuscript 4Q250 is, in fact, the reverse 
of one of the papyrus fragments of 4Q249 (not included here), a cryptographic 


XXVI 


[xxx] 


text restoration 
xxxfxxx] [xxxjxxx 
partially preserved text 
[...] 

lacuna of unspecified length in the manuscript 
]•••[ 

^ traces of illegible words or letters in the manuscript 

{xxx} 

legible or illegible text erased by the copyist 

<xxx> 

text inadvertently omitted (or repeated) by the copyist 

/xxx/ /.../ 

legible or illegible text inserted between the lines by the copyist 
Blank 

space left blank in the manuscript, either intentionally (new paragraph) or by mistake 

(?) 

uncertain reading or translation 
(xxx) 

explanation required for the meaning of the English text 
**** 


four dots in the manuscipt to represent the tetragrammaton 


FOREWORD 


XXV11 


text which has the title of the work in clearly legible square characters: 
‘Midrash on the Book of Moses’. In order to avoid confusion, the titles given 
by the editors have been retained, even when they are clearly unsuitable. In 
most cases the title assigned describes in some way the contents of the manu- 
script. 

All the translations have been made with photographs of the originals in 
front of me. The text used for the translation of most of the Aramaic texts and 
of the biblical interpretations is the one I was able to prepare in Jerusalem, 
between 1974 and 1979, thanks to a grant from the Fundacion Juan March. In 
the case of other manuscripts already published, the edito princeps or the pre- 
liminary edition, as well as later translations and studies, have been taken into 
consideration. However, this does not imply that the reading or interpretation 
adopted here is always that proposed by editors or other scholars. In the case 
of the texts from Caves 4 and 11, here translated for the first time, the transla- 
tion is based on my own transcription of these same texts. 

The book is arranged in the following way: a short introduction presents the 
reader with a history of the discoveries and of their publication, and offers him 
the basic elements to be able to place the manuscripts in their actual historical 
context. The material has been set out systematically, which enables the inter- 
nal relationships among the different manuscripts to be perceived and high- 
lights the homogeneity of content of the Qumran library. 

The first chapter contains the main Rules of the sect. These documents 
provide us with the most information concerning the organisation, way of life, 
customs and thought of the community or communities for which they were 
intended. Chapter two is a collection of texts which are equally normative, the 
halakhic texts, which show us in practice the characteristic application of Old 
Testament law current within the group. The third chapter is an assortment 
of compositions, though all of them share the same theme dominant- in the 
concerns of the Qumran community: the exploration of the truths of ‘the last 
days’. Chapter four collects the exegetical output of the community, composi- 
tions directly concerned with showing us how the biblical text was interpreted, 
translated and even altered. Chapter five assembles a long series of ‘Para-bibli- 
cal literature’. Some of these are compositions parallel to the biblical text, ap- 
proximating the original text in different degrees. Others represent indepen- 
dent traditions developed around biblical personages. Others again reveal to us 
literary creations of the same type as the biblical narratives which by chance 
were not included in the bible, although a few of them, such as the Book of 
Jubilees , seem to have enjoyed truly biblical authority within the community. 
Chapter six gathers together poetic compositions which may or may not have 
been used in the liturgy, aprocryphal psalms, wisdom poems, etc. Chapter 
seven contains those works probably intended for liturgical use or which are 


XXV111 


FOREWORD 


remains of rituals. In chapter eight, astronomical compositions, calendars and 
horoscopes found in the caves, are represented, all works of fundamental reli- 
gious importance for the Qumran community. The ninth chapter contains a 
single document: the Copper Scroll , a unique text the meaning of w hich contin- 
ues to be mystifying. 

A closing appendix contains a complete list of all the manuscripts found in 
the caves in the area around Qumran. This List has two functions. First, it 
gives the reader an exact idea of all the texts recovered. Accordingly, it contains 
biblical manuscripts as well as non-biblical manuscripts, and includes manu- 
scripts already published as well as those which remain, as yet, unpublished. 
The second function is to provide the requisite bibliographical references in 
order to locate the editions of the texts already published and those studies 
which provide information concerning texts still unpublished. 

Every translation presupposes some degree of interpretation, all the more so 
when it is a question of texts which can be read in several ways. In the case of 
unvocalised texts, like ours, and when in the scripts of the different manu- 
scripts some consonants are identical in form, very frequently translation im- 
plies a prior decision concerning both reading and interpretation . The scientific 
explanation and justification of these decisions would require space not avail- 
able here and would be of no interest to the reader unfamiliar with the original 
languages. 

In spite of the fragmentary and incomplete condition of the manuscripts, 
these texts have completely transformed the way we understand the formation 
and development of the Old Testament books. They have increased our knowl- 
edge concerning the origins of Christianity and Judaism. They have opened 
unsuspected viewpoints in our understanding of the history, culture, religion 
and language of Palestine in the centuries prior to the destruction of the Tem- 
ple. Without them, the study of the bible, of Judaism and of Christianity as 
historical events is unthinkable today. However, in spite of their riches, these 
texts, like most ancient religious texts, yield their secrets reluctantly. Their 
contents can only be absorbed after deep study. The limitations of a literal 
translation devoid of footnotes, which I freely accepted, have prevented me 
from noting the literary, historical and theological problems they present, the ' 
contributions of every kind which they contain, the influences they reflect, the 
avenues they open up, etc. All these aspects, as well as the results of forty years 
of research on the first manuscripts to be published, are to be found in my 
forthcoming An Introduction to the Literature from Qumran 

One of the more pleasant privileges of an author at the close of his task is to 
acknowledge publicly the debts incurred during the preparation of a book and 
express his gratitude to all those who have contributed to its gestation. How- 


FOREWORD 


XXIX 


ever, when it is a matter of a work which has developed gradually over the 
years, this privilege becomes an impossible task. There are too many names and 
too many influences, there is too much material making up the scaffolding 
which enabled its construction. Of course, I cannot go without mentioning 
some of the people who throughout these years have sustained my enthusiasm 
for these texts. In first place come the members of the first generation of edi- 
tors of these manuscripts, in particular Professor John Strugnell and Professor 
Josef T. Milik. Without their pioneering work it would not have been possible 
to understand most of these texts. Then, Professor L. Alonso Schokel, who in 
those far off years of study in Rome encouraged me to relinquish studying the 
tannaitic midrashim (a field as esoteric as my own specialty) in order to devote 
myself entirely to Qumran. The colleagues of the Instituto Espanol Biblico y 
Arqueologico of Jerusalem, our ‘Casa de Santiago’ and especially Professor 
Julio Trebolle Barrera, of the Department of Hebrew and Aramaic in the 
Universidad Complutense, who knew and know how to make every hour of 
joyful meetings an hour of reflexion. The colleagues of the ‘Ecole Biblique’ in 
Jerusalem, especially Professor Emile Puech, who shared with me the responsi- 
bility of editing the Revue de Qumran, for the hours we spent together over the 
photographs of fragments. The colleagues of the Department of Biblical Stud- 
ies of the University of Groningen, especially Professor A. S. van der Woude, 
who was able to establish in his ‘Qumran Instituut’ the ideal conditions for free 
development of research. The Spanish Ministry of Education and Science 
which, in 1991, funded my stay for a sabbatical semester in the Instituto de 
Filologia Biblica y Oriental of the Consejo Superior de Investigacciones 
Cientificas, during which I was able to produce the first draft of this book. The 
director of that Institute, Professor Natalio Fernandez Marcos, as well as Pro- 
fessor Emilia Fernandez Tejero and Professor M. Victoria Spottorno Diez- 
Caro, close colleagues who turned this stay into an unforgettable experience. 
Above all, my own family, Annie, Julian and Jean-Baptiste. Annie washable to 
share with pleasure my enthusiasm for the ‘Teacher of Righteousness’ and ‘the 
sons of light’; Julian and Jean-Baptiste have grown up surrounded by cryptic 
texts and a father not always accessible on account of those texts; she and the 
children have patiently endured my periods of absence over these months. To 
them I dedicate this book, for it is the product of time stolen from them. 


FLORENTINO GARCIA MARTINEZ 



Introduction 


xxxn 


INTRODUCTION 


i The Dead Sea Scrolls 

Over the course of the last forty years, chance finds and the systematic explora- 
tion of the ruins and caves of the various Wadis of the Judaean Desert have 
supplied a large number of manuscripts from different periods and of various 
types. All these are known as ‘the Dead Sea Scrolls’ and they have all been, or 
are to be published in the series Discoveries in the Judaean Desert of the 
Clarendon Press, Oxford, or in the series devoted to manuscripts found in 
Israeli excavations, prepared by the Shrine of the Book and the Israel Museum. 
All these manuscripts have been classified into collections according to find- 
spot, whether they were found on the site by archaeologists or whether they 
were acquired on the flourishing antiquities market. The collections are as 
follows (In the sequence of the palaeographic dating of the preserved material:) 

Papyri from Wadi Daliyeh or Samaria Papyri : a collection of papyri from the 4th 
century bce, discovered in 1962 in several caves about 15 kilometres North of 
Jericho. 1 Although archaeological exploration of the caves in 1963 and 1964 2 
also uncovered remains of human occupation from the Bronze Age and the 
period of revolt by Bar Kokhba, most of the material comprised remains from 
the Persian Period. This included nearly 200 human skeletons of all ages to- 
gether with a large quantity of pottery, coins, jewels, foodstuff's and the most 
important collection of papyri ever discovered in Palestine. These documents, 
which were legal in character and written in Aramaic, are dated between 375 
and 335 BCE and made up part of the possessions of a group of persons in flight 
before the destruction of Samaria by the soldiers of Alexander the Great in 33 1 
bce Caught by surprise in the caves by the Macedonian soldiers, it seems that 
they died from suffocation from a fire lit by the soldiers at the entrance to the 
caves. At present only one of the twenty best preserved papyri has been pub- 
lished in its entirety. 3 

The Manuscripts of Qumran: comprise Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek manuscripts 
stemming from 1 1 caves in the area around Khirbet Qumran, either those dis- 
covered during the various campaigns of archaeological exploration of the caves 
or those purchased on the antiquities market. 4 

The Masada Manuscripts', comprise the texts discovered during excavation of the 
fortress of Masada. Together with a series of Hebrew and Aramaic ostraca and 
fragments of papyri in Latin, the collection includes several biblical texts, 5 a 
Hebrew manuscript of Ben Sira 6 and a copy of Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice , 7 
a composition of which there are several copies in the manuscripts from 
Qumran, as well as many fragments in Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin. 8 
The actual collection has not yet been published in full, 9 but its contents are 
known thanks to the description given by the excavator, Y. Yadin. 10 


INTRODUCTION 


xxxiii 

The Manuscripts of Murabba c at\ comprise the manuscripts found in various caves 
of Wadi Murabba c at. Besides a 7th century bce palimpsest, some remains from 
the 1st century ce and a limited number of Arabic texts, this collection com- 
prises documents in Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin of the period of Bar 
Kokhba’s revolt, among which contracts and letters signed by Bar Kokhba 
himself stand out. The complete collection has been published in Discoveries 
in the Judaean Desert 11. 11 

The Manuscripts of Nahal Hever. comprise the manuscripts discovered during 
archaeological campaigns by the Israelis in i960 and 1961 in two caves of Nahal 
Hever: 12 the ‘Cave of the Letters’ and the ‘Cave of Horror’. In the ‘Cave of the 
Letters’ were found a couple of biblical fragments (a fragment of Num 20 : 7-8 
and a fragment with traces of Pss 15 and 16) and a large quantity of Hebrew, 
Aramaic, Nabataean and Greek papyri, arranged in two large units: the family 
archive of Babata and documents concerning Bar Kokhba. 

The family archive of Babata, which tells us about all the facets of a rich 
Jewish family from En-Gedi and south of the Dead Sea ce, comprises 35 docu- 
ments: 17 written in Greek, 9 in Greek with signatures in Aramaic, Nabataean 
or both, 6 written in Nabataean and 3 in Aramaic. They are all papyri and con- 
tain contracts or deeds of different types. The Nabataean and Aramaic docu- 
ments have been described by Y. Yadin, 13 those in Greek by H. J. Polotsky 14 
and four of the Greek texts have been published in preliminary form.' 5 All the 
Greek texts from the archive of Babata, now given the label P. Yadin , have 
been published recently.' 6 

Even more significant are the many documents connected with Bar Kokhba. 
These are a bundle of 14 Hebrew, Greek and Aramaic papyri and a wooden 
tablet written in Aramaic found during the excavations of i960 17 and another 
bundle of six papyri, in Hebrew and Aramaic, written in En-Gedi, discovered 
during the 1961 excavations. 18 All these manuscripts, letters, contracts etc., 
together with the texts connected with Bar Kokhba from Murabba c at, provide 
information of inestimable value for an understanding of the Second Jewish 
Revolt.' 9 

The material which comes from the ‘Cave of Horror’ 20 is much less abun- 
dant; a few ostraca, a fragment in Hebrew, remains of unidentified Hebrew and 
Greek papyri and the remains of a Greek manuscript of the Twelve Prophets. 
Together with one of the fragments of a Nabataean papyrus from the ‘Cave of 
the Letters’, these Greek fragments show the real origin of some of the mate- 
rial in the collection from Wadi Seiyal, and the strong resemblance between 
both collections. 

The Manuscripts from Wadi Seiyal. the collection of manuscripts coming from 
Wadi Seiyal is divided into two groups, kept in the Rockefeller Museum and 


XXXIV 


INTRODUCTION 


in the Shrine of the Book, respectively. The first group contains manuscripts 
acquired between 1952 and 1954 by the erstwhile ‘Palestine Archaeological 
Museum’ as coming from Wadi Seiyal (biblical manuscripts and legal docu- 
ments in Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic and Nabataean). The exact source of several 
of these texts is dubious even though in some cases it is known for certain that 
material submitted as found in Wadi Seiyal actually comes from clandestine 
excavations in Nahal 1 lever. 2 1 The Greek manuscript of the Twelve Prophets 
has recently been published as the first volume of the Seiyal Collection 22 in 
Discoveries in the Judaean Desert vm, and the remainder of the collection will 
appear in another volume of the same series, edited by J. T. Milik, E. Puech and 
J. Schwarz. 23 The group kept in the Shrine of the Book comprises manuscripts 

discovered during Israeli archaeological excavations in i960 and will be pub- 

/• ’ 

lished separately from the earlier manuscripts. 24 

The Manuscripts from Nahal Mishmar: the caves of Nahal Mishmar are remark- 
ably rich in artifacts from the chalcolithic period (4500-3000 bce) but provide 
hardly any documents. In actual fact the collection amounts to no more than 
a couple of papyri found during exploration of the caves in 1961. 25 

The Manuscripts from Khirbet Mird: the collection comprises Greek, Christian 
Palestinian Aramaic and Arabic manuscripts from the ruins of the ancient 
monastery of Castellion, both those acquired from the Bedouin as well as those 
discovered by the Belgian expedition in 1953. It contains fragments of the New 
Testament, both in Greek and in Christian Palestinian Aramaic as well as other 
documents in Greek, Christian Palestinian Aramaic and Arabic, all of them 
from the Byzantine and Arab periods. 2 *’ 

These collections as a whole are known as ‘the Dead Sea Scrolls’. Undoubt- 
edly, each of these collections has a character of its own and the texts they 
contain come from different periods. The Samaria papyri, official documents, 
most of them dated, all come from the 4th century bce. The manuscripts from 
Qumran and Masada are from the period before the destruction of both sites 
during the great war against Rome in the first century ce. Although dating by 
palaeography and the content of the material which comes from both these 
collections is compatible, and although both equally include such a typical work 
as the Songs for the Sabbath Sacrifice , the exact archaeological and historical 
context of both discoveries compels us to consider them as two separate collec- 
tions. Although the manuscripts from Murabba’at, Nahal Hever, Wadi Seiyal 
and Nahal Mishmar contain incidental remains of earlier periods, they are 
placed by most scholars as belonging to the revolt by Bar Kokhba, in the sec- 
ond century ce, and they are related to it directly. They can be considered as 
a single collection in terms of content -mainly autographs, contracts, letters, 


INTRODUCTION 


XXXV 


etc. - and in terms of their origin in connection with the Bar Kokhba revolt and 
of the dating of the manuscripts to the second century ce. As for the manu- 
scripts from Khirbet Mird, their Christian character, their late date and their 
origin clearly mark this collection as different from the preceding. 

The subject of this book consists exclusively of those manuscripts found in 
the various caves in the area around Khirbet Qumran, the longest, most varied 
and undoubtedly the most interesting of the ‘Dead Sea Scrolls’. 


XXXVI 


INTRODUCTION 


ii History of the Qumran Finds and their publication 
1 7947-2956/ The First Manuscripts 

Each of the main actors in the discovery of the manuscripts coming from the 
various caves in the area around Khirbet Qumran has conveyed to us his own 
account of how and when the manuscripts were discovered, acquired, acknowl- 
edged as authentic and identified. 27 The details of these accounts are, of course, 
conflicting; however they can be summarised in outline as follows: 28 

Everything begins with the Bedouin of the Ta c amireh tribe. They were the 
chance discoverers at the start and the passionate prospectors later on, of most 
of the manuscripts originating from the area of Qumran. In one version of the 
events itTs a shepherd of the tribe, Mohammed ed-Dhib, who in search of a 
stray goat came across the first of the caves with manuscripts. In another ac- 
count there are three shepherds, Khalil Musa, Jum c a Mohammed and Moham- 
med ed-Dhib who get into the cave and retrieve a number of jars, some empty, 
some filled with manuscripts. The precise date of the first discovery cannot be 
determined for certain: either towards the end of 1946 or at the beginning of 
1947. What is certain is that in the spring of 1947, seven manuscripts originat- 
ing from Cave 1 pass into the hands of two ‘dealers in antiquities’ in Bethle- 
hem: Jalil Iskandar Shalim, the famous Kando, and Faidi Salahi. Kando was 
later to become the indispensable middleman between the Bedouin who made 
the discoveries and the authorities of the Palestine Archaeological Museum. 

Four of these seven manuscripts (i.e. iqIs", tQpHab, iqs and lQapGen) 
were acquired by Athanasius Yeshue Samuel, the archimandrite of the Syrian- 
Orthodox monastery of Saint Mark in Jerusalem, in the hope of making some 
profit from their sale. The other three (iqIs 4 , iqh and iqm) were offered to 
Professor E. L. Sukenik of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem. In November 
1947, on the very day the State of Israel was proclaimed, apparently, Professor 
Sukenik understood these manuscripts to be of interest and perhaps to be an- 
cient. He acquired them for the Hebrew University, together with two of the 
jars in which the manuscripts had been stored. Mar Athanasius, on the other 
hand, after a lengthy and unsuccessful round of various individuals and institu- 
tions in Jerusalem, from whom he requested information concerning the manu- 
scripts, ended up by offering the four manuscripts in his possession to the 
American School of Oriental Research (asor) in Jerusalem towards the end of 
February 1948. In the absence of the director, Millar Burrows, one of the re- 
search students, John C. Trever, luckily also a very good photographer, was to 
examine the manuscripts. He identified one of them as a copy of Isaiah, recog- 
nized it to be ancient and significant, and obtained from Mar Athanasius per- 
mission to photograph three of them ( iqIs", tQpHab and iqS) in their entirety, 
with a view to publishing them on behalf of the American School of Oriental 


INTRODUCTION 


XXXV11 


Research. The fourth manuscript (lQapGen), in Aramaic, for a short time 
called the ‘Lamekh Scroll’ because of the contents of one of the outer frag- 
ments, was to remain rolled up due to its bad state of preservation and Mar 
Athanasius’ conviction that this fact would make the whole lot more valuable. 
In view of the political uncertainty of the country and the problems caused by 
the setting up of the State of Israel, Mar Athanasius decided to transfer the 
manuscripts in his possession to the United States with the prospect of selling 
them. The excessive price he was to demand, in conjunction with the embit- 
tered discussion concerning their authenticity, resulted in the sale taking place 
as late as 1954. Through intermediaries, Yigael Yadin, Sukenik’s son, managed 
to acquire the four manuscripts belonging to Mar Athanasius for the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem. In this way the seven manuscripts found in 1947 were 
together once more, and to house them a special museum was built in Jerusa- 
lem: the Shrine of the Book. 

The official edition of iqIs“ and of lQpHab was published in 1950 by the 
American School of Oriental Research, 29 and in 195 1 the official edition of iqs 
came out. 30 The three manuscripts of the Hebrew University (iqIs*, iqh and 
iQM) were published (posthumously) by Sukenik in 195s. 31 The following year, 
there appeared an edition of the best preserved parts of the ‘Lantech Scroll’ 
with the title Genesis Apocryphon (lQapGen), 32 the publication of which com- 
pleted this initial phase. 

2 7949-7955; Excavation of Cave 1 and publication of the material 

The first news of the discovery of the manuscripts, a press release from the 
American School of Oriental Resarch, followed by another from Sukenik, both 
in April 1948, aroused enormous interest. This was to increase even more with 
the publication of the first scientific descriptions of the manuscripts and their 
contents that same year and in 1949. 33 It became obvious that in order to estab- 
lish the authenticity and antiquity of the manuscripts without a shadow of 
doubt, a ‘scientifically controlled’ excavation of the cave in which they had 
been found was necessary. For completely understandable reasons the bedouin 
refused to indicate from which cave, among the thousands to be seen in the 
gorges of the Judaean desert, their treasures had come. Thanks to the interven- 
tion of the Arab Legion of Jordan, the cave was finally located by January 1949. 
An archaeological expedition, under the direction of Lancaster Harding, direc- 
tor of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan, and of Roland de Vaux, direc- 
tor of the ‘Ecole Biblique et Archeologique Fran9aise’, a controlled excavation 
of the cave could take place between February 15th and March 5th, 1949. The 
archaeologists were dismayed to find that the cave had already been ‘excavated’ 
previously, both by the bedouin and by the monks of the Syrian monastery of 


XXXV111 


INTRODUCTION 


St Mark, which meant that it was impossible to determine its stratigraphy. Of 
course, painstaking work on the material removed by the clandestine ‘excava- 
tors’, as well as on the half-metre of earth deposited within the cave, enabled 
them to retrieve much material. This included about 600 fragments deriving 
from 70 different manuscripts, together with plenty of pottery fragments from 
about 50 jars and other vessels. Also, fragments of the cloths in which the 
manuscripts had been wrapped, including a fragment of a jar inside which was 
stuck a lump of cloth with the remains of a scroll. Luckily, some of the frag- 
ments of manuscripts found by the archaeologists helped to complete the 
manuscripts discovered by the bedouin. This fact and analysis of the pottery 
found, led to the conclusion that the first seven manuscripts were original and 
truly ancient and established their importance with no shadow of doubt. The 
archaeological excavation of Cave 1 was published in 1955, in a volume which 
also included all the fragments from that cave and some of the fragments re- 
trieved from clandestine ‘excavations’ (iq8, tQigbis, 1Q20, 1Q28, iQ34bis, 
iQ7obis, 1Q71 and 1Q72). 34 

3 7957-7962: Excavation of Khirbet Qumran and of the 'Small Caves' 

The same archaeological team decided to commence systematic excavation of 
the ruins known as Khirbet Qumran, in order to establish whether or not there 
was any connection between what appeared to be the remains of a fortress be- 
longing to the Roman period and the manuscripts found in Cave 1. Under the 
joint direction of Harding and de Vaux, five consecutive archaeological cam- 
paigns were carried out. Right from the first of these, in 1951, a close connec- 
tion between the ruins and the manuscript caves became obvious. What is 
more, the identical pottery could only be explained by a common origin. Suc- 
ceeding campaigns between 1953 and 1956 were gradually uncovering the vari- 
ous phases of the building. They revealed the history of the group of humans 
who had lived there and to whom the manuscripts found in Cave 1 belonged. 

Although the final publication of the finds from these excavations has not yet 
appeared, the most important material is already known. This is due to the 
preliminary descriptions of the results of each campaign which appeared regu- 
larly in Revue Biblique , 35 and especially to the overall view provided by de Vaux 
in the Schweich Lectures of the British Academy in 1959. 36 

To summarise, the results of the archaeological excavations show us that the 
same group of humans, labelled ‘The Qumran Community’, occupied the 
buildings excavated for a period of 200 years after having set up house in what 
was left standing of a fortress built in the 7th or 8th century bce, and later 
abandoned for several centuries. 


The archaeologists differentiated three phases duringthis period of occupation. 


INTRODUCTION 


XXXIX 


In the first phase (de Vaux’s Period la) which was very short, a small group of 
people occupied and re-used the abandoned buildings of an ancient fortress. 
This was a rectangular building with a number of rooms built against the inner 
part of one of the walls and a large circular cistern. The new residents did no 
more than adapt the existing buildings and add two new rectangular cisterns 
and two potter’s ovens. Neither the exact beginning nor the close of this first 
phase is known for certain. 37 De Vaux conjectures that this occupation could 
have begun during the reign of Jonathan (161-143/142 bce). 

However, this conjecture contradicts the actual facts provided by archaeo- 
logy and the very arguments used by de Vaux and is determined by a particular 
interpretation of the statements in the Pesharim , 38 The only absolutely certain 
facts are as follows. The initial occupation by the sect occurred shortly before 
the reign of John Hyrcanus or during his long reign (135/134-104 BCE), i.e., 
well into the second half of the second century bce , 39 and this occupation 
lasted for a very short time since the remains attributable to it are very sparse. 

During the reign of Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 bce) or perhaps during the 
reign of his predecessor, John Hyrcanus, this initial occupation increased quite 
considerably and the buildings took on the form they were to retain, more or 
less, until their destruction (Period lb of de Vaux). The most noteworthy 
change to the existing buildings involved the construction of a complex ar- 
rangement for trapping the water of the nearby wadi by means of an aqueduct, 
and retaining it in large cisterns within the complex, three of them of enormous 
size. This is proof of a significant increase in the number of people. Just as 
typical are the addition of a massive square tower to guard the entrance and the 
building of storehouses and workshops. Also, several large-sized rooms, one of 
which in particular was clearly intended for the assembly of many people and 
at the side of which was found a room in which hundreds of plates, cups, jars 
and other objects needed for the table were found stored. In contrast, the num- 
ber of rooms which could have been intended as bedrooms turns out to ]?e very 
small compared to the buildings for common use. De Vaux’s conclusion is firm 
and utterly convincing: the constructions excavated are the remains of build- 
ings in which a large group of humans, living in tents or huts (or in the sur- 
rounding caves) would congregate for activities in common: assemblies, com- 
mon meals, acts of cleansing, jobs in the various workshops, etc. This phase 
lasted a long time (until the reign of Herod the Great, 37-4 bce) and ended 
suddenly through earthquake or fire, or from the effect of both, as can clearly 
be seen in the ruins. 

The following phase (de Vaux’s Period 11) comes after a short interval when 
the ruins were abandoned as a result of the fire and the destruction which hap- 
pened before that -there remains archaeological evidence for the period of 
abandonment -and began during the reign of Archelaus (4 bce to 6 ce). This 
period of occupation is marked by the rebuilding and re-use of one part of the 


xl 


INTRODUCTION 


earlier buildings, which continue in communal use as before. A certain number 
of changes is clearly visible in the ruins without altering the appearance of the 
buildings to any extent. The most important room in terms of what was re- 
trieved is, perhaps, the large room of the first floor which collapsed during the 
violent destruction which terminated this period. However, from the debris it 
was possible to salvage three long tables covered with plaster, and several ink- 
wells. These show that it was a place intended for the preparation and copying 
of the manuscripts discovered in the caves. Thanks especially to the abundance 
of coins found, including a treasure comprising 560 coins in Tyrian silver bur- 
ied in three little pots, it has been possible to establish the beginnings of this 
phase as between 4 bce and 1 bce, and its close in the year 68 of the first cen- 
tury CE. The ample remains of ashes resulting from the burnt ceilings, and the 
arrowheads that were found, are convincing proof that the end of this phase 
was caused by a battle. The remains found in the following phase make it just 
as evident that the destruction was the work of the Roman army in the course 
of the first Jewish War. 

With Period 11 occupation of Qumran by the community ended. The next 
phase (de Vaux’s Period ill) presents us with a building totally different in 
shape and features. Only a small part of the ruined buildings is cleared and 
rebuilt: the large tower and adjoining buildings, strengthened with rough ram- 
parts. In this way the whole complex takes on the form of a small Roman for- 
tress, which it was to retain right until the excavations. The beginning of this 
phase is established from coins as the year 68, when the coins found from Pe- 
riod 11 end, and when the coins connected with the remains from Period in 
begin. Its close is very uncertain. The lack of coins later than the year 72/73 
make it very likely that the occupation of the place by a small Roman garrison 
ended at the time of the capture of Fortress Masada, the last bastion of resis- 
tance in the area, in the year 73. 

The results of these excavations have succeeded in providing an exact histor- 
ical background to the manuscripts found in the caves. They have proved that 
these manuscripts originate from people who lived for two centuries in what 
are today the ruins of Qumran, and that at least some of them were copied 
there. They have also provided the definitive latest date when the manuscripts 
were stored in the caves: the year 68 of the 1st century. The implication is that 
all the manuscripts were copied before this date. In addition, the results have 
proved that the owners of these manuscripts lived in accordance with a particu- 
lar type of community organization. Corroboration comes from the excavation 
of the large cemeteries in the vicinity of the ruins and the later excavation of 
c Ain Feshka, a construction next to a sweet water spring on the shore of the 
Dead Sea, belonging to the same period and occupied by the same people as 
were in the ruins of Qumran. 40 

This view was almost universally accepted when first proposed and went 


INTRODUCTION 


xli 


unchallenged for some forty years. In recent years, however, alternative inter- 
pretations of the archaeological finds have been proposed. N. Gold argued that 
Qumran was a desert fortress and P. Doncel maintained that Qumran was an 
agricultural villa where balsam was produced. J. B. Humbert, who is in charge 
of the publication of the final report on the excavations of de Vaux, suggests 
that the Essenes built a place of worship at Qumran on the site of a 
Hasmonaean pleasure villa at the end of the first century bce. 4 ' 

The hypotheses of Gold and of Doncel, which eliminate any connection 
between the ruins of Qumran and the caves of the manuscripts, seem incom- 
patible with the sum total of the evidence preserved. The restriction of the 
period of ‘sectarian’ occupation of the ruins to de Vaux’s Period n as proposed 
by Humbert seems more plausible to me. However, until the definitive publica- 
tion of the archaeological material, it is impossible to evaluate in detail the re- 
spective merits of these new hypotheses. 

In 1952, in view of rumours that once again the Ta c amireh bedouin had found 
another cave containing manuscripts in the Qumran area, the ‘Ecole Biblique 
et Archeologique Franyaise’, the American School of Oriental Research and the 
Palestine Archaeological Museum decided to arrange a systematic exploration 
of the whole of the rocky wall of the region. Their aims were to locate the new 
cave and to determine whether or not there were other hiding-places for manu- 
scripts in the area. Between the 10th and the 29th March, seven teams were to 
search each cavity, for a stretch of about 8 kilometres. It was possible, in fact, 
to locate Cave 2, and the archaeologists managed to find a couple of tiny frag- 
ments among the remains of the bedouin’s clandestine dig. The archaeologists 
carried out 230 sondages without success, but in 40 caves they did find pottery 
and other traces of human occupation. In 26 of these caves the pottery found 
was of the same kind as found in Cave 1 and in the first archaeological cam- 
paign of Khirbet Qumran. Only one of the caves excavated provided a certain 
number of manuscripts. This was Cave 3, in which the archaeologists found, 
in addition, two ‘Copper Scrolls’. In September the same year, the bedouin 
found a new cave with manuscripts in the rocky wall. This is Cave 6, which 
was excavated at once by the archaeologists, who were able to retrieve only a 
few fragments of papyrus and leather. 

Following the discovery of Cave 4 by the bedouin, which we will treat sepa- 
rately, in September 1952 the archaeologists also searched the ravines at the 
foot of the ruins of Qumran and they located and excavated Cave 5. Later on, 
during the archaeological campaigns of February and March 1955, they de- 
cided to make a systematic excavation of the slopes of the terrace on which the 
ruins were situated, to ascertain whether a natural or man-made cave might 
have remained hidden by later falls. This enormous task was successful. It 
provided confirmation that no further treasure comparable to Cave 4 had re- 


xlii 


INTRODUCTION 


mained hidden, and also led to the finding and excavation of Caves 7-10, which 
contained remains of manuscripts. All the material of these ‘small caves’ to- 
gether with the results of their excavation were published in 1962. 42 

4 1952: Cave 4 

The ruins of Qumran are situated above a marl terrace, halfway between the 
rocky edge of the Judaean Desert and the deep rift of the Jordan and the Dead 
Sea. It comprises sedimentary rock and the combined effect of rain and of wadi 
Qumran have carved deep gullies in its sides. During the excavation of the 
ruins, the archaeologists had noticed several cavities in these precipices, but 
had considered them to be holes caused by the water and ‘archaeologically bar- 
ren’ and So did not search them. 

A mistake which was to be enormously expensive. As de Vaux relates in the 
official report of the excavation which came out straight after the discovery, 43 
this was not due to chance but was the result of careful search. Commenting 
one evening, in his camp, on the results gained from the search and sale of the 
manuscripts, an old Ta c amireh man remembered that in the far off days of his 
youth, while hunting in the Qumran region, he had wounded a partridge which 
had found safety in a crevice in the wall of the wadi, not far from the ruins of 
Qumran. Not wishing to relinquish his prey, with difficulty he managed to 
slither in until he found it in a room full of rubbish, amongst which he made 
out fragments of pottery, from which he retrieved a clay lamp. Following his 
directions, several youths from the tribe managed to climb down to reach the 
small opening. In this way they hit on what turned out to be the principal hid- 
ing-place for manuscripts: the remains of the central library of the Qumran 
community. Word of this quickly spread, and after that the archaeologists ar- 
rived, preceded by a squad of police from Jericho, who succeeded in halting the 
clandestine excavation, by now well under way. The archaeological team exca- 
vated the lower levels of the cave which had been built as a dwelling-place, just 
like the other caves on the edges of the marl terrace and they discovered a small 
subterranean dwelling which the bedouin had not touched. In this way they 
were able to retrieve a thousand fragments stemming from about a hundred 
texts, a tiny fraction of the material contained in Cave 4. Luckily, though, most 
of these belonged to the same manuscripts excavated by the bedouin, thus pro- 
viding a check that the material which they offered for sale was genuine. The 
gradual sale of the manuscripts was to continue until 1958. 

The material is enormous: about 15,000 fragments which come from about 
550 different manuscripts. The Jordanian Government immediately granted 
the sum of 15,000 pounds in order to assist acquisition by the Palestine Archae- 
ological Museum. However, owing to the large amount of material, the Mu- 
seum was forced to turn to foreign institutions in order to pay for its acquisi- 


INTRODUCTION 


xliii 


tion. The help of McGill University of Montreal, the Vatican Library, the 
University of Manchester, the University of Heidelberg and the McCormick 
Theological Seminary of Chicago, the All Souls Church of New York and of 
the University of Oxford made it possible to purchase the fragments, and in 
return they were granted the right to publish part of them. 

Publication was entrusted to an international and interconfessional team which 
included representatives named by these institutions, united in Jerusalem un- 
der the direction of de Vaux. The biblical manuscripts were entrusted to P. 
Skehan and F. M. Cross. The non-biblical manuscripts were shared among J. 
M. Allegro, M. Baillet, J. T. Milik, J. Strugnell and J. Starcky. 44 The team com- 
pleted the unbelievable task of arranging the jigsaw puzzle of thousands of 
fragments into groups of manuscripts. They also provided preliminary reports 
of their contents, prepared a complete transcription of all the fragments and 
even compiled a concordance of all the words that could be read in them. Yet, 
at the present time the only allocations of manuscripts published in their en- 
tirety are those which were assigned to John M. Allegro 45 and M. Baillet. 46 A 
large number of the other texts from Cave 4 have been published in prelimi- 
nary form, 47 but the definitive edition in the series Discoveries in the Judaean 
Desert has not yet been finished. 48 With the aim of speeding up its publication, 
both Cross and Strugnell have joined with other scholars over the last few years 
in the task of preparing the final edition of their respective allocations. Also, 
the Israel Antiquities Authority has decided to entrust other scholars with part 
of the share allocated to Milik. 

5 7956-7977: Cave 77 

The significant profit received from the sale of the manuscripts from Cave 4 
whetted the appetite of the untiring Ta c amireh bedouin to such an extent, that 
in January 1956 they succeeded in finding another new cave with manuscripts: 
Cave 11. The entrance to the cave, located very near to Cave 3, had fallen in, 
so it could not be seen, which is why it had gone unnoticed in earlier searches. 
As in Cave 1, a certain number of manuscripts were recovered in a good state 
of preservation. This only resulted in complicating the haggling with Kando 
needed to acquire them, as well as increasing the price which the Palestine 
Archaeological Museum was forced to pay to acquire them. In the end, acquisi- 
tion was possible thanks to the contributions from the American School of 
Oriental Research (asor) and the ‘Koninlijke Nederlandse Akademie van 
Wetenschappen’ (knaw, the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences). Both institu- 
tions received in return the right to publish the texts acquired. In this way the 
American School of Oriental Research obtained three biblical manuscripts: a 
copy of the psalms, 49 a copy of Leviticus in palaeo-Hebrew script, 50 and a 


xliv 


INTRODUCTION 


scroll in such bad condition that it was not possible to retrieve from it more 
than a few fragments with traces of a copy of Ezekiel. 51 The knaw were 
awarded three other scrolls (an Aramaic translation of the Book of Job, 52 a 
scroll with apocryphal psalms [liQsAp"] and another scroll with a description 
of the ‘New Jerusalem’ in such bad condition that it has been possible to rescue 
only a few fragments from an outside protuberance 53 ). They were also awarded 
another series of fragments originating from different manuscripts, most of 
which have already been published. 54 But for the Temple Scroll, the longest 
and best preserved of all the manuscripts found in this cave, the price de- 
manded was so high that acquisition proved impossible. The situation changed 
drastically with the Israeli occupation of Jerusalem and of Bethlehem in 1967. 
The day after the occupation, Y. Yadin, who had previously wanted to buy the 
manuscript through middlemen, proceeded to confiscate it. The Government 
of Israel confiscated the manuscript without further ado, although after the war 
it ended up granting to the antiquary payment of more than $100,000 for the 
scroll. Ten years later there appeared the superb edition of this important 
text 55 which was over 8 metres long, the longest of any found in the Qumran 
caves. 


INTRODUCTION 


xlv 


hi The dispute over authenticity and antiquity 

The interest aroused by the discoveries of the Qumran manuscripts was im- 
mense, right from the start. This interest was provoked for reasons which are 
easy to understand. The mere fact that they were biblical texts or connected 
with the bible, that they were actually found on biblical soil and were not less 
than two thousand years old, placed them in a unique position. Since the dis- 
coveries included many biblical manuscripts copied at a time prior to the for- 
mation of the canon and the standardization of the biblical text, and before the 
work of the Masoretes, to study them would allow the process of development 
and fixing of the biblical text to be known It would also assist in checking or 
correcting the great mediaeval codices which are the foundation of our Hebrew 
bibles. 

Given, too, that the manuscripts included a large number of extra-biblical 
compositions, they would fill a huge gap in our knowledge of pre-Christian 
Jewish literature. It is true that part of this literature was known, owing to 
translations preserved in a wide range of languages, but there were no original 
manuscripts. A cursory look at the material which provides the foundation for 
the historical dictionary of the Academy of the Hebrew Language for the years 
100 bce to 70 CE, 56 shows that almost all the literary texts in Hebrew for this 
period derive from the Qumran finds. The same applies to Aramaic texts, 
also. 57 The new discoveries, in providing us with part of pre-Christian Jewish 
literature in Hebrew and Aramaic, promised to close the existing gap between 
Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew and between the Aramaic of Elephantine and 
Targumic Aramaic. 

In addition, and for the first time, we would own a whole range of religious 
compositions which had reached us directly, absolutely devoid of any later 
interference. Since the texts had been preserved at the fringes of conventional 
life, they reached us free from the restraints of censorship. To a large extent 
Jewish censorship had suppressed religious literature which did not comply 
with rabbinic orthodoxy; Christian censorship would have assimilated some of 
these works, but after modifying them for their own purposes. 

Since the new manuscripts stem from Palestine and are earlier in date than 
the destruction of Jerusalem, study of them promises to resolve the complex 
history of the country at this critical time. Also, since this time is a period of 
development both for Christianity and for Rabbinic Judaism, the new texts will 
make the background, origins and development of these two important reli- 
gions intelligible. 

However, this very intrinsic interest of the new texts immediately unleashed 
a bitter conflict over whether they were genuine. Although today this conflict 
is no more than a curiosity of the past, it is useful to rehearse briefly the atti- 
tudes w hich marked the history of research into these manuscripts in the first 
decades after their discovery. 


xlvi 


INTRODUCTION 


It was natural, of course, that the apparition of the first manuscripts was 
received with a degree of mistrust over whether they were genuine and really 
old. The preservation of manuscripts as old as these was not believed possible, 
and there have been a great number of forgeries throughout history. The very 
secrecy and uncertainties shrouding the discoveries could only increase misgiv- 
ings. 

Although most of the scholarly community assumed an enthusiastic attitude, 
already by 1949 there was no lack of opinion stating emphatically that they 
were recent forgeries. According to S.Zeitlin, the manuscripts had been writ- 
ten by the Karaites in the Middle Ages, in an attempt to assume distinguished 
forbears. They came from the Karaite synagogue in Cairo and had been hidden 
in the caves shortly before they were discovered. 58 Archaeological excavation 
under scientifically controlled conditions of the caves in which they were 
found, and fragments of manuscripts which belonged to the same texts ac- 
quired from the bedouin, provided a formal refutation of the accusations of 
forgery and fraud. Likewise, analysis of the pottery excavated provided proof 
of the antiquity of the texts connected with them, since it was difficult for this 
pottery to be later than the first century. The conclusive proof concerning date 
was given by analysis using the method known as Carbon 14. The cloths which 
had been used to wrap the manuscripts were analysed in this way in 1950, and 
the result given was a date up to the year 33 of the 1st century ce . 59 In 1956 a 
charred palm-tree balk found during excavation of the Khirbet underwent the 
same analysis, providing a date of up to 16 CE . 60 It is true that the margins of 
error available by this method in the fifties were still large (about 200 years in 
the first instance and some 80 years in the second). However it did establish the 
date of the cloths between 1 68 bce and 233 ce, eliminating conclusively the 
likelihood of recent forgeries. 

The analytical method by progressive shrinkage of the parchment fibres 
according to their antiquity was applied to uninscribed fragments from both 
Qumran and Murabba c at. It proved that the first were relatively older than the 
second. Since the latter were dated to the 2nd century ce, the dating of the 
former to the 1st century ce was established/ 11 

The same date in the first century (ce) was established by analysis of the 
biblical texts found in the caves and from their divergences from the biblical 
texts found in Murabba c at and Nahal Hever. The second group presented a 
biblical text virtually identical with the Masoretic text. The biblical texts from 
Qumran, however, still reflect in a very clear manner the textual fluidity prior 
to the final fixed form and for that very reason were earlier. 

This first century ce date for the manuscripts, however, still did not com- 
pletely exclude their origin to be either the Zealots or Judaeo-Christian. 

The first theory was maintained by C. Roth, 62 G. R. Driver 63 and others. In 
essence, both Roth and Driver equated the leading figures in the history of the 


INTRODUCTION 


xlvii 


Qumran community with the leading figures of the Jewish revolt against Rome. 
They suggested dating the manuscripts to the second half of the first century 
CE and in the first half of the second century ce, the same period as the New 
Testament writings. 

The second theory was maintained in the fifties by J. L. Teicher 64 and has 
been revived quite recently by B. E. Thiering 65 and R. Eisenman. 66 The dis- 
crepancies in detail between these writers are remarkable, and so are the indi- 
viduals with whom they identify the principal characters. (The Teacher of 
Righteousness would be Jesus and the Wicked Priest, Paul; or the Teacher of 
Righteousness would be John the Baptist, the Wicked Priest, Jesus of Naza- 
reth; the Teacher of Righteousness would be the apostle James, the Wicked 
Priest Ananias, and the Man of Lies, Paul). However, common to all these 
theories is denial of the conclusions reached by archaeological investigation, 
which infers that all the manuscripts were deposited in the caves (and by the 
same token, were written) prior to the destruction of Khirbet Qumran in 68 ce. 
Above all, these theories deny the conclusions from palaeographic analysis of 
the manuscripts. This shows that they were all copied between the third cen- 
tury bce and the final quarter of the ist century ce. In particular, the proof 
from palaeography used in dating the manuscripts has been the target of attack 
and disagreement. 

At the start of analysis of the Qumran manuscripts, Hebrew palaeography 
for ancient times had not advanced very much, for lack of comparative mate- 
rial. In actual fact, it amounted to no more than W. F. Albright’s detailed analy- 
sis of the Nash Papyrus in 1937. 67 His analysis had succeeded in dating this 
text by means of comparing its script with the forms of letters in inscriptions 
on stone of the period, and it had caused Trever to acknowledge as ancient the 
first manuscripts which the American School was offered. The avalanche of 
new material, some of which, like the Samaria papyri and the contracts and 
letters from Murabba c at were actually dated, enabled a typology of the evolu- 
tion of the different kinds of script between the 4th c bce and the 3rd ce to be 
drawn up for the first time. This work was undertaken initially by S. A. 
Birnbaum, hs and much more comprehensively and exactly by N. Avigad 69 and 
F. M. Cross. 70 The results led to establishing the date on which a manuscript 
was copied with margins of error of about 25 years. However, it was a new field 
of research, with results which were difficult to check objectively. (In order to 
make an analysis by means of the Carbon 14 method it was necessary to use 
between 1 and 3 grams of carbon. This entailed destroying a significant part of 
each manuscript). Accordingly, the attacks by Thiering and by Eisenman in 
particular focused on the dates suggested for the different manuscripts, since 
these totally exclude their interpretation. Luckily, the discovery of a new tech- 
nique in 1987 71 (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) reduced the amount of mate- 
rial needed to be destroyed for analysis using the Carbon 14 method to 0.5- 1.0 


xlviii 


INTRODUCTION 


milligrams of carbon. The method could now be applied directly to the manu- 
scripts to establish whether the dates put forward by the palaeographers were 
correct or not. In i99°> this new technique was used on 14 manuscripts. Four 
contained dates (a papyrus from Samaria, a contract from Wadi Seiyal, a deed 
of sale from Murabba c at and an Arabic letter from Khirbet Mird), eight manu- 
scripts came from Qumran which the palaeographers had dated between the 
second half of the 2nd century bce and the first half of the 1st century ce, and 
two others stemmed from Masada. 72 The results of this analysis have com- 
pletely substantiated the method of dating by palaeography. 73 This new analysis 
has shown that not one of the manuscripts from Qumran and Masada was cop- 
ied after 68 ce. It has also shown that the much earlier dates ascribed to some 
manuscripts by the palaeographers were completely vindicated. In all the sam- 
ples analysed, the palaeographic date falls within the date margins reached by 
the analytical methods. /+ These latest analytical techniques eliminate once and 
for all the theories of a Zealot or Jewish-Christian origin for the manuscripts. 
The manuscripts found in the Qumran caves can now be regarded as ancient 
and genuine beyond any kind of doubt. 


INTRODUCTION 


xlix 


iv A sectarian library 

If the reader scans attentively the ‘List of Qumran manuscripts’, located at the 
end of this book, he cannot fail to realize that in spite of the high number of 
compositions it reflects, the contents as a whole are surprisingly uniform. If 
you append a separate section in which to place all the manuscripts which are 
copies of the various biblical books, all the remaining texts could easily be con- 
tained in any one of the chapters making up this book. It comprises only reli- 
gious literature, with no room for ‘secular’ literature. The reader will find there 
neither purely historical works nor scientific works. The compositions closest 
to this category, such as the calendars or the astronomical works included in 
chapter 8, (as well as 4 QBrontologion), are pervaded by clear religious purposes 
and have been written and preserved for liturgical reasons, or for the ordering 
of religious life. Even when within some works ‘scientific’ details are included 
(such as the list of trees in 4 QEnoch, or the explanation for the circulation of 
the blood in one copy of 4 qd) the religious purpose of these details is always 
to be found in the foreground. It is not, in fact, a library in the modern mean- 
ing of the term, i.e., a store for all the knowledge of a period, but is instead a 
specifically religious library. And since, among the works it contains, a signifi- 
cant number can be classified as representing sectarian theology and customs, 
we can describe this library as a sectarian library. 

All the manuscripts found in the caves belong to the same library, as be- 
comes evident from the following facts. The collection of topics found in each 
cave (to the extent that the texts could be salvaged) has the same general out- 
line: 75 biblical works, associated religious literature, sectarian works. The very 
same apocryphal and sectarian compositions have been retrieved from different 
caves. Several manuscripts found in different caves were copied by the same 
scribe. 

It is not a private library, as is apparent from the high number of works it 
contains and also because (at least in Caves 1, 2, 4 and 11) different copies of 
the same composition, whether biblical or extra-biblical texts, have been found. 

This library belonged to a group of people with their central community in 
the ruins of Qumran, as has been adequately established by archaeological ex- 
cavations. These show the pottery found both in the caves and in the ruins to 
be identical, differing completely from other Palestinian pottery of the period. 

The proof that this group of people was a sect comes from the subject matter 
of certain works widely represented in the library. These compositions exhibit 
a halakhah which differs from the rest of Judaism. They also follow a calendar 
which is different from the current calendar 76 and include new theological ap- 
proaches. In addition they exhibit clearly a tightly structured community with 
a hierarchical organization, the members of which considered themselves to be 
different from others, to have isolated themselves from the rest of contemporary 


1 


INTRODUCTION 


Judaism. What is even more significant, it is a community forbidding and 
avoiding any contact with non-members. 

It is obvious that not all the manuscripts found in the caves originate from 
Qumran. Although many of the biblical manuscripts seem to have been copied 
in the scriptorium of the community, and some have even been copied by the 
same scribes who also copied other sectarian works, no-one has ever thought 
of ascribing a Qumranic origin to any of the biblical texts. The same applies to 
specific non-biblical works, the oldest copies of which are much earlier than 
the settlement of the group in Qumran. In fact the same is true of some sectar- 
ian works, known in a ‘Qumranic’ edition but with a long history of develop- 
ment that seems to demand for some of its elements an origin prior to the exis- 
tence of the community as such. Several other compositions offer no typical 
features which enable their origin to be determined with certainty. However, 
due to the separatist nature of the community, the mere fact of belonging to 
the group library convinces us that the community considered them to be basi- 
cally in agreement with its principles, with its halakhah and even with its ten- 
ets. The spectrum of ideas reflected in these works seems to have caused no 
more problems than the variety of ideas present within the books of the bible. 

In view of the exclusive nature of the community and the reiterated ban on 
relations with ‘the others’ it is hardly surprising that among the abundance of 
compositions preserved, not one has been found which could be judged as 
epitomising the thought, the halakhah or the traditions of a counter- group, even 
for the purposes of argument or rebuttal. Clearly, a group that persisted for 
centuries could not have maintained a monolithic uniformity throughout its 
whole history. It must have undergone intense development in its theology, its 
halakhah and in its very organization. And, indeed, in the different texts or in 
the various editions of a single work, there are numerous hints of this develop- 
ment. However, perusal of all the manuscripts recovered has not succeeded in 
bringing to light any composition which dissents from the basic principles, the 
calendar or the halakhah of the group. The wide variety that can be observed 
is always kept within specified limits. This allows us to conclude that all the 
works which were retrieved belong to the longer history of the sect. Or else 
they were kept because the sect saw in them confirmation of their prehistory, 
of the religious movements which influenced their development and nourished 
their origins, forming part of the legacy within which, as in the various biblical 
books, the sect identifies itself. 

This global view of the discoveries has recently been questioned in various 
studies by N. Golb . 77 In his view it is apparently implausible that Jewish litera- 
ture of the period could have been irretrievably lost, while the library of a sec- 
tarian group could have fallen into our hands. Wishing to recover vanished 
treasure, Golb is resolved to suppress any connection between the manuscripts 


INTRODUCTION 


li 


from the caves and the group which lived in the area around the ruins. He 
claims that these manuscripts stem from various libraries in Jerusalem and 
therefore represent the rich literary activity of Judaism at that time. 78 However, 
such conjectures do not take into account the solid data gained from archaeo- 
logical excavation, nor do they explain the uniform content of the texts found. 
They do not explain, either, the typical lack of any work which could represent 
halakhah or the ideas of the Pharisees, ideas which were to be prevalent in Ju- 
daism after 70 ce It achieves no more than shift to Jerusalem and make even 
more difficult the resolution of the problems which the manuscripts display. 

Since I have given a detailed rebuttal of the Golb’s arguments in other publi- 
cations, 79 there is no need to emphasize the matter. It might appear to be an 
irony of history that we possess a very great deal more information concerning 
a small group of fanatical separatists, who lived in seclusion in the middle of 
the desert than we do concerning the many well-stocked libraries which there 
must undoubtedly have been in Jerusalem. However, at heart this irony is no 
more astounding than the fact that we possess more documentary data concern- 
ing the tiny Jewish colony set up in Elephantine than we do of Western learn- 
ing which at one time was housed in the library of Alexandria. The luck of 
discovery has no regard for the logic of our own interests. Yet the fortuitous 
nature of the discovery of the manuscripts does not undermine the conclusion 
that what we have retrieved comprises the remains of the former library of the 
Qumran community. 


Ill 


INTRODUCTION 


V Identity and origins of the Qumran community 

Granted that the manuscripts retrieved stem from the library of a sectarian 
group, the first requirement in providing them with a specific historic back- 
ground is to establish which group in particular they came from. This group 
(or groups) is denoted by various names in the manuscripts: yahad (commu- 
nity), c edah (assembly), etc. Its members are called ‘sons of Zadok’, ‘sons of 
light’, ‘members of the New Covenant’, ‘poor’, ‘simple’, ‘devout’, ‘the Many’, 
etc. In other words, the epithets to be found in the actual manuscripts do not 
provide us with the opportunity of identifying easily the group to which the 
library belonged with any one of the sectarian groups which, as far as we know, 
existed. It follows that the method which all scholars have been obliged to 
adopt, Is to compare all the data known through other sources concerning the 
existing groups within the Judaism of the period, with the profile of the group 
that can be extrapolated from the various manuscripts. This task is not without 
risks. It is easy to favour one or other of the elements found, considered, per- 
haps, as central, making secondary all other aspects which are difficult to fit, 
and so distort the picture to emerge. However, the procedure has had positive 
results which can be regarded as well established. 

In the first place, it has shown that the Qumran community cannot possibly 
be identified with the Zealots of the Jewish-Christian community since neither 
the chronological outline nor the resulting profile fits. 

Second, it has determined that of the three best-known groups of Judaism 
in the mid-second century bce until the time of the destruction of Qumran in 
68 CE (the Sadducees, the Pharisees and the Essenes), the group most closely 
resembling the Qumran group is indeed the Essenes. Furthermore, the similar- 
ities between what classical sources tell us about the Essenes 80 and the informa- 
tion provided by the manuscripts are so close, that it would be impossible to 
deny a strong connection between the Qumran group and the Essenes. 8 ' 

This connection is usually understood as a simple equation between the 
elements in question: Essenes = Qumran group. However, this equation is im- 
possible . 82 The genuine parallels do require a connection between the two enti- 
ties, but there are differences between them of such a nature as to preclude 
them being identical. The information on the Essenes provided by classical 
sources is correct in describing the Essene movement as very extensive, even 
nationwide. Its members did not live segregated from the rest of Judaism but 
instead were found distributed in every city of the land. To reduce Essenism 
to a peripheral oddity such as Qumran would be to leave unexplained non- 
Qumranic Essenism, a wider and more significant phenomenon than the phe- 
nomenon of Qumran. 

It is possible to account for the undeniable similarities and the differences, 
which are just as valid, by invoking another form of connection between the 


INTRODUCTION 


liii 


two groups. 83 The Qumran manuscripts make constant reference to a split, a 
fundamental division, which occurred in the initial stages of the group. They 
even tell us that the founder of the Qumran community, the Teacher of Right- 
eousness, as well as the Man of Lies, his rival in this clash, had previously be- 
longed to the same community. They also tell us that in the conflict between 
them both, only a tiny minority sided with the Teacher of Righteousness. The 
best way to make sense of the undeniable connection that existed between the 
Essene movement and the Qumran community, is to accept that the Qumran 
community arose specifically on account of a rift caused within the Essene 
movement to which the founder-members belonged. This proposal comprises 
one of the essential elements of the ‘Groningen Hypothesis’, 84 which best ex- 
plains the known facts in their entirety, both in respect of the Essenes and in 
respect of the Qumran community. 

In this hypothesis, the origins of the Essene movement and the origins of the 
Qumran community are quite separate. Essenism, in the form that can be in- 
ferred from classical information concerning the Essenes, and from Essene 
compositions preserved in the Qumran library, is a Palestinian affair, which has 
its ideological roots within apocalyptic tradition. 85 This tradition flourished in 
Palestine towards the end of the 3rd century and during the 2nd century bce, 
and would continue its own development up to the period of the revolt against 
Rome. (Flavius Josephus, for example, mentions Judas the Essene who taught 
in the Temple at the time of Aristobulos [115-104 bce] and Menahem who 
worked in the court of Herod the Great [37-4 bce]. Also, Simon the Essene 
who prophesied at the close of Archaelaus’ reign [4 bce to 6 CE]. He also men- 
tions John the Essene, who was entrusted with the governorship of the prov- 
ince of Zama during the war against Rome, led the first attack on Ashkelon, 
and died in that battle in 66 ce.) From the works written during the period of 
development prior to establishment in Qumran, from documents of this period 
belonging to patently sectarian works, and from later works which refer ex- 
pressly to the founding period, it can be deduced that the Qumran community, 
instead, has its origins in a rift which occurred within the Essene movement. 
This rift was to cause those siding with the Teacher of Righteousness to set 
themselves up with him in the desert, until 130 bce. 

Study of these documents enables us to conclude that the key controversies 
within the Essene movement during the period of formation of the Qumran 
sect, and which eventually caused the rift, focused on the matter of the calen- 
dar and the resulting organization of the cycle of feasts. Of particular concern 
was a certain way of interpreting biblical legislation concerning the temple, 
worship, and the purity of persons and of objects. 86 This special halakhah is 
based on the Teacher of Righteousness being aware of having received through 
divine revelation the correct interpretation of the biblical text. It is also based 
on his followers seeing this interpretation as revealed and binding. 87 This 


liv 


INTRODUCTION 


awareness of having received revelation would induce the Teacher of Righ- 
teousness to proclaim the end of time as imminent, the awareness of divine 
selection and predestination, the inadequacy of the temple and current wor- 
ship, etc., In addition he was led to suggest a whole string of special halakhot 
conditioning daily life, and attempt to force the practice of this interpretation 
on all the members of the Essene movement. The rejection of these pretensions 
by the majority of the members of the Essene movement, and their disapproval 
of this halakhah, were to end in forcing the group of the Teacher of Righteous- 
ness and his disciples to retreat to the isolation of the wilderness. 


INTRODUCTION 


lv 


vi The history of the Qumran community 

The texts that have been found enable us to sketch with relative certainty the 
ideological reasons for the rift which gave rise to the Qumran community. 
They are much more sparing when it comes to providing us with exact details 
of the actual circumstances in which the break occurred, and of later develop- 
ments over the 200 years that the community existed. From the manuscripts, 
little more can be ascertained than a broad historical outline. It establishes the 
time for God’s ‘visitation’ at about 390 years from the exile, and the advent of 
the Teacher of Righteousness as twenty years later. Further, particular enemies 
can be equated with the Pharisees and Sadducees There is an enigmatic allu- 
sion to Alexander Jannaeus and his execution of 800 Pharisees who had sought 
the intervention of Demetrius in Eucarios. The external enemy (the Kittim) 
can be identified as the Romans. The most frequent references, which also 
provide the best hope for making a connection between the history of the com- 
munity and official history, are to the ‘Wicked Priest’ in the Habakkuk Pesher. 
He is said to be the highest power in the land and at one stage he would perse- 
cute the Teacher of Righteousness and his community in their desert retreat. 
These references, though, continue to be useless, since the mass of features 
attributed to this person could not fit any of the High Priests of the 2nd cen- 
tury BCE. 

On this topic, too, the ‘Groningen Hypothesis’ has succeeded in providing 
a solution. This solution is in agreement with all the details of the texts, fits in 
with the time-limits demanded by the excavations of the Khirbet, and estab- 
lishes the chronology for the development of the initial stages of the history of 
the community. In essence, this part of the hypothesis 88 surmises that the title 
‘Wicked Priest’ is not a nickname assigned to the High Priest. Instead, it is a 
honorary title applied to the various Hasmonean High Priests, from Judas 
Maccabaeus to Alexander Jannaeus, following an exact chronological sequence. 
This obviates the need for assigning to a single person all the different and 
contradictory features asserted of the ‘Wicked Priest’. It also provides a histori- 
cal framework within which can be fitted the earliest history of the community. 
The hypothesis allows us to understand the positive estimation of Judas 
Maccabaeus, when he first took up office and his later condemnation, once he 
was installed. It enables us to reject identifying the movement from which the 
Qumran group originates with the Hasidim of the Maccabaean revolt because 
of Alcimo’s condemnation. We can determine that the formative period of the 
community covers, at least, the high priesthood of both Jonathan and Simeon, 
two of the ‘Wicked Priests’ with whom the Teacher of Righteousness was in 
dispute. Also, we can determine that this formative period is distinguished not 
only by the development of belief within the Essene movement, already re- 
ferred to, but equally by the confrontations with the political and religious 


lvi 


INTRODUCTION 


power of Jerusalem. In addition, that the first group of supporters of the 
Teacher of Righteousness comprised priests from circles close to power. This 
hypothesis shows us that the rift within the Essenian movement and the retreat 
to the wilderness of the group faithful to the Teacher of Righteousness, took 
place during the long high priesthood of John Hyrcanus, who tracked down the 
Teacher of Righteousness to his retreat. It dates the death of the Teacher of 
Righteousness during the same pontificate of John Hyrcanus, since no connec- 
tion is made between him and the following ‘Wicked Priest’, Alexander 
Jannaeus. This hypothesis, in conclusion, allows us to place the first edition of 
1 QpHab in the final years of the life of Alexander Jannaeus. We can see how 
the community succeeded in solving the problem of the delay in the onset of 
the ‘end of time’ and the destruction of all the wicked, expected some 40 years 
after the death of the Teacher of Righteousness. 

Of the later history of the community we know very little. Archaeology tells 
us of a brief abandonment of the buildings at Khirbet Qumran and of a return 
there. Successive editing of the texts shows us some of the alterations effected 
within them, changes to the community structures as well as development of 
theological beliefs. However, it is not possible to make a historical connection 
between these ‘exiles in the desert’ and the tortuous history of Palestine in the 
1st century bce and the 1st century ce. The Qumran group became less and 
less interested in the transformations of history, in order to focus their energy 
on study of the Law, and to follow it in accordance with their own interpreta- 
tion. Only the events of the founding generation seem to have been assumed 
into a view of their own history, which also belongs to sacred history. In the 
solitude of the wilderness, the community was to withdraw into itself increas- 
ingly. Prayer was to replace temple sacrifice. The requirements of purity were 
to be emphasized to reach a level enabling communion with the world of an- 
gels. The whole life of the community would be stamped with ardent hope for 
the victory of goodness. This hope was to be nourished principally by reading 
and studying the sacred texts, as well as compositions emanating from apoca- 
lyptic tradition and the Essene movement, and writings composed within the 
community itself. These compositions as a whole, the voice and essential main- 
stay of the religious life of the community, were to generate a magnificent li- 
brary, the remains of which are available here to the interested reader. 


INTRODUCTION 


lvii 


vii Further reading 

For a first approach to the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Reader from the Biblical Ar- 
chaeology Review , Understanding the Dead Sea Scrolls (New York 1992), edited 
by Flershel Shanks, Joseph A.Fitzmyer, Responses to 101 Questions on the Dead 
Sea Scrolls (Mahwah, N.J. 1992), and James C. VanderKam, The Dead Sea 
Scrolls Today (Grand Rapids 1994) could be very useful. 

Standard Introductions in English, although somewhat dated, are the follow- 
ing: M. Burrows, The Dead Sea Scrolls , and More Light on the Dead Sea Scrolls 
(New York 1955 and 1958); F. M. Cross, The Ancient Library of Qumran and 
Modern Biblical Study (London 1958); J. T. Milik, Ten Years of Discovery in the 
Wilderness of Judaea (London 1959); A. Dupont-Sommer, The Essene Writings 
from Qumran (Oxford 1961); G. R. Driver, The Judaean Scrolls (Oxford 1965); 
G. Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls: Qumran in Perspective (London 1977). 

More detailed information can be found in the chapter on ‘Qumran Sectarian 
Literature’ by D. Dimant, in Michael E. Stone (ed.), Jewish Writings of the Sec- 
ond Temple Period (Compendia Rerum Judaicarum n/2)(Philadelphia 1984) 
483-550 and in the chapter ‘The Writings of the Qumran Community’ in E. 
Schtirer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ ( 175 B. C.-A. 
D. 135). A New English Version revised and edited by G. Vermes, F. Millar 
and M. Goodman. Volume ill. 1 (Edinburgh 1986) 380-469. 


Notes to the Introduction 


lx notes pages xxxi-xxxiii 

1 F. M. Cross, ‘The Discovery of the Samaritan Papyri’, ba 26 (1963) 110-121; 
-‘Papyri of the Fourth Century bc from Daliyeh: A Preliminary Report on 
Their Discovery and Significance’ in D. N. Freedman and J. C. Greenfield, 
(eds.) New Directions in Biblical Archaeology (Garden City 1971) 48-31;- ‘A 
Report on the Samaria Papyri’, in J. A. Emerton, (ed.), xii Congress of the toso r 
(Leiden 1988) = Congress Volume Jerusalem 1986. 

2 Paul and Nancy Lapp, Discoveries in the Wadi ed-Daliyeh (aasor 41 ; Missoula 
1974)- 

3 F. M. Cross, ‘Samaria Papyrus 1: An Aramaic Slave Conveyance of 335 bce 
found the in Wadi ed-Daliyeh’, ei 18 (1985) 7-17. 

4 For a complete description of all the manuscripts as well as references concern- 
ing publication see the ‘List of manuscripts from Qumran’ at the end of this 
book. ' 

5 A frag, of Gn with traces of Gn 47 : 7-1 1; a frag, of Lv with traces of Lv 4:3-9 
and a copy of Pss. On this last ms see G. W. Nebe, ‘Die Masada-Psalmen- 
Handschrift m 1039-160 nach einem jiingst veroffentlichten Photo mit Text 
von Psalm 81 : 2-85 : 6’, rq 14/53(1989) 89-97. 

6 Y\adin, The Ben Sira Scroll from Masada: With Introduction, Emendations and 
Commentary (Jerusalem 1965) [Hebrew], 

7 C. Newsom and Y. Yadin, ‘The Masada Fragment of the Qumran Songs of the 
Sabbath Sacrifice’, iej j, 4 (1984) 77-88. 

8 Some of these fragments have been published by S. Talmon, ‘Fragments of the 
Scrolls from Masada’, ei 20 (1989) 278-286. 

9 Only two volumes in the series Masada reports have appeared: Yigael Yadin and 
Joseph Naveh, Masada I: The Aramaic Coins of Masada (The Yigael Yadin 
Excavations 1963-1965: Final Reports) (Jerusalem 1989) and Hannah Cotton 
and Joseph Geiger, Masada II: The Latin and Greek Documents (The Yigael 
Yadin Excavations 1963-1965: Final Reports) (Jerusalem 1989). 

10 Y. Yadin, ‘The excavation of Masada- 1963/64: Preliminary Report’, iej 15 
(1965) 1-120, esp. 81-82, 103-114. 

11 P. Benoit, J. T. Milik and R. de Vaux, Les Grottes de Murahba 1 at (Discoveries 
in the Judaean Desert 11) (Clarendon Press, Oxford 1961). 

12 An extensive preliminary report of both campaigns was published in iej 11 
0961) 3~7 2 an d IE J 12 (1962) 167-262, and of the excavation of the ‘Cave of 
Letters’ the definitive report: Y. Yadin, The Finds from the Bar Kokhba Period 
in the Cave of Letters (Judaean Desert Studies) (Hebrew University /Israel Ex- 
ploration Society, Jerusalem 1963). 

13 Y. Yadin, ‘Expedition D-The Cave of Letters’, iej 12 (1962) 235-248. 

H H.J.Polotsky, ‘The Greek Papyri from the Cave of Letters’, iej 12 (1962)258- 
262. 

*5 H.J. Polotsky, ‘Three Greek Documents from the Family Archive of Babatha’, 
ei 8 (1967) 46-5 1 [in Hebrew] and N. Lewis, R. Katzoff, J. C. Greenfield, ‘Papy- 


notes pages xxxiii-xxxiv lxi 

rus Yadin 18’, iej 37 (1987) 229-250. 

16 The Documents from the Bar-Kokhba Period in the Cave of Letters. Greek Papyri 
edited by N. Lewis. Aramaic and Nabataean Signatures and Subscriptions ed- 
ited by Y. Yadin and J. C. Greenfield (Judaean Desert Studies 11) (Jerusalem 
1989). 

17 Described and published in part by Y. Yadin, 'The Expedition o’, iej 1 1 (1961) 
40-52. Two of the Greek papyri were published by B.Lifshitz, ‘Papyrus grecs 
du desert de ]\idz\Aegyptus 42 (1962) 240-256. A large part of the Hebrew and 
Aramaic papyri can be found transcribed and commented on in E. Y. Kutscher, 
‘The Languages of the Hebrew and Aramaic Letters of Bar Kokhba and His 
Contemporaries’ [in Hebrew] Lesh 25 (1960-61) 117-133; 26 (1961-62) 7-23. 

18 Described and published provisionally by Y. Yadin, ‘Expedition D-The Cave 
of Letters’, iej 12 (1962) 248-257. 

19 See Y. Yadin, Bar-Kohkba. The Rediscovery of the Legendary Hero of the Second 
Jewish Revolt against Rome (Weidenfield & Nicolson London 1971). 

20 Y. Aharoni, ‘Expedition B-The Cave of Horror’, iej 12 (1962) 186-199; B. 
Lifshitz, ‘The Greek Documents from the Cave of Horror’, iej 12 (1962) 201- 
207. 

21 B. Lifshitz, ‘The Greek Documents from the Cave of Horror’, iej 12 (1962) 
201-207. The same applies to the Nabataean contract published by J. Starcky, 
‘Un contrat nabateen sur papyrus’, rb 61 (1954) 161-181, identified by Y. 
Yadin, ‘Expedition D-The Cave of the Letters’, iej 12 (1962) 229 as coming 
from Nahal Hever. 

22 E. Tov, The Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever ( 8 HevXIIgr) (The 
Seival Collection i/Discoveries in the Judaean Desert vm) (Oxford 1990). 

23 Some of the documents in this collection have been published provisionally: 
the Nabataean contract cited in note 21, edited by J. Starcky; J. T. Milik, ‘Un 
contrat juif de l’an 134 apres J.-C.’, rb 61 (1954) 182-190; J. T. Milik, ‘Deux 
documents inedits du Desert de Juda’, Bib 38 (1957) 245-268. 

24 A certain number of these documents have also been published in provisional 
form: B. Lifshitz, ‘The Greek Documents from Nahal Seelim and Nahal 
Mishmar’, iej 11 ((1961) 11-24; M. Broshi-E. Qimron, ‘A House Sale Deed 
from Kefar Baru from the Time of Bar Kohkba’, /£y 36 (1986) 201-214; Jonas 
Greenfield has given a general description of the material as yet unpublished: 
‘The Texts from Nahal Se’elim (Wadi Seiyal)’ in: J. Trebolle Barrera and L. 
Vegas Montaner (eds.), The Madrid Qumran Congress. Proceedings of the Interna- 
tional Congress on the Dead Sea Scrolls (Stjd, 1 1) (Leiden/Madrid 1992) 661- 
665. 

25 P. Bar Adon, ‘Expedition c’, iej 11 (1961) 25-35; B.Lifshitz, ‘Three Greek 
Documents from Nahal Seelim and Nahal Mishmar’, iej 11 (1961) 59-60. 

26 Only a few' have been published: J. T. Milik, ‘Une inscription et une lettre en 
arameen christo-palestinien’, rb(so (1953) 526-539; C. Perrot, ‘Un fragment 


Ixii notes pages xxxiv-xxxviii 

christo-palestinien decouvert a Khirbet Mird’, rb 70 (1963) 506-555; A. 
Grohman, Papyri from Khirbet el-Mird (Bibliotheque du Museon 52) 

(Louvain 1963). 

27 E. L. Sukenik, The Dead Sea Scrolls of the Hebrew University (Jerusalem 1955) 
13-17; M. Burrows, The Dead Sea Scrolls (London 1956) 3-69; J. C.Trever, The 
Dead Sea Scrolls. A Personal Account (Grand Rapids 1977) (an expanded version 
of his The Untold Story of Qumran of 1965); A. Y. Samuel, Treasure of Qumran. 
My Story of the Dead Sea Scrolls (London 1968). Other information is to be 
found in the articles published by Burrows, Brownlee and Trever in various 
issues of the Biblical Archeologist and of basor for 1948 and 1949 as well as in 
/f <? from 1961 to 1964. 

28 See, for example, the chapter ‘Discovering the Scrolls’ by H. T. Frank in H. 
Shanks, (ed.), Understanding the Dead Sea Scrolls (New York 1992) 4-19, or the 
more recent and detailed account by H. Stegemann, Die Essener, Qumran , 
Johannes der Taufer und Jesus. Ein Sachbuch (Spektrum 4249) (Freiburg 1993). 

29 M. Burrows with the assistance of J. C. Trever and W. H. Brownlee, The Dead 
Sea Scrolls of St. Mark 's Monastery. Volume 1: The Isaiah Manuscript and the 
Habakkuk Commentary (New Haven 1950). 

30 M. Burrows with the assistance of J. C. Trever and W. H. Brownlee, The Dead 
Sea Scrolls of St. Mark’s Monastery. Volume 11. Fascicle 2: Plates and Tran- 
scription of the Manual of Discipline (New Haven 1951). The first annotated 
translation of the text by W. H. Brownlee, The Dead Sea Manual of Discipline 
(basor Supplementary Studies 10-12) (New Haven 1951) appeared simulta- 
neously. 

31 E. L. Sukenik , c Ozar ham-megilot hagenuzot (Jerusalem 1954); English version: 
The Dead Sea Scrolls of the Hebrew University (Jerusalem 1955). 

32 N. Avigad and Yigael Yadin,^ Genesis Apocryphon. A Scroll from the Wilderness 
of Judaea (Jerusalem 1956). 

33 The articles by the American team in ba and basor-. J. C. Trever, ‘The Dis- 
covery of the Scrolls’, ba 11 (1948) 46-57; -‘Preliminary Observations on the 
Jerusalem Scrolls’, basor 111 (1948) 3-i 6;-‘A Palaeographic Study of the 
Jerusalem Scrolls’, basor 113 (1949) 6-23; -‘Variant Readings in the Isaiah 
Manuscript’, basor 111 (1948) 16-24; 113 (1948)24-31; W.H. Brownlee, ‘The 
Jerusalem Habakkuk Scroll’, basor 1 12 (1948) 8-18 as well as the first volume 
by E. L. Sukenik, Megilloth Genuzoth (Jerusalem 1950). 

34 D. Barthelemy and J. T. Milik, Discoveries in the Judaean Desert I: Qumran Cave 
1 (Oxford 1955). The photographic reproduction of manuscripts iqj 1-772 did 
not appear until 1966: J. C. Trever, ‘Completion of the Publication of Some 
Fragments from Qumran Cave 1’, rq 5 (1964-66) 323-344, PI. i-vii. 

35 R. de Vaux, ‘Fouilles au Khirbet Qumran: Rapport preliminaire’, RBbo (1953) 
83-106;-, ‘Fouilles au Khirbet Qumran: Rapport preliminaire sur la deuxieme 
campagne’, rb 61 (1954) 206-236; - ‘Chronique archeologique: Khirbet 


notes pages xxxviii-xliii 


lxiii 


Qumran’,y?B6i(i954)567-568;-‘Chroniquearcheologique:KhirbetQumran’, 
RB 63 (1956) 73-74. 

36 Published in 1961: R. de Vaux, L’archeologie et les manuscripts de la Mer Morte 
(London 1961) and in considerably revised form in the English translation of 
197 3 '.Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls (London 1973). 

37 The same conclusion is reached by E. M. Laperrousaz in his detailed analysis 
of the archaeological evidence: Qumran. L’etablissement essenien au bord de la 
Mer Morte (Paris 1976) and in his contribution on archaeology in the collective 
article Qumran in the Supplement au Dictionaire de la Bible 51, cols. 744-789. 

38 See my study: ‘Origenes del movimiento esenio y origenes qumranicos. Pistas 
para una solucion’ in V. Collado-Bertomeu and V. Villar-Hueso (eds.), II 
simposio biblio espanol (valencia-cordoba 1987) 527-556, esp. 535-539. 

39 The reader will find a summary of the history of Palestine for this whole period 
in my contribution to the history and institutions of the biblical people from 
alexander the great to bar kohkba, in the collective work la biblia en su entorno 
(estella 1990) 241-334. 

40 R. de Vaux, ‘fouilles de feshka: rapport preliminaire’, J?s66 (1959) 223-255 and 
archaeology and the dead sea scrolls , 60-87. 

41 J. B. Humbert, Tespace sacre a qumran. Propositions pour l’archeologie’, rb 
101 (1954) 161-214. 

42 M. Baillet, j. T. Milik and r. de vaux, discoveries in the desert of jordan III: Les 
‘Petites Grottes' de Qiimrdn (Oxford 1962). 

43 Discoveries in the Judaean Desert VI: Qumran Grotte 4 II: Archeologie, par R. 
de Vaux. u. Tefillin, Mezuzot et Targums (4Q128-4Q157) par J.T. Milik (Ox- 
ford 1977) 3-5. 

44 After his death his share of the manuscripts was assigned to E. Puech, who had 
collaborated with Starcky in the preparation of these texts for many years. 

45 John M. Allegro, with the cooperation of A. A. Anderson, Qumran Cave 4. I 
(4Q158-4Q186) (Discoveries in the Judaean Desert of Jordan v) (Oxford 1969). 
It comprises an edition which can only be used if the hundred pages of correc- 
tions provided by John Strugnell, ‘Notes en marge du Volume V des “Discov- 
eries in the Judaean Desert of Jordan’”, rq 7 (1970) 163-276 are taken into 
account. 

46 M. Baillet, Qumran Grotte 4.III (4Q482-4Q530) (Discoveries in the Judaean 
Desert vii) (Oxford 1982). 

47 The reader will find the appropriate references in the ‘List of manuscripts 
from Qumran’ at the end of this book. 

48 In addition to djd v, vi and vii, quoted already, the first volume of the biblical 
texts allotted to Skehan has been published: P. W. Skehan, E. Ulrich, J. 
Sanderson, Qumran Cave 4. IV ( Palaeo-Hebrew and Greek BibhcalManuscripts) 
(djd ix; Oxford 1992). The second volume of Skehan’s lot and the first by 
Cross are forthcoming. 


lxiv 


notes pages xliii-xlvi 


49 Published byj. A. Sanders, The Psalms Scroll of Qumran Cave 11 (iiqPs“) (Dis- 
coveries in the Judaean Desert of Jordan iv) (Oxford 1965). 

50 Published by D. N. Freedman and K. A. Mathews, with a contribution by R. S. 
Hanson, The Paleo-Hehrew Leviticus Scroll (1 lQpaleLev) (asor 1985). 

51 W. H. Brownlee, ‘The Scroll of Ezekiel from the Eleventh Qumran Cave’, r q 
4 (1963-64) 11-28, PI. ii-iii. 

52 Published by J. P. M. van der Ploeg and A . S. van der Woude, with the col labo- 
ration of B.Jongeling, Le targum de fob de lagrotte xide Qumran (Leiden 1971). 

53 Published by J. P. M. van der Ploeg, ‘Un petit rouleau de psaumes apocryphes 
(liQPsAp 3 )’, Tradition und Glaube , 128-139, P* s - n-vn, and by F. Garcia 
Martinez, ‘The Last Surviving Columns of iiqnj’, The Scriptures and the 
Scrolls, 178-192, pis. 3-9. 

54 See the pertinent references in the ‘List of manuscripts from Qumran’ at the 
end of this book. 

55 Y. Yadin, Megillat ham-Miqdash. The Temple Scroll [in Hebrew] (three volumes 
with a supplement) (Jerusalem 1977). The et appeared in 1983. 

56 Materials for the Dictionary. Series I. 200 BCE- 300 ce. The Academy of the 
Hebrew Language. Historical Dictionary of the Hebrew Language, Jerusalem 
1988 [Microfiche]. 

57 The Aramaic texts are assembled in K. Beyer, Die aramdischen Texte vom Toten 
Meer samt den Inschriften aus Palastina , dem Testament Levis aus der Kairoer 
Genisa, Der Fastenrolle und den alten talmudischen Zitaten (Gottingen 1984). 

58 S. Zeitlin, ‘A Commentary on the Book of Habakkuk: Important Discovery or 
Hoax?’, jqr 39 (1949) 235-247;-, The Dead Sea Scrolls and Modern Scholarship 
(JQRMS 3) (Philadelphia 1956). 

58 O. R. Seller, ‘Radiocarbon dating of Cloth from the c Ain Feshka Cave’, basor 
123 (1951) 24-26. 

60 F. E. Zeuner, ‘Notes on Qumran’, peq 92 (i960) 27-36. The date given by 
Zeuner is the year 66 ce since he adds to the date attained about 50 years for 
the average life of a palm-tree, but, as E. M. Laperrousaz points out, this addi- 
tion is unnecessary since what Carbon 14 (the Carbon 14 test) determines is the 
date when the tree was cut down. See E. M. Laperrousaz, ‘La datation des 
objets provenant de Qumran, en particulier la methode utilisant les proprietes 
du Carbone 14’ in M. Delcor, (ed.), Qumran. Sa piete, sa theologie et son milieu 
(betl 46) (Paris/Leuven 1978) 55-60. 

61 D. Burton, J. B. Poole and R. Reed, ‘A New Approach to the Dating of the 
Dead Sea Scrolls’, Nature 184 (1959) 533-534. 

62 C. Roth, The Historical Background of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Oxford 1958). 

63 In his important book Thefudaean Scrolls. The Problem and a Solution (Oxford 
1965) and in subsequent articles, where he attempts to refute the objections 
raised against him: ‘Myths of Qumran’, a l uos 6 ( 1966-68) 23-40 and ‘Mythol- 
ogy of Qumran’, jqr 71 (1970) 241-281. 


NOTES PAGES xlvi -1 


lxv 


64 J. L. Teicher, ‘The Dead Sea Scrolls -Documents of the Jewish-Christian Sect 
of Ebionites’, //S2 (1951) 67-99;-, ‘The Damascus fragments and the Origin 
of the Jewish Christian Sect ’,//52 (1951) 115-143;-, ‘The Teaching of the 
pre-Pauline Church in the Dead Sea Scrolls’, jjs \ (1953) 1-13, etc. 

65 B. E. Thiering, Redating the Teacher of Righteousness (Sydney 1979);-, The Gos- 
pels and Qumran. A Netp Hypothesis (Sydney 198 1); - The Qumran Origins of the 
Christian Church (Sydney 1983). 

66 R. Eisenman, Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran (Leiden 1983) and 
fames the fust in the Habakkuk Pesher (Leiden 1986). 

67 W. F. Albright, ‘A Biblical Fragment from the Maccabaean Ages: The Nash 
Papyrus’, jbl 56 (1937) 145-176. 

68 S. A. Birnbaum, The Qumran (Dead Sea) Scrolls and Palaeography (basor 
Supp. Studies 13-14; New Haven 1952);-, The Hebrew Script (Leiden 1971). 

69 N. Avigad, ‘The Palaeography of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Documents’ 
in C. Rabin and Y. Yadin (eds.), Aspects of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Scripta 
Hierosolymitana iv; Jerusalem 1958) 56-87. 

70 F. M. Cross, ‘The Development of the Jewish Scripts’ in G. E. Wright (ed.), 
The Bible and the Ancient Near East. Essays in Honor of William Foxwell Albright 
(Garden City 1965) 170-264. 

71 W. Wolfi, ‘Advances in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry’, Nucl. Instrum Meth. 
B29 (1987) 1-13. 

72 The inclusion of dated manuscripts (a fact unknown to those making the analy- 
sis) was for the purpose of checking the accuracy of the technique used. 

73 See G. Bonani, M. Broshi, I. Carmi, S. Ivy, J. Strugnell and W. Wolfi, ‘Radio- 
carbon Dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls’, c Atiqot 20 (1991) 27-32. 

74 The only exception is the manuscript of the Aramaic Testament of Qahat , for 
which the Carbon 14 method ascribes a date much earlier than that attributed 
to it by the palaeographers. Specimens of this manuscript, cleaned by ultra- 
sound, yield dates earlier by about 350 years than specimens of the same manu- 
scripts cleaned chemically, which seems to suggest that the leather became very 
contaminated by the chemicals used to clean it. This contamination could ex- 
plain that in this case the date established by the Carbon 14 method (between 
388 and 353 bce) is almost 200 years earlier than the date ascribed to it by 
palaeographers. 

75 Cave 7 is a special case. All the manuscripts recovered from it are in Greek, and 
to the extent to which they can be identified, they all comprise biblical material. 

76 This calendar is to be found as part of several copies of such typical sectarian 
works as iqs or 4QMMT, is followed consistently in compositions such as 
tiQTemple , and is implicit in works such as lQpHab, and its organization, its 
effects and the fact that it was revealed are all made explicit in works such as 
CD and fubilees. 

77 N. Golb, ‘The Problem of Origin and Identification of the Dead Sea Scrolls’, 


lxvi 


NOTES pages li-liii 


paps 124 (1980) 1-24;-, ‘Who Hid the Dead Sea Scrolls?’, BA 28 (1987) 68-82; 

‘Les manuscrits de la Mer Morte: Une nouvelle approche du probleme de 
leur origin C.Annales £SC40 (1987) 1133-1149;-, ‘Who Wrote the Dead Sea 
Scrolls?’, The Sciences 27 (1987) 40-49;-, ‘The Dead Sea Scrolls’, The American 
Scholar 58 (1989) 177-207; ‘Khirbet Qumran and the Manuscripts of the 
Judaean Wilderness: Observations on the Logic of Their Investigation’, jnes 
49 (1990) 103-114. 

78 Although expressed independently, this theory of Golb’s does little except 
revive the old and deservedly abandoned hypothesis of K. H. Rengstorf, Hirbet 
Qumran und die Bibliothek vom Toten Meer (Studia Delitzschiana 5; Stuttgart 
i960), which conjectured that the manuscripts in question came from the Tem- 
ple in Jerusalem, and were hidden in the caves for reasons of safekeeping dur- 
ing thfe revolt against Rome. 

79 In F. Garcia Martinez and A. S. van der Woude, ‘A “Groningen” Hypothesis 
of Qumran Origins and Early History’, in F. Garcia Martinez (ed.), The Texts 
of Qumran and the History of the Community. Vol. ///(Paris 1990) 521-554. 

80 This information has been collected in A. Adam and C. Burchard, Antike 
Berichte iiher die Essener (Berlin 1972 2 ) and in G. Vermes and M. D. Goodman, 
The Essenes According to the Classical Sources (Sheffield 1989). 

81 These similarities are to be found both in respect of the structure of the com- 
munity-prominence of the priestly aspect, admission procedures for members, 
property in common, preference for celibacy, communal meals, etc. - and in 
religious belief- predestination (determinism), severe rules for purity, sabbath 
observance, forswearing of oaths, importance of study of the Law, etc. and 
even particular points of halakhah ostensibly insignificant, but for that very 
reason even more telling such as the refusal to use oil or the ban on spitting in 
the Council. See the summary of parallels drawn up by A. Dupont-Sommer, 
Les Ecrits esseniens decouverts pres de la Mer Morte (Paris 1983 4 ) 5 1-80 or by G. 
Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls. Qumran in Perspective (Philadelphia 1981) 116- 
136 or the detailed references by T. S. Beall, Josephus 's description of the Essenes 
illustrated by the Dead Sea Scrolls (sntsm 58; Cambridge 1988). H. Stegemann, 
‘The Qumran Essenes - Local Members of the Main Jewish Union in Late 
Second Temple Times’ in J. Trebolle Barrera, L. Vegas Montaner (eds.), The 
Madrid Qumran Congress , 83-166 have gone so far as to identify the Qumran 
Essenes with what he calls ‘the main Jewish Union’, the leading group of Pales- 
tinian Judaism. 

82 In my contribution to the ‘Simposio biblico de Cordoba’, 1985: ‘Origenes del 
movimiento esenio y origenes qumranicos. Pistas para una solucion’, cited 
above, n. 38. 

83 See my study ‘Essenisme qumranien: origines, caracteristiques, heritage’ in B. 
Chiesa (ed.), Correnti culturali e movimenti religiosi de! Giudaismo (Testi e Studi 
5; Rome 1987) 37-57. 


NOTES PAGES li-lv 


lxvii 


84 First advanced at a congress organized by the Polish Academy of Science in 
Mogilany, in 1987: F. Garcia Martinez, ‘Qumran Origins and Early History: 
A Groningen Hypothesis’, fo 25 (1988) 113-136. 

85 See my book Qumran and Apocalyptic. Studies on the Aramaic Texts of Qumran 
(STDJ 9; Leiden 1992). For a summary view of the connections between the 
Qumran manuscripts and apocalyptic, see my contribution ‘La Apocaliptica y 
Qumran’ in II Simposio Biblico Espanol , 603-613. 

86 I have discussed some of these topics in detail in ‘El Rollo del Templo y la 
halaka sectaria’ in N. Fernandez Marcos, J. Trebolle Barrera and J. Fernandez 
Vallina (eds.), Simposio Biblico Espanol (Madrid 1984) 611-622 and in ‘II 
problema della purita: la soluzione qumranica’ in G. L. Prato, (ed.), Israele alia 
ricerca di identita tra il III sec. a. C. e il sec. I d. C. (Ricerche storico bibliche 1; 
Bologna 1989) 169-191. 

87 See my study ‘Profeet en profetie in de geschriften van Qumran’ in F. Garcia 
Martinez, C. H.J. de Geus and A. F. J. Klijn, (eds.), Profeten en profetische 
geschriften (Kampen/Nijkerk 1987) 119-132. 

88 Set out in the article by A. S. van der Woude, ‘Wicked Priest or Wicked 
Priests? Reflections on the Identification of the Wicked Priest of the Habakkuk 
Commentary’, jsj 33 (1982) 349-359. My contribution to this part of the 
‘Groningen Hypothesis’ is confined to proving that the title ‘Wicked Priest’ 
could equally have been applied to Judas Maccabaeus, ‘Judas Macabeo, 
sacerdote impio? Notas al margen de lQpHab vm, 8-13’ in A. Caquot, S. 
Legasse and M. Tardieu (eds.), Melanges btbliques et orientaux en Vhonneurde M. 
Mathias Dehor (aoat 215; Kevelaer/Neukirchen-Vluyn 1985) 169-181. 



Rules 


2 


RULES 


This chapter contains those texts which can be called ‘Rules’, texts that serve 
to establish the group or groups for which they are intended. These writings 
are not restricted to listing specific regulations concerning the way of life to be 
followed by the group, to describing the internal hierarchical organization, to 
setting out disciplinary procedures or how to associate with those who are not 
members of the sect. They include, in fact, much else besides: theological es- 
says, meditations on biblical history, exegetical commentaries, recommenda- 
tions on moral issues, and even unmistakably liturgical topics. This unique 
literary form, previously unknown in ancient Judaism, was to develop exten- 
sively within early Christianity and in later monastic communities. These 
‘Rules’ are unquestionably the most typical of all the documents from the 
Qumran library. 

The two principal texts of this chapter, the Rule of the Community and the 
Damascus Document, clearly show the marks of the continual revision they have 
undergone over a long period before reaching the form shown in the best pre- 
served manuscripts. Both documents are composites, and the various copies 
recovered give us an idea of the different shapes in which these ‘Rules’ were 
moulded. Close analysis of these different forms will make it possible to sketch 
the development and changes which the group (or groups) experienced, of 
those for which they were intended for different periods, and to establish the 
connections among these groups. 

Reasons of space preclude setting out the fragments of the various copies of 
each document in synoptic form, using parallel columns. Several of these cop- 
ies comprise separate versions, but its is impossible to determine whether all 
the elements preserved in the different copies were at one time present in a 
single text. Accordingly, it is not feasible to offer a composite version, as a re- 
construction of a hypothetical master text, from the material preserved in the 
different manuscripts. 


IQS I I-25 


THE RULE OF THE COMMUNITY 


3 


1 The Rule of the Community 
A The Cave 1 Copy 
tQRule of the Community (tQS) 

Col. 1 1 For [the Instructor. [book of the Rul)e of the Community: in order 
to 2 seek God [with all (one’s) heart and with all (one’s) soul; in order] to do 
what is good and just in his presence, as 3 commanded by means of the hand 
of Moses and his servants the Prophets; in order to love everything 4 which he 
selects and to hate everything that he rejects; in order to keep oneself at a dis- 
tance from all evil, 5 and to become attached to all good works; to bring about 
truth, justice and uprightness 6 on earth and not to walk in the stubbornness 
of a guilty heart and of lecherous eyes 7 performing every evil; in order to wel- 
come into the covenant of kindness all those who freely volunteer to carry out 
God’s decrees, 8 so as to be united in the counsel of God and walk in perfection 
in his sight, complying with all g revealed things concerning the regulated times 
of their stipulations; in order to love all the sons of light, each one w according 
to his lot in God’s plan, and to detest all the sons of darkness, each one in ac- 
cordance with his blame 11 in God’s vindication. All those who submit freely 
to his truth will convey all their knowledge, their energies, 12 and their riches 
to the Community of God in order to refine their knowledge in the truth of 
God’s decrees and marshal their energies 13 in accordance with his perfect 
paths and all their riches in accordance with his just counsel. They shall not 
stray from any one 1 4 of all God’s orders concerning their appointed times; 
they shall not advance their appointed times nor shall they retard 15 any one of 
their feasts. They shall not veer from his reliable precepts in order to go either 
to the right or to the left. 16 And all those who enter in the Rule of the Com- 
munity shall establish a covenant before God in order to carry out 1 7 all that he 
commands and in order not to stray from following him for any fear, dread or 
grief 18 that might occur during the dominion of Belial. When they enter the 
covenant, the priests ig and the levites shall bless the God of salvation and all 
the works of his faithfulness and all 20 those who enter the covenant shall re- 
peat after them: ‘Amen, Amen’. Blank 21 Blank The priests shall recite the just 
deeds of God in his mighty works, 22 and they shall proclaim all his merciful 
favours towards Israel. And the levites shall recite 23 the sins of the children of 
Israel, all their blameworthy transgressions and their sins during the dominion 
of 24 Belial. [And all] those who enter the covenant shall confess after them and 
they shall say: 

«We have acted sinfully, 

25 [we have transgressed, 


4 


RULES 


IQS I 25 - II 14 


we have si]nned, we have acted irreverently, 
we and our fathers before us, 
inasmuch as we walk 

26 [in the opposite direction to the precepts] of truth and justice 
[...] his judgment upon us and upon our fathers; 

Col. 11 1 but he has showered on us his merciful favour 

for ever and ever» 

And the priests will bless all 2 the men of God’s lot who walk unblemished in 
all his paths and they shall say: 

«May he bless you with everything good, 

3 and may he protect you from everything bad. 

May he illuminate your heart with the discernment of life 
and grace you with eternal knowledge. 

4 May he lift upon you the countenance of his favour 
for eternal peace». 

And the levites shall curse all the men of 5 of the lot of Belial. They shall begin 
to speak and shall say: 

«Accursed are you for all your wicked, blameworthy deeds. 

May he (God) hand you over to dread 

6 into the hands of all those carrying out acts of vengeance. 

7 Accursed, without mercy, 

for the darkness of your deeds, 
and sentenced 

8 to the gloom of everlasting fire. 

May God not be merciful when you entreat him, 
nor pardon you when you do penance for your faults. 
g May he lift the countenance of his anger to avenge himself on you, 
and may there be no peace for you 
in the mouth of those who intercede)). 

10 And all those who enter the covenant shall say, after those who pronounce 
blessings and those who pronounce curses: «Amen, Amen». 

1 1 Blank And the priests and the levites shall continue, saying: 

«Cursed by the idols which his heart reveres 

12 whoever enters this covenant 

leaving his guilty obstacle in front of himself 
to fall over it. 

13 When he hears the words of this covenant, 

he will congratulate himself in his heart, saying: 

‘I will have peace, 

14 in spite of my walking in the stubbornness of my heart’. 

However, his spirit will be obliterated, 


IQS II 14 — III 10 


THE RULE OF THE COMMUNITY 


5 


the dry with the moist, mercilessly. 

75 May God’s anger and the wrath of his verdicts 
consume him for everlasting destruction. 

16 May all the curses of this covenant 
stick fast to him. 

May God segregate him for evil, 

and may he be cut off from the midst of all the sons of light 
because of his straying from following God 

77 on account of his idols and his blameworthy obstacle. 

May he assign his lot with the cursed ones for ever». 

18 And all those who enter the covenant shall begin speaking and shall say after 
them: «Amen, Amen». Blank 79 Blank They shall act in this way year after year, 
all the days of Belial’s dominion. The priests shall enter 20 the Rule foremost, 
one behind the other, according to their spirits. And the levites shall enter after 
them. 27 In third place all the people shall enter the Rule, one after another, in 
thousands, hundreds, 22 fifties and tens, so that all the children of Israel may 
know their standing in God’s Community 23 in conformity with the eternal 
plan. And no-one shall move down from his rank nor move up from the place 
of his lot. 24 For all shall be in a single Community of truth, of proper meek- 
ness, of compassionate love and upright purpose, 25 towards each other in the 
holy council, associates of an everlasting society. And anyone who declines to 
enter [the covenant of Go]d in order to walk in the stubbornness of his heart 
shall not [enter the Comjmunity of his truth, since 

Col. in 7 his soul loathes the restraints of knowledge of just judgment. He has 
not remained constant in the transformation of his life and shall not be counted 
with the upright. 2 His knowledge, his energy and his wealth shall not enter the 
council of the Community because he ploughs] in the slime of irreverence and 
there are stains 3 on his conversion. He shall not be justified while he maintains 
the stubbornness of his heart, since he regards darkness as paths to light. In the 
source of the perfect 4 he shall not be counted. He will not become clean by the 
acts of atonement, nor shall he be purified by the cleansing waters, nor shall he 
be made holy by the seas $ or rivers, nor shall he be purified by all the water of 
the ablutions. Defiled, defiled shall he be all the days he spurns the decrees 

6 of God, without allowing himself to be taught by the Community of his 
counsel. For, by the spirit of the true counsel concerning the paths of man all 

7 his sins are atoned so that he can look at the light of life. And by the spirit of 
holiness which links him with his truth he is cleansed of all 8 his sins. And by 
the spirit of uprightness and of humility his sin is atoned. And by the compli- 
ance of his soul with all the laws of God his flesh 9 is cleansed by being sprin- 
kled with cleansing waters and being made holy with the waters of repentance. 
May he, then, steady his steps in order to walk with perfection 10 on all the 


6 


RULES 


IQS III 10-1V 7 


paths of God, conforming to all he has decreed concerning the regular times 
of his commands and not turn aside, either left or right, nor u infringe even 
one of his words. In this way he w ill be admitted by means of atonement pleas- 
ing to God, and for him it w ill be the covenant 12 of an everlasting Community. 
Blank 13 Blank For the wise man, that he may inform and teach all the sons of 
light about the history of all the sons of man, 14 concerning all the ranks of 
their spirits, in accordance with their signs, concerning their deeds and their 
generations, and concerning the visitation of their punishment and 15 the mo- 
ment of their reward. From the God of knowledge stems all there is and all 
there shall be. Before they existed he made all their plans 16 and when they 
came into being they will execute all their works in compliance with his in- 
structions, according to his glorious design without altering anything. In his 
hand are 17 the laws of all things and he supports them in all their needs. He 
created man to rule 18 the world and placed within him two spirits so that he 
would walk with them until the moment of his visitation: they are the spirits 
of truth and of deceit. 20 In the hand of the Prince of Lights is dominion over 
all the sons of justice; they walk on paths of light. And in the hand of the An- 
gel 21 of Darkness is total dominion over the sons of deceit; they walk on paths 
of darkness. Due to the Angel of Darkness 22 all the sons of justice stray, and 
all their sins, their iniquities, their failings and their mutinous deeds are under 
his dominion 23 in compliance with the mysteries of God, until his moment; 
and all their punishments and their periods of grief are caused by the dominion 
of his enmity; 24 and all the spirits of their lot cause the sons of light to fall. 
However, the God of Israel and the angel of his truth assist all 25 the sons of 
light. He created the spirits of light and of darkness and on them established 
all his deeds 26 [on their pjaths all his labours <and on their paths [all] his 
[labours.]). God loved one of them for all 

Col. iv f eternal ages and in all his deeds he takes pleasure for ever; of the other 
one he detests his advice and hates all his paths forever. Blank 2 Blank These are 
their paths in the world: to enlighten the heart of man, straighten out in front 
of him all the paths of justice and truth, establish in his heart respect for the 
precepts 3 of God; it is a spirit of meekness, of patience, generous compassion, 
eternal goodness, intelligence, understanding, potent wisdom which trusts in 
all 4 the deeds of God and depends on his abundant mercy; a spirit of knowl- 
edge in all the plans of action, of enthusiasm for the decrees of justice, 5 of holy 
plans with firm purpose, of generous compassion with all the sons of truth, of 
magnificent purity which detests all unclean idols, of unpretentious behaviour 
6 with moderation in everything, of prudence in respect of the truth concerning 
the mysteries of knowledge. These are the counsels of the spirit for the sons 
of truth in the world. And the visitation of whose who walk in it will be for 
healing, 7 plentiful peace in a long life, fruitful offspring with all everlasting 


IQS IV 7-25 


THE RULE OF THE COMMUNITY 


7 


blessings, eternal enjoyment with endless life, and a crown of glory 8 with ma- 
jestic raiment in eternal light. Blank 9 Blank However, to the spirit of deceit 
belong greed, frailty of hands in the service of justice, irreverence, deceit, pride 
and haughtiness of heart, dishonesty, trickery, cruelty, 10 much insincerity, 
impatience, much insanity, impudent enthusiasm, appalling acts performed in 
a lustful passion, filthy paths for indecent purposes, u blasphemous tongue, 
blindness of eyes, hardness of hearing, stiffness of neck, hardness of heart in 
order to walk in all the paths of darkness and evil cunning. And the visitation 
12 of those who walk in it will be for a glut of punishments at the hands of all 
the angels of destruction, for eternal damnation for the scorching wrath of the 
God of revenge, for permanent error and shame 13 without end with the humil- 
iation of destruction by the fire of the dark regions. And all the ages of their 
generations they shall spend in bitter weeping and harsh evils in the abysses of 
darkness until 14 their destruction, without there being a remnant or a survivor 
among them. Blank 75 Blank In these lies the history of all men; in their (two) 
divisions all their armies have a share by their generations; in their paths they 
walk; every deed 16 they do falls into their divisions, dependent on what might 
be the birthright of the man, great or small, for all eternal time. For God has 
sorted them into equal parts until the 1 7 last day and has put an everlasting 
loathing between their divisions. Deeds of injustice are an abhorrence to truth 
and all the paths of truth are an abhorrence to injustice. There exists a violent 
18 conflict in respect of all his decrees since they do not walk together. God, in 
the mysteries of his knowledge and in the wisdom of his glory, has determined 
an end to the existence of injustice and on the occasion 19 of his visitation he 
will obliterate it for ever. Meanwhile, truth shall rise up forever in the world 
which has been defiled in paths of wickedness during the dominion of injustice 
until 20 the time appointed for judgment. Meanwhile, God will refine, with his 
truth, all man’s deeds, and will purify for himself the configuration of man, 
ripping out all spirit of injustice from the innermost part 21 of his flesh, and 
cleansing him with the spirit of holiness from every irreverent deed. He will 
sprinkle over him the spirit of truth like lustral water (in order to cleanse him) 
from all the abhorrences of deceit and from the defilement 22 of the unclean 
spirit. In this way the upright will understand knowledge of the Most High, 
and the wisdom of the sons of heaven will teach those of perfect behaviour. 
For these are those selected by God for an everlasting covenant 23 and to them 
shall belong all the glory of Adam. There will be no more injustice and all the 
deeds of trickery will be a dishonour. Until now the spirits of truth and of 
injustice feud in the heart of man 24 and they walk in wisdom or in folly. In 
agreement with man’s birthright in justice and in truth, so he abhors injustice; 
and according to his share in the lot of injustice he acts irreverently in it and 
so 25 abhors the truth. For God has sorted them into equal parts until the ap- 
pointed end and the new creation. He knows the result of his deeds for all 


8 


RULES 


IQS IV 25-V 15 


times 26 [everlasting and has given them as a legacy to the sons of men so that 
they know good [and evil], so they decide the lot of every living being in com- 
pliance with the spirit there is in him [at the time of] the visitation. 

Col. v 1 Blank This is the rule for the men of the Community who freely volun- 
teer to convert from all evil and to keep themselves steadfast in all he prescribes 
in compliance with his will. They should keep apart from 2 men of sin in order 
to constitute a Community in law and possessions, and acquiesce to the author- 
ity of the sons of Zadok, the priests who safeguard the covenant and to the 
authority of the multitude of the men 3 of the Community, those who perse- 
vere steadfastly in the covenant. By its authority, decision by lot shall be made 
in every affair involving the law, property and judgment, to achieve together 
truth and humility, 4 justice and uprightness, compassionate love and seemly 
behaviour in all their paths. No-one should walk in the stubbornness of his 
heart in order to go astray following his heart 5 and his eyes and the musings 
of his inclination. Instead he should circumcise in the Community the foreskin 
of his tendency and of his stiff neck in order to lay a foundation of truth for 
Israel, for the Community of the eternal 6 covenant. They should make atone- 
ment for all who freely volunteer for holiness in Aaron and for the house of 
truth in Israel and for those being entered together for the Community for the 
lawsuit and for the judgment. 7 They should proclaim as guilty all those who 
sabotage the decree. These are the regulations of behaviour concerning all these 
decrees when they are enrolled in the Community. Whoever enters the council 
of the Community 8 enters the covenant of God in the presence of all who 
freely volunteer. He shall swear with a binding oath to revert to the Law of 
Moses with all that it decrees, with whole g heart and whole soul, in compliance 
with all that has been revealed concerning it to the sons of Zadok, the priests 
who keep the covenant and interpret his will and to the multitude of the men 
of their covenant 10 who freely volunteer together for this truth and to walk 
according to his will. He should swear by the covenant to be segregated from 
all the men of sin who walk u along paths of irreverence. For they are not 
included in his covenant since they have neither sought nor examined his de- 
crees in order to learn the hidden matters in which they err ,2 by their own 
fault and because they treated revealed matters with disrespect; this is why 
wrath will rise up for judgment in order to effect revenge by the curses of the 
covenant, in order to administer fierce 13 punishments for everlasting annihila- 
tion without there being any remnant. Blank He should not go into the waters 
to share in the pure food of the men of holiness, for they have not been 
cleansed 14 unless they turn away from their wickedness, for it is unclean 
among all the transgressors of his word. No-one should associate with him in 
his work or in his possessions in order not to encumber him 1 5 with blamewor- 
thy sin; rather he should remain at a distance from him in every task, for it is 


IQS V 15-VI 8 


THE RULE OF THE COMMUNITY 


9 


written as follows: ‘You shall remain at a distance from every lie’. None of the 
men 16 of the Community should acquiesce to his authority in any law or regu- 
lation. No-one should eat of any of his possessions, or drink or accept anything 
from his hands, 17 unless at its price, for it is written: ‘Shun the man whose 
breath is in his nostrils, for how much is he worth?’ For 18 all those not num- 
bered in his covenant will be segregated, they and all that belongs to them. No 
holy man should support himself on any deed of tg futility, for futile are all 
those who do not know the covenant. And all those who scorn his word he shall 
cause to vanish from the world; all his deeds are uncleanness 20 before him and 
there is uncleanness in all his possessions. And when someone enters the cove- 
nant to behave in compliance with all these decrees, enrolling in the assembly 
of holiness, they shall test 21 their spirits in the Community (discriminating) 
between a man and his fellow, in respect of his insight and of his deeds in law, 
under the authority of the sons of Aaron, those who freely volunteer in the 
Community to set up 22 his covenant and to follow all the decrees which he 
commanded to fulfil, and under the authority of the majority of Israel, those 
who freely volunteer to return within the Community to his covenant. 23 And 
they shall be recorded in the Rule, each one before his fellow, according to his 
insight and his deeds, in such a way that each one obeys his fellow, junior un- 
der senior. 24 And their spirit and their deeds must be tested, year after year, 
in order to upgrade each one to the extent of his insight and the perfection of 
his path, or to demote him according to his failings. Each should reproach 
25 his fellow in truth, in meekness and in compassionate love for the man. Blank 
No-one should speak to his brother in anger or muttering, 26 or with a hard 
[neck or with passionate] spiteful intent and he should not detest him [in the 
stubbornness] of his heart, but instead reproach him that day so as not 

Col. Vi 1 to incur a sin for his fault. And in addition, no-one should raise a mat- 
ter against his fellow in front of the Many unless it is with reproof in the pres- 
ence of witnesses. In this way 2 shall they behave in all their places of resi- 
dence. Whenever one fellow meets another, the junior shall obey the senior in 
work and in money. They shall eat together, 3 together they shall bless and 
together they shall take counsel. In every place where there are ten men of the 
Community council, there should not be a priest missing amongst them. 4 And 
when they prepare the table to dine or the new wine 5 for drinking, the priest 
shall stretch out his hand as the first to bless the first fruits of the bread {or the 
new wine for drinking, the priest shall stretch out his hand as the first 6 to bless 
the first fruits of the bread} and of the new wine. And in the place in which the 
Ten assemble there should not be missing a man to interpret the law day and 
night, 7 always, each man relieving his fellow. And the Many shall be on watch 
together for a third of each night of the year in order to read the book, explain 
the regulation, 8 and bless together. Blank This is the Rule for the session of the 


10 


RULES 


IQS VI 8-26 


Many. Each one by his rank: the priests will sit down first, the elders next and 
the remainder of 9 all the people will sit down in order of rank. And following 
the same system they shall be questioned with regard to the judgment, the 
counsel and any matter referred to the Many, so that each can impart his wis- 
dom 10 to the council of the Community. No-one should talk during the speech 
of his fellow before his brother has finished speaking. And neither should he 
speak before one whose rank is listed 11 before his own. Whoever is questioned 
should speak in his turn. And in the session of the Many no-one should utter 
anything without the consent of the Many. And if the 12 Examiner of the 
Many prevents someone having something to say to the Many but he is not in 
the position of one who is asking questions to the Community council, 13 that 
man should stand up and say: ‘I have something to say to the Many’. If they 
tell him to, he should speak. And to any in Israel who freely volunteers 14 to 
enrol in the council of the Community, the Instructor who is at the head of the 
Many shall test him with regard to his insight and his deeds. If he suits the 
discipline he shall introduce him 13 into the covenant so that he can revert to 
the truth and shun all sin, and he shall teach him all the precepts of the Com- 
munity. And then, when he comes in to stand in front of the Many, they shall 
be questioned, 16 all of them, concerning his duties. And depending on the 
outcome of the lot in the council of the Many he shall be included or excluded. 
If he is included in the Community council, he must not touch the pure food 
of 17 the Many while they test him about his spirit and about his deeds until 
he has completed a full year; neither should he share in the possession of the 
Many. 18 When he has completed a year within the Community, the Many will 
be questioned about his duties, concerning his insight and his deeds in connec- 
tion with the law. And if the lot results in him ig joining the foundations of the 
Community according to the priests and the majority of the men of the cove- 
nant, his wealth and his belongings will also be included at the hands of the 
20 Inspector of the belongings of the Many. And they shall be entered into the 
ledger in his hand but they shall not use them for the Many. He must not 
touch the drink of the Many until 21 he completes a second year among the 
men of the Community. And when this second year is complete he will be 
examined by command of the Many. And if 22 the lot results in him joining the 
Community, they shall enter him in the Rule according to his rank among his 
brothers for the law, for the judgment, for purity and for the placing of his 
possessions in common. And his advice will be 23 for the Community as will 
his judgment. Blank 24 Blank And these are the regulations by which they shall 
judge him in the scrutiny of the Community depending on the case. If one is 
found among them who has lied 25 knowingly concerning goods, he shall be 
excluded from the pure food of the Many for a year and shall be sentenced to 
a quarter of his bread. And whoever retorts to 26 his fellow with stubbornness 
and speaks with brusqueness, ruining the footing he has with him, defying the 


IQS VI 26-VII 22 


THE RULE OF THE COMMUNITY 


11 


authority of his fellow who is enrolled ahead of him, 27 he has taken the law 
into his own hands; he will be punished for a year [. . . J Whoever enunciates the 
Name (which is) honoured above all [. . .] 

Col. vii / whether blaspheming, or overwhelmed by misfortune or for any other 
reason, {. . .} or reading a book, or blessing, will be excluded 2 and shall not go 
back to the Community council. And if he has spoken angrily against one of 
the priests enrolled in the book, he will be punished 3 for a year and shall be 
excluded, under sentence of death, from the pure food of the Many. However, 
if he had spoken unintentionally, he will be punished for six months. And who- 
ever lies knowingly 4 shall be punished for six months. Whoever knowingly and 
for no reason insults his fellow will be punished for a year 5 and will be ex- 
cluded. And whoever speaks to his fellow with deception or knowingly deceives 
him, will be punished for six months. And if 6 Blank he is /negligent/ to his 
fellow he will be punished for three months. However, if he is negligent with 
the possessions of the Community achieving a loss, he shall replace them {. . .} 
7 in full. Blank 8 Blank g Blank 10 And if he does not manage to replace them, he 
will be punished for /sixty days/. And whoever feels animosity towards his 
fellow for no cause will be punished for {six months} /a year/. 11 And likewise 
for anyone retaliating for any reason. Whoever utters with his mouth futile 
words, three months; and for talking in the middle of the words of his fellow, 
12 ten days. And whoever lies down and goes to sleep in the session of the 
Many, thirty days. And the same applies to whoever leaves the session of the 
Many 13 without cause, or falls asleep up to three times during a session shall 
be punished ten days; however, if . . . Blank 14 and he withdraws, he shall be 
punished for thirty days. And whoever walks about naked in front of his fellow, 
without needing to, shall be punished for three months. 13 And the person who 
spits in the course of a meeting of the Many shall be punished thirty days. And 
whoever takes out his ‘hand’ from under his clothes, or if these are rags 
16 which allow his nakedness to be seen, he will be punished thirty days. And 
whoever giggles inanely causing his voice to be heard shall be sentenced to 
thirty 77 days. And whoever takes out his left hand to gesticulate with it shall 
be punished ten days. And whoever goes round defaming his fellow 18 shall be 
excluded for one year from the pure food of the Many and shall be punished; 
however, w hoever goes round defaming the Many shall be expelled from their 
midst ig and will never return. And whoever complains against the foundation 
of the Community they shall expel and he will never return; however, if he 
complains against his fellow 20 without cause he will be punished six months. 
The person whose spirit turns aside from the foundation of the Community to 
betray the truth 27 and walk in the stubbornness of his heart, if he comes back, 
shall be punished for two years; during the first year he shall not approach the 
pure food of the Many. Blank 22 Blank {. . .} And during the second he shall not 


12 


RULES 


IQS VII 22 — VIII l6 


approach {. . .} /the drink/ of the Many and shall sit at the back of all the men 
of the Community. 23 When the days of the two years are complete the Many 
shall be questioned Blank concerning his matter; if they admit him, he shall be 
enrolled according to his rank; and later he will be questioned in connection 
with judgment 24 {. . . } However, anyone who has been in the Community coun- 
cil {...} for ten full years. Blank 25 Blank {...} Blank and whose spirit reverts to 
betray the Community and go away from the presence Blank 26 of the Many in 
order to walk in the stubbornness of his heart, can never return to the Commu- 
nity council. And the person among the men of the Community who 
fraternises 27 with him in concerns of purity or goods, who [. . .] the Many, and 
his sentence will be like his, he shall be expfelled.] 

Col. viii / In the Community council (there shall be) twelve men and three 
priests, perfect in everything that has been revealed about all 2 the law to im- 
plement truth, justice, judgment, compassionate love and unassuming 
behaviour of each person to his fellow 3 to preserve faithfulness on the earth 
with firm purpose and repentant spirit in order to atone for sin, doing justice 
4 and undergoing trials in order to walk with everyone in the measure of truth 
and the regulation of time. When these things exist in Israel 5 the Community 
council shall be founded on truth, Blank like an everlasting plantation, a holy 
house for Israel and the foundation of the holy of 6 holies for Aaron, true wit- 
nesses for the judgment and chosen by the will (of God) to atone for the earth 
and to render 7 the wicked their retribution. Blank It (the Community) will be 
the tested rampart, the precious cornerstone that does not Blank S /whose foun- 
dations do not/ shake or tremble in their place. Blank It will be the most holy 
dwelling g for Aaron with total knowledge of the covenant of justice and in 
order to offer a pleasant /aroma/; and it will be a house of perfection and truth 
in Israel; 10 {...} in order to establish a covenant in compliance with the ever- 
lasting decrees. /And these will be accepted in order to atone for the earth and 
to decide the judgment of the wicked {...(and there will be no iniquity/. When 
these have been established in the foundation of the Community for two full 
years /in/ perfect behaviour 11 /they w ill be segregated/ (like) holy ones in the 
midst of the council of the men of the Community. And every matter hidden 
from Israel but which has been found out by 12 the Interpreter, he should not 
keep hidden from them for fear of a spirit of desertion. And w hen these exist 
/as a community/ in Israel 13 /in compliance with these arrangements/ they are 
to be segregated from within the dwelling of the men of sin to walk to the 
desert in order to open there His path. 14 As it is written: «In the desert, pre- 
pare the way of ****, straighten in the steppe a roadway for our God». 75 This 
is the study of the law which he commanded through the hand of Moses, in 
order to act in compliance with all that has been revealed from age to age, 
16 and according to what the prophets have revealed through his holy spirit. 


IQS VIII 16 -IX 11 


THE RULE OF THE COMMUNITY 


13 


And anyone of the men of the Community, the covenant of 17 the Community, 
who insolently shuns anything at all commanded, cannot approach the pure 
food of the men of holiness, 18 and cannot know anything of their counsels 
until his deeds have been cleansed from every depravity, walking on the perfect 
path. Then they can include him ig in the council under the authority of the 
Many and later they will enrol him according to his rank. And (they shall ap- 
ply) this regulation to all who enter the Community. 20 Blank These are the 
regulations by which the men of perfect holiness shall conduct themselves, 
each with his fellow. 21 All who enter the council of holiness of those walking 
along the path of perfection as has been commanded, anyone of them 22 who 
breaks one word of the law of Moses impertinently or through carelessness will 
be banished from the Community council 23 and shall not go back again; none 
of the men of holiness should associate with his goods or his advice on any 
24 matter. However if he acted through oversight he should be excluded from 
pure food and from the council and the regulation applied to him: 25 «He can- 
not judge anyone and no-one should ask his advice for two whole years*. If his 
conduct is perfect 26 in them, he may return to the interpretation and to the 
council [according to the authority of the Ma]ny, if he has not sinned again 
through oversight until two full years have passed. 27 Blank 

Col. ix 1 For {...} a sin of oversight, then, he will be punished two years; but 
whoever acts impertinently shall not go back again. Only someone who sins 
through oversight 2 shall be tested for two full years in respect of his behaviour 
and of his counsel according to the authority of the Many and shall then be 
enrolled according to his rank in the Community of holiness. 3 Blank When 
these exist in Israel in accordance with these rules in order to establish the 
spirit of holiness in truth ./ eternal, in order to atone for the fault of the trans- 
gression and for the guilt of sin and for approval for the earth, without the flesh 
of burnt offerings and without the fats of sacrifice -the offering of 5 the lips in 
compliance with the decree will be like the pleasant aroma of justice and the 
correctness of behaviour will be acceptable like a freewill offering -at this mo- 
ment the men of 6 the Community shall set themselves apart (like) a holy house 
for Aaron, in order to enter the holy of holies, and (like) a house of the Com- 
munity for Israel, (for) those who walk in perfection. 7 Only the sons of Aaron 
will have authority in the matter of judgment and of goods, and their word will 
settle the lot of all provision for the men of the Community 8 and the goods of 
the men of holiness who walk in perfection. Their goods must not be confused 
with the goods of the men of deceit who g have not cleansed their path, with- 
drawing from evil and walking on a perfect path. They should not depart from 
any counsel of the law in order to walk w in complete stubbornness of their 
heart, but instead shall be ruled by the first directives which the men of the 
Community began to be taught n until the prophet comes, and the Messiahs 


H 


RULES 


IQS IX 11-X 2 


of Aaron and Israel. Blank 12 Blank These are the regulations for the Instructor 
by which he shall walk with every living being in compliance with the circum- 
stances of every period and in compliance with the worth of each man: 13 he 
should fulfil the will of God in compliance with all revelation for every period; 
he should acquire all the wisdom that has been gained according to the periods 
and the 14 regulation of the period; he should separate and weigh the sons of 
Zadok Blank according to their spirits; he should keep hold of the chosen ones 
of the period according to his will, as he has commanded; he should carry out 
the judgment of each man in accordance with his spirit; he should include each 
one according to the purity of his hands and according to his intellect ?6 pro- 
mote him. And thus shall be his love and thus shall be his hatred. Blank He 
should not reproach or argue with the men of the pit but instead hide the 
counsel of the law in the midst of the men of sin. He should reproach (with) 
truthful knowledge and (with) just judgment those who choose 18 the path, 
each one according to his spirit, according to the circumstances of the time. He 
should lead them with knowledge and in this way teach them the mysteries of 
wonder and of truth in the midst of ig the men of the Community, so that they 
walk perfectly, each one with his fellow, in all that has been revealed to them. 
This is the time for making ready the path 20 to the desert and he will teach 
them about all that has been discovered so that they can carry it out in this 
moment and so they will be detached from anyone who has not withdrawn his 
path 21 from all wickedness. And these are the rules of behaviour for the In- 
spector in these times, concerning his love and his hatred. Everlasting hatred 

22 for the men of the pit in clandestine spirit. To them he should leave goods 
and hand-made items like a servant to his master and like one oppressed before 

23 someone domineering him. He should be a man enthusiastic for the decree 
and for his time, for the day of revenge. He should perform (God’s) will in all 
that his hand should tackle 24 and in all that he controls, as he commanded. 
And all that happens to him he should welcome freely and be gratified by noth- 
ing except God’s will. 25 He should relish all the words of his mouth, wish for 
nothing that he has not commanded and be ever alert to the precept of God. 
26 [. . .] he shall bless his Creator and in all that transpires [. . . and with the of- 
fering] of his lips he shall bless him 

Col. x 1 during. Blank the periods which (?) he decreed(?). 

At the commencement of the dominion of light, 
during its rotation 

and when retired to its appointed abode. 

At the commencement of the vigils of darkness 

2 when he opens his store and stretches them upwards 
and in his rotation 
and when it retires before the light. 


IQS X 2-12 


THE RULE OF THE COMMUNITY 


15 


When the lights of the holy vault shine out 

3 when they retire to the abode of glory. 

At the entry of the constellation in the days of the new moon 
together with their rotations during their stations 

4 renewing each other. 

It is a great day for the holy of holies, 

and an omen Blank of the opening of his everlasting mercies 

5 for the beginnings of the constellations in every future age. Blank 
At the commencement of the months in their constellations, 
and of the holy days in their sequence, 

as a reminder in their constellations. 

6 With the offering of lips I shall bless you, 

in accordance with the decree recorded for ever. 

At the commencement of the years and in the gyrations of their constellations, 
when the decree of their disposition is carried out, 

7 on the prescribed day, one after another; 

the constellation of the harvest up to summer, 

the constellation of seed-time up to the constellation of the grass, 

the constellation of the years up to their seven-year periods. 

8 At the commencement of the seven-year periods 
up to the moment decided for deliverance. 

And in all my existence 

it shall be a precept engraved on my tongue 

like fruit of eulogy 

and the portion of my lips. 

9 {...} I will sing with knowledge 

and for the glory of God shall all my music be, 
the playing of my harp for his holy order, 
and the whistle of my lips 
I shall tune to its correct measure. 

70 At the onset of day and night 
I shall enter the covenant of God, 
and when evening and morning depart 
I shall repeat his precepts; 
and while they last 
I shall set them as my limit 
77 with no backtracking. 

His judgment reproaches me in conformity with my delights; 
they are before my eyes, like graven laws, my sins. 

But to God I shall say: «My justice*, 

12 and to the Most High: ((Foundation of my well-being*, 

((source of knowing*, 


i6 


RULES 


IQS X 12-20 


«spring of holiness*, 

«peak of glory*, 

«all-powerful one of eternal majesty*. 

I shall choose what he teaches me, 
ij I shall be pleased in how he might judge me. 

When I start to stretch out my hands and my feet 

I shall bless his name; 

when I start to go out and to come in, 

14 to sit and to stand up, 
and lying down in my bed 
I shall extol him; 

I shall bless him with the offering that issues from my lips 

15 and before stretching out my hand 

to get fat on the tasty fruit of the earth. 

At the onset of fright and dismay 
and in the place of distress and grief, 

16 I shall bless him for (his) great marvels 
and shall meditate on his power 

and shall rely on his compassion 
the whole day. 

I realize that in his hand 
lies the judgment of every living thing, 
iy and all his deeds are truth. 

When distress is unleashed 
I shall praise him 
just as I shall sing to him 
for his deliverance. 

I shall not repay anyone 
with an evil reward; 

18 with goodness I shall pursue the man 
For to God (belongs) the judgment 
of every living being, 
and it is he who pays man his wages. 

I shall have no enthusiasm for the wicked spirit, 
ig and my soul shall not crave wealth by violence 
I /shall not be involved/ at all in any dispute 
of the men of the pit 
/until the day/ of vengeance. 

20 However, I shall not remove my anger 
from wicked men, 
nor shall I be appeased, 
until he carries out his judgment. 


IQS X 20 — XI 3 


THE RULE OF THE COMMUNITY 


17 


I shall not sustain angry resentment 

for someone who converts from transgression, 

but I shall have no mercy 

21 for all those who deviate from the path. 

I shall not comfort the oppressed 
until their path is perfect. 

I shall not retain Belial within my heart. 

From my mouth no vulgarity shall be heard 

22 or wicked deceptions; 
sophistries or lies 

shall not be found on my lips. 

The fruit of holiness will be on my tongue, 

23 profanity shall not be found on it. 

With hymns shall I open my mouth 

and my tongue will ever number the just acts of God 

and the treachery of men 

until their transgression is complete. 

24 I shall remove from my lips worthless words, 

unclean things and plotting from the knowledge of my heart. 

With wise counsel I shall hide /I shall tell of/ knowledge, 

25 and with discretion of knowledge I shall enclose him with a solid fence 
to maintain faithfulness and staunch judgment 

with the justice of God. 

26 [I shall share out] the regulation with the cord of the ages 
[...] justice and compassionate love with the oppressed, 
and to strengthen the hands of the [. . .] 

Col. xi 1 understanding of those with a stray spirit 
in order to instruct in the teaching those who complain 
to reply with meekness to the haughty of spirit, 
and with a repentant spirit to the men of the stick, 

2 those who point the finger 
and speak evil, 

and are keen on riches. 

As for me, in God is my judgment; 
in his hand is the perfection of my path 
with the uprightness of my heart; 

3 and with his just acts he cancels my sin. 

For from the source of his knowledge 
he has disclosed his light, 

and my eyes have observed his wonders, 

and the light of my heart the mystery of the future 


i8 


RULES 


IQS XI 4-13 


4 and of the present and of what it is for always. 

There is support for my right hand, 

the path of my steps goes over firm rock, 
it does not waver before anything. 

For the truth of God is the rock of my steps, 

5 and his might the support of my right hand. 

From the spring of his justice is my judgment 

and from the wonderful mystery is the light in my heart. 

My eyes have observed what always is, 

6 wisdom that has been hidden from mankind, 

knowledge and understanding (hidden) from the sons of man, 
fount of justice and well of strength 

7 and spring of glory (hidden) from the assembly of flesh. 

To those whom God has selected he has given them 

as everlasting possession; 
until they inherit them 
in the lot of the holy ones. 

8 Fie unites their assembly to the sons of the heavens 
in order (to form) the counsel of the Community 
and a foundation of the building of holiness 

to be an everlasting plantation 
throughout all future ages. 

9 However, I belong to evil humankind 
to the assembly of wicked flesh; 

my failings, my transgressions, my sins, {...} 
with the depravities of my heart, 

10 belong to the assembly of worms 
and of those who walk in darkness. 

For to man (does not belong) his path, 

nor to a human being the steadying of his step; 
since judgment belongs to God, 

11 and from his hand is the perfection of the path. 

By his knowledge everything shall come into being, 
and all that does exist 

he establishes with his calculations 
and nothing is done outside of him. 

As for me, if I stumble, 

12 the mercies of God shall be my salvation always; 
and if I fall in the sin of the flesh, 

in the justice of God, which endures eternally, shall my judgment be; 

13 if my grief commences, 

he will free my soul from the pit 


IQS X 13-22 


THE RULE OF THE COMMUNITY 


19 


and make my steps steady on the path; 

he will draw me near in his mercies, 

and by kindnesses set in motion my judgment; 

14 he will judge me in the justice of his truth, 
and in his plentiful goodness 
always atone for all my sins; 
in his justice he will cleanse me 
from the uncleanness of the human being 
is and from the sin of the sons of man, 
so that I can extol God for his justice 
and The Highest for his majesty. 

Blessed be you, my God, 

who opens the heart of your servant to knowledge! 

16 Establish all his deeds in justice, 

and raise up the son of your handmaid 

to be everlastingly in your presence, 

as you have cared for the selected ones of humankind. 

17 For beyond you there is no perfect path 
and without your will, nothing comes to be. 

You have taught all knowledge 

jS and all that exists is so by your will. 

Beyond you there is no-one 
to oppose your counsel, 
to understand one of your holy thoughts, 
ig to gaze into the abyss of your mysteries, 
to fathom all your marvels 
or the strength of your might. 

20 Who can tolerate your glory? 

What, indeed, is man, 

; among all your marvellous deeds? 

21 As what shall one born of woman be considered 
in your presence? 

Shaped from dust has he been, 
maggots’ food shall be his dwelling; 
he is spat saliva, 

22 moulded clay, 

and for dust his longing. 

What will the clay reply 
and the one shaped by hand? 

And what advice will he be able to understand? Blank 


20 


RULES 


4QS a * 


b The Cave 4 Copies 

4QRule of the Community" (4Q255 [4Qpaps"]) 

Frag. 1 (= iqs 1, 1-5) 2 For [the Instructor. . .] ... Book of the Rule of the Com- 

munity. 2 [In order to seek God [with all (one’s) heart and with a|ll (one’s) soul; 
in order to do 3 [what is good and just in his presence, as comjmanded through 
the hand of Moses 4 [and through the hand of all his servants the Prophets; in 
order to love all that he selects] 5 [and to hate all that he rejects;] in order to 
keep oneself dis[tant from all evil,] 6 [and to become attached to all good 
works;] to bring[ about truth. . . 

Frag. 2 (= iqs in, 7- 12) 1 And by his holy spirit which links him with his truth 

he is clea[nsed of all] 2 his sins. And by the spirit of uprightness and of humil- 
ity his s[in is atoned. And by the compliance of] j his soul with all the laws of 
God his fle[sh] is cleansed [bv there being sprinkled upon it] 4 cleansing waters 
and being made holy with the waters of repentance, and [by the steadying of 
his st]eps5 in order to walk with perfection on all the paths of God, conform- 
ing to all he has decreed] 6 concerning regular times of his command. He 
should not [turn aside, either right or] 7 left, nor infringe even on[e of all his 
words.] 8 In this way he will be admitted by means of pleasing atonement and 
for him it will be the covenant 9 [of an] everlasting [Community. . .] 

Frag. 3 2 [...]... 2 [...] the man 3 [...] to him two 4 [...] in the judgment 5 [...] 

which 


4QRule of the Community* (4Q256 [4QS*]) 

Frag. 1 (= 1 qs 1, 16- 19) 1 [... And all those who enter] the Rule of the Com- 

munity shall institute a covenant before God] 2 [in order to carry out all that 
he commands and in order not to stray from following him] for any [fear, 
dr]ead or grief [that might occur during] 3 [the dominion of Belial. When they 
enter the covenant, the priests] and the levi[tes will bless the God of salva- 
tion. . .] 

Frag. 2 (= iqs 1, 21-23) 1 [The priests shall recite the just deeds of God in his] 

mig[hty works, and they shall proclaim all his merciful] 2 [favours towards Is- 
rael. And the levites shall recite the s]ins of the sons of [Israel, all their blame- 
worthy transgressions. . .] 

Frag. 3 (= iqs 11, 4-5) 2 [May he lift upon you the countenance of his favour 

for eternal peace».] And the levites [shall curse all the men of the lot of] 2 


THE RULE OF THE COMMUNITY 


21 


4 QS i -‘ 

[Belial. They shall take up the word and they shall say: «Be accursed for all 
your wicked, blameworthy] deeds. [May he hand you over ...] 

Frag. 4 (= iqs n, 7—11) / [... Accjursed are you, without mercy, for the dark- 

ness 2 [of your deeds, and sentenced to the gloom of everlasting fire. May God 
not be merciful when you entrejat him, nor forgive you when you do penance 
for your faults, 3 [May he lift the countenance of his anger to avenge himself 
on you, and may there be no peace for you in the mouth of those who inter- 
cede#.] And all those who enter the covenant 4 [shall say, after those who bless 
and those who curse: «Amen, Amen». And the priests and the levites shall con- 
tinue, saying:] «Accursed 

Frag. 5 (= iqs v, 1-20 ?) 1 Midrash for the Instructor concerning [...] 2 what 

he commands. They should keep apart from the congregation of [the men of 
sin ...] j according to the authority of the Many in every affair involving the 
law, [property and judgment, to achieve together truth and humility, justice 
and uprightness,] 4 compassionate love and seemly behaviour in all their paths. 
No-one should walk [...] 5 except in order to lay a foundation of truth for Is- 
rael, for the Community for all who [freely volunteer for holiness in Aaron and 
for the house of] 6 truth in Israel and for those who join them for the Commu- 
nity. Whoever enters the council of the Community . . .] 7 to revert to the Law 
of Moses with all that it decrees, with whole heart and whofle . . .] 8 the council 
of the men of the Community; and to be segregated from all the men of sin 
who [. . .] 9 holy, and which he cannot do in the Community. And he is not [. . .] 
10 in every law and precept. And with him [. . .] is not to enter //a man from 
the holy men [...] 12 [...] is not to [...] 13 [...] ... [...] 

4QRule of the Community 1 (4Q257 [4Qpaps‘]) 

Frag. 1 col. 11 (= iqs 11,4-11) 1 And the levites shall curse all the men of the lot 

of [Belijal. They shall take up the word and they shall say: «Accursed are you 
2 [for all your wicked, blameworthy] deeds. May he (God) hand you over to 
dread into the hands of those carrying out acts of 3 [vengeance. May he cause 
to fall upon you destruction at the hand of all those administering punish- 
ments. Accu]rsed are you, 4 [without mercy, for the darkness of your deeds, 
and sentenced to the] gloom 5 [of everlasting fire. May God not be merciful 
when you entreat him, nor forgive you when you do penance for] your fault. 
6 [May he lift the countenance of his anger to avenge himself on you, and may 
there be no] peace [for you in the mouth] 7 [of those who intercede#. And all 
those who enter covenant shall say after] those who bless [...] 


Frag. 1 col. in (= iqs 11, 25 -ill, 5) 1 shall not [enter the Comjmunity of his 


22 


RULES 


4 QS‘^ 

truth, since his soul loathes the restraints of the knowledge of] 2 just [judgment. 
He has not remained constant in the transformation of his life and shall not be 
counted with the upright.] 3 His knowledge, his en[ergy and his wealth shall 
not enter the council of the Community because he ploughs in the slime] 4 of 
irreverence and there are sta[ins on his conversion. He will not be justified 
while he maintains the stubbornness of] 5 his heart, since he regards darkness 
[as paths to light. In the source of the perfect he shall not be counted.] 6 He will 
not become clean by the acts of aton[ement, nor will he be purified by the wa- 
ters of the ablutions, nor will he be] 7 [ ... ] ... [ . . . ] 

4QRule of the Community" 1 (4Q258 [4QS' / ]) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 (= IQS v, 1-20) ? Midrash for the Instructor concerning the men 

of the law who freely volunteer to revert from all evil and to keep themselves 
steadfast in all he prescribes. 2 They must keep apart from men of sin in order 
to be together in the law and in possessions and acquiesce to the authority of 
Many in every affair 3 involving the law and possessions. They must exercise 
humility, justice and right, compassionate love and sefemly behav]iour in all 
their paths. 4 [N]o-one should walk in the stubbornness of his heart in order 
to go astray following his heart in order to establish a foundation of] truth for 
Israel, for the Community for all 5 who freely volunteer for holiness in Aaron 
and for the house of truth in Israel and for those who join them for the Com- 
munity. Blank And whoever enters the council 6 of the Community shall make 
a binding promise to refvert] to the Law of Moses with all that it decrees, with 
whole heart and whole soul. All that has been revealed about 7 the regulation 
[. . .] the council of m[en. . .] iniquity, and he is not to approach the pure food 
of holy 8 [me]n. And he is not to eat (?) [...And] not one of the men of the 
Community [is to be subject] to his authority in any 9 [law] or regulation, and 
[. . .] ... And no-one of the men of holiness is to eat w [. . .] And they are not to 
support themselves on [any wo]rk of futility, for all those who [do not know] 
n [his covenant] are futility. [And all those who scorn] his word, who vanish 
from the [world; a]ll their works are uncle[anness before him, there is unclean- 
ness in all their possessions.] 12 [. . .] the residents. And the Many (?) will verify 
the oath ...[...] 13 [...] ... [•••] 

Frag. 1 col. 11 (= iqs v, 21-vi, 7) / and his deeds in law, under the authority of 

the sons of Aaron, those who freely volunteer in the Community to set up his 
covenant and to follow all the decrees which he commanded 2 to carry out, and 
under the authority of the majority of Israel, those who freely volunteer to be 
converted within the Community. And they shall record each one in the Rule, 
before his fellow, each one according to his insight 3 and his deeds in the law, 
in such a way that each one obeys his fellow, junior under senior. And their 


4QS" 1-2 


THE RULE OF THE COMMUNITY 


23 


spirit and their deeds in the law must be tested, 4 year after year, in order to 
upgrade each one to the extent of his insight, or to demote him according to his 
failings. Each should reproach his fellow in compassionate love. 5 And no-one 
should speak to his fellow in anger or muttering, or with spiteful intent. And 
in addition, no-one should raise a matter against his fellow in front of the Many 
6 unless it is with reproof in the presence of witnesses. In this way shall they 
behave in all their places of residence, always whenever someone meets his 
fellow. [The junior shall obey] 7 the senior in work and in [money. They shall 
eat together,] together they shall bless and together they shall [take counsel. In 
every place where there are ten] 8 men of the Community council, there should 
not be a priest missing amongst them; each] one according to his rank, will [sit 
in front of him, and in this way ask them their counsel on every matter.] g And 
when [they prepare the table to dine or the] new wine [for drinking, the pri]est 
will stretch out his hand as the first to bless the first fruits of the bread] to and 
the new wine [...] 

Frag, t col. 111 (= iqs vi, 9- 12) 1 each can impart his wi[sdom to the council of 

the Community. No-one should talk during the speech of his fellow before his 
brother has finished speaking. . . And in the session of] 2 the Many no-one 
should ut[ter anything without the consent of the Many. And if the Examiner 
of the Many prevents someone having something to say] 3 to the Many but [he 
is not in the position of one who is asking questions to the council...] 

Frag. 2 col. I (= iqs vm, 6- 17) / [holies for Aaron, true witnesses for the judg- 

ment and chosen by the will (of God) to atone for the earth and to] render the 
wicked 2 [their retribution. It will be the tested rampart, the precious corner- 
stone whose foundations do not shake or tremble in] their place. It will be the 
most holy dwelling 3 [for Aaron with eternal (?) knowledge of the covenant of 
justice and in order to offer a pleasant aroma; and it will be a house of perfec- 
tion and truth for Israel;] in order to establish a covenant in compliance with 
the everlasting decrees. 4 [And these, will be accepted, to atone for the earth 
and to decide the judgment of the wicked and there will be no iniquity. When 
these have been established in the foundation of the Community for two full 
years 5 [in perfect behaviour they will be segregated (like) holy ones in the 
midst of the council of the men of the Community. And every matter hidden 
from Is]rael, but which has been found out 6 [by the Interpreter, he should not 
keep hidden from them for fear of a spirit of desertion.] Blank And when these 
exist [in Israel] they are to be segregated from [within the dwelling] 7 [of the 
men of sin to walk to the desert in order to open there His path. This is the 
study of] the law which he commanded through the ha[nd of Moses, in order 
to d]o all [that has been revealed from age to age,] 8 [and which the prophets 
have revealed through his holy spirit. And anyone] of the men of the covenant 
[•••] 


24 


RULES 


4QS^ 2 II — III 

Frag. 2 col. II (= iqs vm, 24-ix, 10) 1 he should be excluded from pure food 

and from the council and the judgment for two [whojle years. And he may 
return to the interpretation and to the council if he does not go 2 sinning 
through oversight until two full years have passed. Because for a sin of over- 
sight he will be punished two years; but for impertinence he shall not go back 
again. Only 3 two full years shall he be tested in respect of the perfection of his 
behaviour and in respect of his counsel according to the authority of the Many 
and then he will be enrolled according to his rank in the Community of holi- 
ness. Blank 4 [When] these exist in Israel in accordance with these statutes in 
order to establish the spirit of holiness in truth eternal, in order to atone for the 
fault of the transgression 5 [and for the disloyalty of sin] and for the approval 
for the earth [. . .] of burnt offerings and without the fats of sacrifice, the offer- 
ings and the free-will offering of the lips in compliance with the decree will be 
like the pleasant aroma 6 [of justice and the perfection of behavio]ur will be 
acceptable] like a freewill offering. Blank At this time the house of Aaron set 
themselves for holiness, for all [...]/ [Community for Isr]ael, (for) those who 
walk in perfection. Only the sons of Aaron will have authority in the matter 
of jud]gment and of goods. Blank And the goo[ds . . .] 8 [who wa]k in perfection. 
[Their goods] must not be con[fused with the] goods [of the men of deceit] who 
have not puri[fied their path. . .] 9 [. . .] shall be governed by the directives . . .] 

Frag. 2 col. in (= iqs ix, 15-x, 3) 1 and according to his intellect promote him, 

and thus shall be his love and thus shall be his hatred. He should not reproach 
anyone or argue with the men of{knowledge}/the pit/ 2 but instead hide his 
counsel in the midst of the men of sin. He should reproach (with) truthful 
knowledge and (with) just judgment those who choose the path, each one ac- 
cording to his spirit, according to the circumstances 3 of the time. [He should 
lead them] with knowledge and in this way teach them the mysteries of wonder 
and of truth in the midst of the men of the Community, so they walk perfectly, 
each one 4 [with his fellow, in all that has been revealed to] them. This is the 
time for making ready the path in the desert to teach them about all that has 
been discovered so that they can carry it out. Blank In this time 5 [they will be 
detached from any] man who has not withdrawn his path from all wickedness. 
And these are the rules of behaviour for the Instructor in these times, 6 [con- 
cerning his love and] his hatred. Everlasting hatred for the men of the pit in 
clandestine spirit. To them he should leave goods and hand-made 7 [items like 
a servant to his master] and like one oppressed before someone domineering 
him. He should be a man enthusiastic for the precept and for his time, for the 
day of revenge. He should perform 8 [(God’s) will in all that his hand should 
tackle and in] all that he controls, as he commanded. And all that happens to 
him he should welcome freely and be gratified by nothing except [God’s wi]ll. 
9 [He should relish all the words of his mouth, wish for nothing that he has not 


THE RULE OF THE COMMUNITY 


25 


4QS^2 IV- V 

commanded and be ever alert to the precep]t of God. [. . .] 10 [. . .] he shall bless 
in [...] u [...] retired to its appointed abode. At the commencement [...] 12 
[...they re]tire before the light. When [the lights of the holy vault] shine out, 
13 [when they retire to the abode of glory. At the entry of the constellation in 
the days of the new moon together with its rotations during its stations,] 

Frag. 2 col. iv (= iqs x, 4- 12) 1 renewing each other. It is a great day for the 

holy of holies, and an omen of the opening of his everlasting mercies, 2 for the 
beginnings of the constellations in every future age. At the commencement of 
the months in their constellations, and of the holy 3 days in their sequence, as 
a reminder in their constellations. [With the offering of lips] I shall bless you, 
in accordance with the decree 4 recorded for ever. At the commencement of the 
years and in the gy[rations of their constellations, when] the decree 5 of their 
disposition [is carried out,] on the prescribed day, one after another; the 
constellation of the harvest up to summer, the constellation of seed]time up 
to the constellation of 6 the grass, the constellations of the years up to their 
seven-year [periods. At the commencement of the seven-year] periods, up to 
the times determined for deliverance. 7 And in all my existence it shall be the 
precept engraved [on my tongue like fruit of eu]logy and the portion [of my 
lips. I will sing] 8 with knowledge and for the glory of God shall all my music 
be, the strumming of my harp for his ho[ly order, and the whistle] 9 [of my lips 
I shall ad]just to its correct scale. [At the onset of] day [and ni]ght I shall enter 
the covenant 10 [of God, and when evening and morning arrive I shall repeat 
his precepts;] and while they last I shall go back 11 [. . .] my sins are before my 
eyes, like graven laws, my sins 12 [like graven laws. But to God I shall say: «My 
justice#, and to the Most High: ((Foundation of my well-being#, ((source of 
knowing#,] «place of holiness#, ((peak 13 [of glory#, «all-powerful one of eternal 
majesty#. I shall choose 

Frag. 2 col. v (= iqs x, 12- 18) / what he te[aches me, I shall be pleased in how 

he might judge me. When I start to stretch out my hands] 2 and my feet I shall 
[bless his name...] on the ta[sty fruits of the earth. At the onset of fright and 
dismay, in the place of distress] 4 with [grief, I shall bless him for (his) great 
marvels and shall meditate on his power, on his compassion] 5 I shall rely [the 
whole day. I realize that in his hand lies the judgment of every living thing, and 
all his deeds are truth.] 6 When distress is unleashed I shall praise him, just as 
I shall sing to him for his deliverance. I shall not repay anyone with an evil] 
7 reward; [with goodness I shall pursue the man. For to God (corresponds) the 
judgment of every living being, and it is he who] 8 pays [man his wages. . .] 


26 


RULES 


4 QS < ’ I — II 


4QRule of the Community 1, (4Q259 [4QS 1 ’]) 

Col. 1 (= IQS vii, 10- 17) 1 2 [...] Blank 3 [days] And whoever lies 

down [and goes to sleep in the session of the Many, thirty days. And the same 
applies to whoever] 4 [leaves] the session of the Many without [cause, or falls 
asleep up to three times] 5 [during] a session, he shall be punished [for ten days; 
however, if . . . and he withdraws,] 6 he shall be punished for thirty days. And 
whoever [walks about naked in front of his fellow, without] 7 [needing] to, [shall 
be puni]shed for three monfths. And the person who spits in the course of a 
meeting of] 8 the Man[y shall be punished for thirty days. Blank (?) And who- 
ever] 9 takes [out his ‘hand’ from under his] clothes, [or if these are rags which 
allow his nakedness to be seen,] 10 he will be punished for thirty days. And 
whoever [giggles inanely causing] 11 his voice [to be heard] shall be punished 
for thirty [days. And whoever takes out his left hand] 12 to gesticulate with it 
shall be punished ten days...] 

Col. 11 (= IQS Vii, 22-viii, 10) 1 [... And when the days of] the two years [are 

complete] 2 [the Many shall be questioned concerning his matter; if they admit 
him, he shall be enrolled according to his ra]nk; and later he will be questioned 
3 [in connection with judgment. However, anyone who has been in the] Com- 
munity [council] until completion of 4 [ten full years and whose spirit reverts 
to betray the Community and he goes away from the presence of] the Many in 
order to walk 5 [in the stubbornness of his heart, may never return to the Com- 
munity council. And the person from among] the men of the Community who 
6 [fraternises w ith him in concerns of purity or goods, who . . . the Many,] and 
his sentence will be 7 [like his, he shall be expelled. In the Community council 
(there shall be) twelve men and] three priests, 8 [perfect in everything that has 
been revealed about all the law to implement truth] justice, judgment, 9 [com- 
passionate love and unassuming behaviour of each person to his fellow to pre- 
serve] faithfulness on the earth with firm purpose and with simplicity 10 [and 
repentant spi]rit, in order to atone for [sin, doing justice and undergoing trials] 
in order to walk with everyone u [in the measure of] truth and the regulation 
of time. When these things exist in] Israel, the Community council shall be 
founded 12 [on truth like an] everlasting [plantation, [a holy house for Israel 
and the foundation of the] holy of holies for Aaron, 13 true witnesses for the 
judgment and chosen by the wi[ll (of God) to atone for the earth and to render] 
the wicked 14 their retribution. It will be the tested rampart, [the precious cor- 
nerstone, whose foundations do not shake or] tremble on the spot. 15 It will be 
the most holy fortress for Aaron [with total knowledge of the covenant of jus- 
tice and in order to offer] a pleasant [aroma]; and it will be a house /6 of perfec- 
tion and truth in Isfrael; in order to establish a covenant in compliance with the 
everlasting dec]rees. When these have been established 


4 QS f ’ III— V 


THE RULE OF THE COMMUNITY 


27 


Col. hi (= iqs viii, 11-15 + ix, 12-20) 1 [in the foundation of the Community 

for two full years in perfect behaviour they will be segregated] (like) holy ones 
in the midst of the council of the men of [the Community.] 2 [And every mat- 
ter hidden from Israel but which has been found] out by the Interpreter, he 
should not [keep hidden from] them 3 [for fear of a spirit of desertion.] And 
when these exist by means of the separation of] 4 the men of [sin to walk to the 
desert in order to open there] the path of truth. As [it is written:] «In the desert, 
[prepare the way of ****, straighten] in the steppe a roadway for our God». 
6 This is [the study of the law which he commanded through the hand of Mo- 
ses. These are the regulations] for the Instructor, so that by them shall walk 
every living being in compliance with the circumstances of every [period] Sand 
in compliance with the wor[th of each man: he should do] the will of God in 
compliance with all revelation for every period; 9 [he should acquire all the 
wisdom that has been gai]ned according to the periods and the regulation of the 
period;] 10 [he should separate and we]igh the sons of justice according to their 
spirits; [he should encourage] u [the chosen ones of the period] according to 
his will, as he has commanded; [he should carry out the judgment] 72 [of each 
man in accordance with his spirit;] he should include each one according to the 
purity of his hands and according [to his intellect] 13 [promote him. And thus 
shall be his love] and thus shall be his hatred. He should not [reproach] 14 [or 
argue with the mjen of the pit but instead hide the [counsel of the law] 15 [in 
the midst of the men of sin.] He should reproach (with) truthful knowledge and 
(with) just 16 judgment [those who choose the path, each one] according to his 
spirit and according to the circumstances of the time. He should lead them 
77 with knowledge and in this way teach them the my]steries of wonder and 
of truth and give them the secret pa[th of the men of] 1 H the Community, [so 
that they walk perfectly, each one] with his fellow, in all that has been revealed 
to them. 19 This is the [time for making ready the path] in the desert and he 
will teach them about all 


Col. IV 7 ... [,..]2 ... [...] 

Col. v 70 [...]... In the fourth (year of the cycle of) Shebet [...] 11 [...] (the) 
creation. In the fourth (year), the sign of Gamul. In the Release, the si]gn of 
72 [Shekaniah. In the thi]rd, the sign of Gamul. In the sixth, the sign of 
[Shekaniah. In the second, the sign of Ga]mul. 13 [In the fifth, the sign of 
Shekaniah. After the Release, the sign of Ga[mul. In the fourth, the sign of 
Shekan]iah. 7 4 [In the Release, the sig]n of Gamul, In the third, the sign of 
Shekaniah. [In the sixth, the sign of Ga]mul. 75 [In the second, the si]gn of 
Shefkaniah. In the fifth, the sign of Ga[mul. After the Release, the sign of 
7 6 [Shekaniah. In the fou]rth, the sign of Gamul. In the Release, the end of the 
second jubilee. The signs of the second jubilee 77 [are seventeen signs. From 


28 


RULES 


4QS C VI-VII 


this in the Release [two] signs (remain) [...] the creation 18 [...the sig]n of 
Shekaniah. In the third year, the sign of Gamul. [In the sixth, the si]gn of 
Shekaniah. ig [In the second, the sign of Ga]mul. In the fifth, the sign of 
Shekaniah. After the Re[mission, the sign of Ga]mul. 

Col. vi i [In the fourth, the sign of Shekaniah. In the Release, the sign of 
Gamul. In the third, the sign of Shekaniah.] 2 [In the sixth, the sign of Gamul. 
In the se]cond, the sig[n of Shekaniah. In the fifth the sign of Gamul.] 3 [After 
the Release, the sign of Shekaniah. In the foufrth, the sign of Gamul. In the 
Release, the sign of] 4 [Shekaniah. In the thi]rd, the sign of Gamul. In the 
sixfth, the sign of] Shekaniah. [In the second, the end of the] 5 thfird] jubilee. 
The signs of the [third] jubilee are six]teen. From this up to the Release 6 two 
signs of (the cycle of) Shekaniah remain. [In the second year, the sign of 
Ga]mul. In the fifth the sign of Shekaniah. 7 After the Release, the si[gn of 
Gamul. In the fourth, the si]gn of Shekaniah. In the Release, the sign of 
Gamul. In the third the sign of [Shekaniah. In the sixth the sign of Ga]mul. In 
the second, the sign of Shekaniah. In the fifth, the sign of [Gamul. After the] 
Release, the sign of Shekaniah. 10 In the fourth, the sign of Gamul. [In the 
Release, the sign of] Shekaniah. In the third, the sign of Gamul. 1 1 In the sixth, 
the sign of Shek[aniah. In the second, the sign of] Gamul. In the fifth, the sign 
of Shekaniah. 12 After the Release, the s[ign of the end of the jubilee: Gamul] 
The /fourth/ [jub]ilee has seventeen signs: 13 from the last up to the Release 
two /signs/ of (the cycle of) [Gamul] (remain). In the fourth year, the sign of 
Shekaniah. 14 [In the Release, the sign of Gamul.] 15 In the second, the sign of 
Shekaniah. In the fif]th, the sign of Gamul. After the Release, the sign of 
Shekaniah.] 16 In the fourth, the sign of Gamul. In [the Release, the sign of 
Shekaniah. In the third, the sign of Gamul.] 17 In the six[th, the sig]n of 
Shekaniah.] 18 [After the] Release, the sign of Ga[mul. In the fourth, the sign 
of Shekaniah, In the Release, the end of the] ig [fif ]th [jubilee] in (the sign of) 
Yeshibab. [The signs of the fifth jubilee are seventeen. From this during the 
Release,] 

Col. vii 1 [three signs (of the Cycle of) Gamul (remain). In the third year, the 
sign of Shekaniah. In the sixth, the sign of 2 [Gamul. In the se]cond, the sign 
of Shekaniah. In [the fifth, the sign of Gamul. After the Release 3 the sign of 
Shekaniah. In the fourth, the sign of Ga[mul. In the Release, the sign of 
Shekaniah.] In the third 4 the sign of Gamul. In the sixth, the sign of 
Shekaniah. [In the second, the sign of] Gamul. 5 In the fifth, the sign of 
Shekaniah. After [the Release,] the sign of 6 Gamul. In the fourth, the sign of 
Shekaniah. In the Rele[ase, the sign of Gamul. In] the third, 7 the sign of 
[Shekaniah. In the six]th, the final /sign/ of the [sixth] jubilee [.. .The signs of] 
8 the [sixth] jubilee [are six]teen. From this in [the Release] two signs (remain) 


THE RULE OF THE COMMUNITY 


29 


4QS f ' / 


[. . .] 9 10 And on the jub[ilee of Gamul, in the second year, the sign of 

Shekaniah. In the fifth, the sign of Gamul. After] 11 the Release [the sign of 
Shekaniah. In the fourth,] the sign of Gamul. [In the Release,] 12 [the sign of 
Shekaniah. In the third, the sign of] Gamul. In the sixth, the si[gn of 
Shekaniah.] 13 [In] the second, the sig[n of Gamul.] In the fifth, the sign of 
Shekaniah. [After] 14 the Release, [the sign of Ga]mul. In the fourth, the sign 
of Shekaniah. In the Reflease, the sign of] 15 Gamul. [In the th]ird, the sign of 
Shekaniah. In the sixth, the sign of [Gamul.] 16 In the se[cond, the sign of 
Shekaniah.] In the fifth, the final sign of the [se]venth jubilee, 77 [The signs of 
the] seventh [jubilee] are seventeen. From this in the Release 18 [two signs (re- 
main). . .] the sign of the jubilees, the year of the jubilees, according to the days 
of [. . .] 79 [. . .] in Miyyamin, the third Ye[daiah. . .] 

Col. viii 7 Gamul [...] 2 Yedaiah [...] 3 Miyyamim [...] 4 Shekaniah [ ] j- Yes- 

hebab [. . .] 6 Hapzizez [. . .] 7 Gamul [. . .] 

Col. ix i [... the second] Passover. The [...] of 2 [... the ...] of Jezir [...] 3 [... 
the . . . of] Me c ozaiah, the Passover [. . .] 4 [. . . the . . . of . . .] the day of remem- 
brance [...] 

Col. xi 4 [. . .] and about the sabbaths 5 [and their days. . .] and about the feasts 
6 [of their days, and about the] months of their [years] and about the signs 7 of 
their Releases and about their jubilees and the sabbath 8 of the sons of [Gamul], 
on the fourth day. 


4QRule of the Community^ (4Q260 [4QS / ]) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 (= iqs ix, 23-24) 7 [enthusiastic for the decree and for his time, 

for the day of revenge. He should perform (God’s) will in all] that 2 [his hand 
should tackle and in all that he controls, as he commanded. And] all that hap- 
pens to him 

Frag. 1 col. 11 (= iqs x, 1 -4) 7 At the commencement of the vigils of [darkness 

when he opens his store and stretches them upwards and in] his rotation 2 and 
when it retires be[fore the light. When the lights of the holy vault shine out, 
when they re]tire to the abode 3 of glory. [At the entry of the constellation in 
the days of the new moon together with their rotations during their stations] 
renewing 4 [each other. It is a great day for the holy of holies, and an omen of 
the opening of his everlasting] mercies. 

Frag. 1 col. in (= iqs x, 9- 1 1) 79 the playing of my harp for [his holy order, and 

the whistle of my lips I shall ad]just to its correct scale. 2 At the [onset of day 


3° 


RULES 


4QS /: * 

and night I shall enter the covenant of God, at the] onset of evening and morn- 
ing 3 I[ shall repeat his precepts; and while they last I shall set them as my 
limit,] with no backtracking. 

Frag, t col. iv (= iqs x, 15-20) / [At the onjset of fright and dismay, [in the 

place] of distress and grief, [I shall bless him] 2 for (his) great marvels and shall 
meditate on his po[wer and shall rely] on his compassion 3 the whole day. The 
judgment of every living thing [is in his hand and all his deeds are truth.] When 

4 distress is unleashed I shall praise him, and for his deliverance [I shall sing to 
him in the same measure.] I shall not repay 5 anyone with an evil reward; with 
goodness [I shall pursue the] man. For to God (corresponds) [the judgment] 
6 of every living being, and it is he who pays m[an his wage]s. I shall have [no 
enthusiasm for] the wicked 7 [spirit], and my soul shall not cfrave] wealth by 
violence. [In the dispute of the men] 8 of the pit I shall not be involved at all 
[until the day of vengeance. However, I shall not remove] my anger 9 from 
wicked men, [nor shall I he appeased, until] the judgment [is carried out. I shall 
not] 70 bear angry resentment for someone who converts from transgression; 
[...] of men. 

Frag. 1 col. v (= iqs x, 20-24) 1 [but I shall have no mer]cy for all those who 

turn aside from the path. I shall not comfort the oppressed until their path is 
2 perfect. I shall not retain Belial within my heart. From my mouth no 3 vulgar- 
ity shall be heard or wicked deceptions; sophistries or lies shall not be found on 
my lips. 4 The fruit of holiness will be on my tongue, profanity shall not be 
found 5 on it. With hy[mns shall I open my] mouth, and the just acts of God 
6 my mouth will ev[er number and the treachery of me]n [until their transgres- 
sion is comfplete.] 

4QRule of the Community^ (4Q261 [4QS^]) 

Frag. 1 (= iqs v, 22-24) 1 [to establish his cove]nant and to [follow all the de- 

crees which he commanded to fulfil,] 2 [and under the authority of the 
majority of Is[rael, those who freely volunteer to return within the Community 
to his covenant. And they shall be recorded] 3 [in the Rule, each one be]fore his 
fel[low, according to his insight and his deeds, in such a way that each one 
obeys] 4 [his fellow,] junior [under senior. And their spirits must be tested,] 

5 [and their de]eds y[ear after year, in order to upgrade each one to the extent 
of his insight and the perfection of his path,] 6 [or to demote him according 
to his failings.. . 

Frag. 2 (= iqs vi, 22-25) 1 [f° r the law, for the judjgment, for pufrity and for 

the placing of his possessions in common. And his advice will be for the Com- 


THE RULE OF THE COMMUNITY 


31 


4QS" 


munity as will his judgment.] And these are the regulations] by which they 
shall judge him depending on [the case. If one is found among them] 3 [who has 
lied knowingly concerning mo]ney, he shall be excluded from the pure food 
of the Many] 4 [for a year and shall be sentenced to a quar]ter of his bread. [. . .] 

Frag. 3 (= iqs Vii, 12- 16) 1 [...]...[...] 2 [And whoever lies down and] goes to 

sleep in the sessfion of the Many, thirty days. And the same applies to whoever 
leaves] 3 [the session of the Many] without cause, [or falls asleep up to three 
times during a session,] 4 [shall be punished ten d]ays; how[ever, if. . . and he 
withdraws,] 5 [he shall be punished for thirty d]ays. And whoever [walks about 
naked in front of his fellow,] 6 without needing to, [shall be punished for three 
months. And the person who spits] 7 [in the course of a mee]ting of the Many 
[shall be punished thirty days. And whoever takes out] 8 [his ‘hand’ from 
und]er his clothes, [or if these are rags 16 which allow his nakedness to be seen,] 

Frag. 4 1 [...] what he commands. [...] 2 [...] he will stretch out his hand and 

[. . .] j [. . .] an d their deeds [. . .] 

4QRule of the Community* (4Q262 [4QS*]) 

Frag. 1 (= iqs ill, 4-5) 1 [He will not become clean by the acts of aton]ement, 

nor shall he be purified by [the cleansing waters,] 2 [nor shall he be made holy 
by the seas or rivers, [nor shall he be purified] 3 [by all] the water of the ablu- 
tions. Defiled, def[iled shall he be, all the days . . .] 

4QRule of the Community' (4Q263 [4QS']) 

Frag. 1 (= iqs vi, 1-3) 1 [to incur a sin for his fault. And in addition,] no-one 

should raise [a matter against his fellow in front of the Many unless] 2 [it is 
with reproof] in the presence of witnesses. In this way shall they behave [in all 
their places of residence, whenever one fellow meets another.] 3 [The junior 
shall obey] the senior in work and in wea[lth. They shall eat together, together 
they shall bless and together they shall take counsel.] 4 [In every pl]ace where 
there are [ten men of the Community council, there should not be a priest 
missing amongst them] 5 [...] ... [...] 

4QRule of the Community (4Q264 [4Q s y | ) 

Frag. 1 (= iqs xi, 14-22) 1 [. . . he will judge me in the justice] of his truth, and 

in his plentiful goodness 2 [always atone for all my sins; in his justice he will 
cleanse me from the uncleanness] of the human being, and from the sin of the 
sons of man, so that I can extol 3 [God for his justice and The Highest for his 


32 


RULES 


5QS 

majesty. Blessed be you, my God, who opens] the heart of your servant [to 
knowledge!] Establish all his deeds in justice, 4 [and raise up the son of your 
handmaid] to be everlastingly in your presence, [as you have cared for the se- 
lected ones of humankind.] For beyond you 5 [there is no perfect path, and 
without your will, nothing comes to be. You have ta]ught all knowledge, and 
all that exists 6 [is so by your will. Beyond you there is no-one to oppose your 
counsel,] to understand one of your holy 7 [thoughts, to gaze into the abyss of 
your mysteries, to fathom all] your marvels or the strength of your might. 
8 [Who can tolerate your glory? What, indeed, is man,] among all your 
marvellous deeds? The one born of woman 9 [as what will he be considered in 
your presence? Shaped from dust has he been, maggots’ food] shall be his 
dwelling; he is spat saliva, 10 [moulded clay, and for dust his longing. What will 
the clay reply and the one shaped by hand?] And what advice will he be able to 
understand? Blank 

C Copies from other caves 
5QRule of the Community (5Q11 [5QS]) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 (= iqs 11, 4-7) / [... And the levites shall cu]rse 2 [all the men of 

the lot of Belial. They shall begins speaking and they shall say: «Accursed] are 
you 3 [for all your wicked, blame] worthy deeds. May he (God) 4 [hand you over 
to dread at the hands of all those carrying out acts of vengeance. May he cause 
to fa]ll upon you 5 [destruction at the hands of all those carrying out punish- 
ments. Be acc]ursed, 

Frag. 1 col. 11 (= iqs 11, 12-14 ?) 1 When [he hears the words of this covenant, 

he will bless himself] 2 in his he[art, saying: ‘I will have peace, in spite of my 
walking in the stubbornness of my heart’. However, his spirit will be obliter- 
ated, the dry with the moist, mercilessly...] 


CD I — II 5 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


33 


2 The Damascus document 
A Copies from the Genizah 
Damascus Document (cd-a) 

Col. I i Blank And now, listen, all those who know justice, and understand the 
actions of 2 God; for he has a dispute with all flesh and will carry out judgment 
on all those who spurn him. 3 For when they were unfaithful in forsaking him, 
he hid his face from Israel and from his sanctuary 4 and delivered them up to 
the sword. However, when he remembered the covenant of the very first, he 
saved a remnant 5 for Israel and did not deliver them up to destruction. And 
at the moment of wrath, three hundred and 6 ninety years after having deliv- 
ered them up into the hands of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, 7 he visited 
them and caused to sprout from Israel and from Aaron a shoot of the planting, 
in order to possess 8 his land and to become fat with the good things of his soil. 
And they realised their sin and knew that 9 they were guilty men; but they were 
like blind persons and like those who grope for the path 10 over twenty years. 
And God appraised their deeds, because they sought him with a perfect heart 
11 and raised up for them a Teacher of Righteousness, in order to direct them 
in the path of his heart. Blank And he made known 12 to the last generations 
what he had done for the last generation, the congregation of traitors. 13 These 
are the ones who stray from the path. This is the time about which it has been 
written: Hos 4: 16 «Like a stray heifer 14 so has Israel strayed», when ‘the scoffer’ 
arose, who scattered 15 the waters of lies over Israel and made them veer off 
into a wilderness without path, flattening the everlasting heights, diverging 
16 from tracks of justice and removing the boundary with which the very first 
had marked their inheritance, so that 17 the curses of his covenant would ad- 
here to them, to deliver them up to the sword carrying out the vengeance 18 of 
the covenant. For they sought easy interpretations, chose illusions, scrutinised 
79 loopholes, chose the handsome neck, acquitted the guilty and sentenced the 
just, 20 violated the covenant, broke the precept, colluded together against the 
life of the just man, their soul abominated all those who walk 21 in perfection, 
they hunted them down with the sword and provoked the dispute of the peo- 
ple. And kindled was the wrath 

Col. 11 7 of God against his congregation, laying waste all its great number, for 

his deeds were unclean in front of him. 2 Blank And now, listen to me, all enter- 
ing the covenant, and I will open your ears to the paths of 3 the wicked. Blank 
God loves knowledge; he has established wisdom and counsel before him; 
4 discernment and knowledge are at his service; patience is his and abundance 
of pardon, 5 to atone for persons who repent from wickedness; however, 


34 


RULES 


CD II 5 — III 10 


strength and power and a great anger with flames of fire 6 by the (hand) of all 
the angels of destruction against persons turning aside from the path and abom- 
inating the precept, without there being for them either a remnant 7 or survi- 
vor. For God did not choose them at the beginning of the world, and before 
they were established he knew 8 their deeds, and abominated the generations 
on account of blood and hid his face from the country, g from <Israel>, until 
their extinction. And he knew the years of their existence, and the number and 
detail of their ages, of all w those who exist over the centuries, and of those 
who will exist, until it occurs in their ages throughout all the everlasting years. 
u And in all of them he raised up men of renown for himself, to leave a rem- 
nant for the country and in order to fill 12 the face of the world with their off- 
spring. Blank And he taught them by the hand of the anointed ones through his 
holy spirit and through seers of the 13 truth, and their names were established 
with precision. But those he hates, he causes to stray. 14 Blank And now, my 
sons, listen to me and I shall open your eyes so that you can see and understand 
the deeds of 15 God, so that you can choose what he is pleased with and repu- 
diate what he hates, so that you can walk perfectly 16 on all his paths and not 
follow after the thoughts of a guilty inclination and lascivious eyes. For many 
17 wandered off for these matters; brave heroes yielded on account of them, 
from ancient times until now. For having walked in the stubbornness 18 of 
their hearts the Watchers of the heavens fell; on account of it they were caught, 
for they did not follow the precepts of God. 1 g And their sons, whose height 
was like that of cedars and whose bodies were like mountains, fell. 20 All flesh 
which there was in the dry earth decayed and became as if it had never been, 
for having realized 21 their desires and failing to keep their creator’s precepts, 
until his wrath flared up against them. 

Col. ill 1 Blank Through it, the sons of Noah and their families strayed, through 
it, they were cut off. 2 Abraham did not walk in it, and was counted as a friend 
for keeping God’s precepts and not following 3 the desire of his spirit. And he 
passed (them) on to Isaac and to Jacob, and they kept (them) and were written 
up as friends 4 of God and as members of the covenant for ever. Blank Jacob’s 
sons strayed because of them and were punished in accordance with 5 their 
mistakes. And in Egypt their sons walked in the stubbornness of their hearts, 
plotting against 6 God’s precepts and each one doing what was right in his own 
eyes; and they ate blood, 7 and their males were cut off in the wilderness. He 
<spoke> to them in Qadesh: Deutg:23 «Go and possess (the land». But they pre- 
ferred the desire) of their hearts, and did not listen to 8 the voice of their cre- 
ator, the precepts he had taught them and murmured in their tents. And the 
wrath of God flared up g against their congregation. And their sons died 
through it, and through it their kings were cut off and through it their warriors 
10 perished and through it their land was laid waste. Through it, the very first 


CD III 10-IV 19 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


35 


to enter the covenant made themselves guilty and were delivered up 11 to the 
sword, for having deserted God’s covenant and having chosen their whims, and 
having followed the stubbornness 12 of their heart, each one doing (what was) 
his desire. Blank But with those who remained steadfast in God’s precepts, 13 
with those who were left from among them, God established his covenant with 
Israel for ever, revealing to them 14 hidden matters in which all Israel had gone 
astray: his holy sabbaths and his 15 glorious feasts, his just stipulations and his 
truthful paths, and the wishes of his will which 16 man must do in order to live 
by them. He disclosed (these matters) to them and they dug a well of plentiful 
water; 17 and whoever spurns them shall not live. But they had defiled them- 
selves with human sin and unclean paths, 18 and they had said: «For this is 
ours». But God, in his wonderful mysteries, atoned for their failings and par- 
doned their sins. 19 And he built for them a safe home in Israel, such as there 
has not been since ancient times, not even till 20 now. Those who remained 
steadfast in it will acquire eternal life, and all the glory of Adam is for them. As 
21 God established for them by means of Ezekiel the prophet, saying: E 244:15 
«The priests and the levites and the sons of 

Col. iv 1 Zadok who maintained the service of my temple when the children of 
Israel strayed 2 far away from me, shall offer the fat and the blood». The priests 
are the converts of Israel 3 who left the land of Judah; and <the levitcst are 
those who joined them; and the sons of Zadok are the chosen of 4 Israel, «those 
called by name» who stood up at the end of days. This is the detailed list 5 of 
their names, according to their genealogies and the age of their existence and 
the number of their miseries and the years of 6 their residence, and the detailed 
list of their deeds... of holiness. <These are the very) first, for whom 7 God 
atoned, and who declared the just man as just, and declared the wicked as 
wicked, and all those who entered after them 8 in order to act according to the 
exact interpretation of the law in which the very first were instructed until 
9 the period of these years is complete. According to the covenant which God 
established with the very first, in order to atone 10 for their sins, so will God 
atone for them. But when the period corresponding to the number of these 
years is complete, 11 there will no longer be any joining with the house of 
Judah but rather each one standing up on 12 his watchtower. The wall is built, 
the boundary far away. And during these years 13 Belial will be sent against 
Israel, as God has said by means of the prophet Isaiah, son of 14 Amoz, saying: 
Isa 24:17 «Panic, pit and net against you, earth-dweller». Blank Its explanation: 
is They are Belial’s three nets about which Levi, son of Jacob spoke, 16 in 
which he catches Israel and makes them appear before them like three types of 
17 justice. The first is fornication; the second, wealth; the third, defilement of 
the temple. He who eludes one is caught in another and he who is freed from 
that, is caught 19 in another. Blank The builders of the wall who go after Zaw- 


36 


RULES 


CD IV 19-VI 7 


Zaw is a preacher 20 as it is said: Mic 2:6 ((Assuredly he will preach»-are caught 
twice in fornication: by taking 21 two wives in their lives, even though the prin- 
ciple of creation is Gen 1:27 ((male and female he created them». 

Col. v 1 And the ones who went into the ark Gen 7:9 «went in two by two into the 
ark». And about the prince it is written: 2 Deut 17:17 «He should not multiply 
wives to himself*. However, David had not read the sealed book of the law 
which 3 was in the ark, for it had not been opened in Israel since the day of the 
death of Eleazar 4 and of Jehoshua, and Joshua and the elders who worshipped 
Ashtaroth had hidden 5 the public (copy) until Zadok’s entry into office. And 
David’s deeds were praised, except for Uriah’s blood, 6 and God allowed them 
to him. And they also defiled the temple, for they did not 7 keep apart in accor- 
dance with the law, but instead lay with her who sees the blood of her men- 
strual flow. And each man takes as a wife 8 the daughter of his brother and the 
daughter of his sister. Blank But Moses said: Lev 18:13 «Do not g approach your 
mother’s sister, she is a blood relation of your mother*. The law of incest, 
10 written for males, applies equally to females, and therefore to the daughter 
of a brother who uncovers the nakedness of the brother of n her father, for he 
is a blood relation. Blank And also they defile his holy spirit, 12 for with blasphe- 
mous tongue they have opened their mouth against the statutes of God’s cove- 
nant, saying: ((they are unfounded*. They speak abomination 13 against them. 
They are all igniters of fire, kindlers of blazes; webs 14 of a spider are their 
webs, and their eggs are viper’s eggs. Whoever is close to them 15 will not be 
unpunished; the more he does it, the guiltier he shall be, unless he has been 
compelled. For already in ancient times 16 God visited their deeds, and his 
wrath flared up against their actions, for it is not an intelligent people; 17 they 
are folk bereft of advice, in that there is no intelligence in them. For in ancient 
times there arose 18 Moses and Aaron, by the hand of the prince of lights and 
Belial, with his cunning, raised up Jannes and ig his brother during the first 
deliverance of Israel. Blank 20 Blank And in the age of devastation of the land 
there arose those who shifted the boundary and made Israel stray. 21 And the 
land became desolate, for they spoke of rebellion against God’s precepts 
through the hand of Moses and also 

Col. vi 1 of the holy anointed ones. They prophesied deceit in order to divert 
Israel from following 2 God. But God remembered the covenant of the very 
first, and from Aaron raised men of knowledge and from Israel 3 wise men, and 
forced them to listen. And they dug the well: Num 21:18 «A well which the 
princes dug, which 4 the nobles of the people delved with the staff*. The well 
is the law. And those who dug it are 5 the converts of Israel, who left the land 
of Judah and lived in the land of Damascus, 6 all of whom God called princes, 
for they sought him, and their renown has not been repudiated 7 in anyone’s 


CD VI 7-VII 14 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


37 


mouth. Blank And the staff is the interpreter of the law, of whom 8 Isaiah said: 
Isa 54:16 «He produces a tool for his labour». Blank And the nobles of the people 
are 9 those who have arrived to dig the well with the staves that the sceptre 
decreed, 10 to walk in them throughout the whole age of wickedness, and with- 
out which they will not obtain it, until there arises 11 he who teaches justice at 
the end of days. Blank But all those who have been brought into the covenant 
12 shall not enter the temple to kindle his altar in vain. They will be the ones 
who close 13 the door, as God said: Alai v.10 «Whoever amongst you will close 
its door so that you do not kindle my altar 14 in vain!». Unless they are careful 
to act in accordance with the exact interpretation of the law for the age of wick- 
edness: to separate themselves 15 from the sons of the pit; to abstain from 
wicked wealth which defiles, either by promise or by vow, 16 and from the 
wealth of the temple and from stealing from the poor of the people, from mak- 
ing their widows their spoils 17 and from murdering orphans; to separate un- 
clean from clean and differentiate between 18 the holy and the common; to keep 
the sabbath day according to the exact interpretation, and the festivals 19 and 
the day of fasting, according to what they had discovered, those who entered 
the new covenant in the land of Damascus; 20 to set apart holy portions accord- 
ing to their exact interpretation; for each to love his brother 21 like himself; to 
strengthen the hand of the poor, the needy and the foreigner; Blank for each to 
seek the peace 

Col. vii 1 of his brother and not commit sin against his blood relation; to refrain 
from fornication 2 in accordance with the regulation; for each to reprove his 
brother in accordance with the precept, and not to bear resentment 3 from one 
day to the next; to keep apart from every uncleanness according to their regula- 
tions, without 4 anyone defiling his holy spirit, according to what God kept 
apart for them. For all those who walk 5 according to these matters in perfect 
holiness, in accordance with his teaching, God’s covenant is a guarantee for 
them 6 that they shall live a thousand generations. Blank And if they reside in 
the camps in accordance with the rule of the land, and take 7 women and beget 
children, they shall walk in accordance with the law and according to the regu- 
lation 8 of the teachings, according to the rule of the law which says: Num3o:i7 
«Between a man and his wife, and between a father 9 and his son». But all those 
who despise (...) when God visits the earth in order to empty over them the 
punishment of the wicked, w when there comes the word which is written in 
the words of Isaiah, son of Amoz, the prophet, 11 which says: Isa 7: 17 «There 
shall come upon you, upon your people and upon your father’s house, days 
such as 12 have <not> come since the day Ephraim departed from Judah». When 
the two houses of Israel separated, 13 Ephraim detached itself from Judah, and 
all the renegades were delivered up to the sword; but those who remained 
steadfast 14 escaped to the land of the north. Blank As he said: Am 5:26-27 «I will 


3 « 


RULES 


CD VII 14-VIII 21 


deport the Sikkut of your King 15 and the Kiyyum of your images away from 
my tent to Damascus)). The books of the law are the Sukkat 76 of the King, as 
he said Am 9:11 «I will lift up the fallen Sukkat of David». The King 77 is the 
assembly; and the plinths of the images (and the Kiyyum of the images) are the 
books of the prophets, 18 whose words Israel despised. Blank And the star is the 
Interpreter of the law, 79 who will come to Damascus, as is written: Num 24:13 
«A star moves out of Jacob, and a sceptre arises 20 out of Israel)). The sceptre 
is the prince of the whole congregation and when he rises he will destroy 21 all 
the sons of Seth. Blank These escaped at the time of the first one’s visitation 

Col. vm 7 while the renegades were delivered up to the sword. Thus will be the 
judgment of all those entering his covenant but who 2 did not remain steadfast 
in them; they will have a visitation for destruction at the hand of Belial. This 
is the day 3 when God will make a visitation. The princes of Judah are those 
upon whom the rage will be vented, 4 for they hope to be healed but it will 
cleave to them (?); all are rebels in so far as they have not left the path of 5 the 
traitors and have defiled themselves in paths of licentiousness, and with wicked 
wealth, and avenging themselves, and each one bearing resentment 6 against his 
brother, and each one hating his fellow, and each one despising his blood rela- 
tive; 7 they have approached for debauchery and have manipulated with pride 
for wealth and gain. Each one did what was right in his eyes 8 and each one has 
chosen the stubbornness of his heart. They did not keep apart from the people 
and have rebelled with insolence, 9 walking on the path of the wicked, about 
whom God says: Dt 32:33 «Their wine is serpents’ venom w and the head of 
cruel, harsh asps». The serpents are the kings of the peoples and the wine 
77 their paths and the asps’ head is the head of the kings of Greece, which co- 
mes to carry out 12 vengeance against them. But all these things the builders of 
the wall or those who daub with whitewash, have not understood, for 13 one 
who raises wind and preaches lies, has preached to them, the one against whose 
congregation God’s wrath has been kindled. 14 And what Moses says: Di 9:5 
«Not for your justice, or for the uprightness of your heart are you going to 
possess 75 these nations, but because he loved your fathers and keeps the oath». 
16 Blank And thus is the judgment of the converts of Israel, who turned aside 
from the path of the people: on account of God’s love for 1 7 the very first who 
woke up after him, he loves those who come after them, because to them be- 
longs 18 the fathers’ covenant. Blank And in my hatred for the builders of the 
wall his anger is kindled. Blank And like this judgment 79 will be that of all who 
reject God’s precepts and forsake them and move aside in the stubbornness of 
their heart. 20 Blank This is the word which Jeremiah spoke to Baruch, son of 
Neriah, and Elishah 21 to Giezi his servant. Blank All the men who entered the 
new covenant in the land of Damascus 


CD XV-XVI 6 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


39 


[The copies from Cave 4 show that the sheets which comprise text A of the 
Genizah (ad-a) have not been published in the correct sequence. Apparently 
several sheets have been lost and in any case, columns xv-xvi came before col- 
umns ix-xiv. The translation follows this sequence, although for each column 
it retains the number assigned by the first editor.] 

Col. xv 1 [He will not sw]ear by the Aleph and the Lamed (’el = God) nor by 
the Aleph and the Daleth (’adonai = The Lord), but by the oath of the youths, 
2 by the curses of the covenant. Blank Neither should one mention the law of 
Moses, for [. . .] 3 Blank And if he swears and transgresses, he would profane the 
name. Blank And if he swfears] by the curses of the covenant [he should do it 
before] 4 the judges. Blank If he transgresses, he will be guilty and will have to 
confess and make amends but he shall not be liable [for sin and shall not] 5 die. 
Blank Whoever enters the covenant, for all Israel for an eternal law, he must 
impose upon his sons, 6 who belong to those who are enrolled, the oath of the 
covenant. Blank And such is 7 the regulation, throughout all the age of wicked- 
ness, for whoever goes back from his path of corruption. On the day when he 
talks 8 to the Inspector of the Many, they shall enrol him with the covenant 
oath which Moses established 9 with Israel, the covenant to rev[ert to] the law 
of Moses with the whole heart [and with the whole] 10 soul, to what has been 
discovered that has to be put into practice in all of the a[ge of wickedness]. But 
no-one should make him know 11 the precepts until he stands in front of the 
Inspector, lest he appears to be simple when they test him. 12 But when he has 
imposed upon himself to return to the law of Moses with all his heart and all 
his soul 13 [they will exact revenge] from him if he should sin. Blank And if he 
fulfils all that has been revealed of the law [for the multitude] 14 [of the camp], 
the Overseer should teach him and give orders concerning him which he 
should learn 13 throughout a full year. And in accordance with (his) knowledge 
<he will approach. And no-one> stupid or deranged (should enter); and anyone 
feeble[- minded and insane,] /6 those with sightless [eyes, the lame or one who 
stumbles, or a deaf person, or an under-age boy, none of these] 17 should enter 
[the congregation, since the holy angels are in its midst.] 18 [...]... ig [...]... 
20 [...]... 

Col. xvi 1 with you a covenant and with all Israel. Therefore, the man will make 
binding upon <his> soul to return to 2 the law of Moses, for in it all is defined. 
Blank And the exact interpretation of their ages about the blindness 3 of Israel 
in all these matters, behold, it is defined in the book «of the divisions of the 
periods 4 according to their jubilees and their weeks*. And on the day on which 
the man has pledged himself to return 5 to the law of Moses, the angel 
Mastema will turn aside from following him, should he keep his word. 6 This 
is why Abraham circumcised himself on the day of his knowledge. Blank And 


40 


RULES 


CD XVI 6-ix 17 


as for what he said: 0123:24 «What issues from your mouth, 7 keep it and carry 
it out». Every binding oath by which anyone has pledged 8 to fulfil the letter of 
the law, he should not annul, even at the price of death. Blank Anything by 
which 9 he might pledge to turn away fr[om the la]w, he should not fulfil, not 
even when the price is death. 10 Concerning the oath of a woman. Since he 
says: Num 30: 7-9 <dt is for the husband to annul her oath», 11 no-one should an- 
nul an oath if he does not know whether he should carry it out [...]. or annul 
it. 12 If it is to violate the covenant, he should annul it and should not carry it 
out. Blank And the regulation applies also to her father. 13 Concerning the regu- 
lation for freewill-offerings. No-one should dedicate anything, obtained by 
unjust means, to the altar. Neither 14 should the priests take from Israel (any- 
thing obtained by unjust means). No-one should pronounce holy the food 15 [of 
his mouth for G]od, for this is what he says: Mic 7:2 «Each one traps his fellow 
with anathema». Blank And no-one should 16 pronounce holy anything of [...] 
his possession 17 he will pronounce holy [. . .] will be punished, 18 he who dedi- 
cates [. . .] 1 9 in order to judge [. . .] 20 

Col. ix 1 Blank Every man who gives a human person to anathema shall be exe- 
cuted according to the laws of the gentiles. 2 And what it says: Lev 19:18 «Do not 
avenge yourself or bear resentment against the sons of your people»: everyone 
of those who entered 3 the covenant who brings an accusation against his fel- 
low, unless it is with reproach before witnesses, 4 or who brings it when he is 
angry, or he tells it to his elders so that they despise him, he is «the one who 
avenges himself and bears resentment)). 5 Blank Is it not perhaps written that 
only Nah 1:2 «he (God) avenges himself and bears resentment against his ene- 
mies))? 6 If he kept silent about him from one day to the other, or accused him 
of a capital offence, 7 he has witnessed against himself, for he did not fulfil the 
commandment of God which tells him: Lev 19:17 «You shall 8 reproach your 
fellow so as not to incur sin because of him». Blank Concerning the oath. As for 
what he 9 said: 1 Sm 25:26 «You shall not do justice with your (own) hand», but 
whoever forces the making of an oath in the open field, 10 not in the presence 
of judges or at their command, has done justice for himself with his hand. 
Every lost object 11 about which it is not known who stole it from the property 
of the camp in which it was stolen -its owner should make a maledictory 
12 oath; whoever hears it, if he knows and does not say it, is guilty. 13 Blank 
Every illegal object which should be given back and has no owner - he who 
gives it back should confess to the priest 14 and it will be for himself, apart 
from the ram of the sin-offering. Blank And in the same way, every lost object 
which has been found and has 15 no owner, will be for the priests, for he who 
found it does not know the regulation in its regard; 16 if its owner is not found, 
they shall keep it. Blank Any matter in which a man sins 17 against the law, and 
his fellow sees him and he is alone; if it is a capital matter, he shall denounce 


CD IX 17-XI 3 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


41 


him 18 in his presence, with reproach, to the Inspector, and the Inspector shall 
write with his hand until he commits it ig again in the presence of someone 
alone, and he denounces him to the Inspector; if he returns and is surprised in 
the presence of 20 someone alone, his judgment is complete; but if they are 
two, one and one, who testify about 21 a different matter, the man is only to be 
excluded from the pure food on condition that 22 they are trustworthy, and that 
on the same day on which he saw him, he denounces him to the Inspector. And 
concerning riches, they shall accept two 23 trustworthy witnesses. And one, to 
exclude from the holy food. A witness is not to be accepted 

Col. x 1 by the judges to condemn to death on his word, if he has not completed 
his days to pass 2 among those who are recruited, and is fearful of God. Blank 
No-one 3 who has consciously transgressed anything of a precept is to be be- 
lieved as a witness against his fellow, until he has been purified to return. 
4 Blank And this is the rule of the judges of the congregation. Ten men in num- 
ber, chosen 5 from among the congregation, for a period; four from the tribe 
of Levi and of Aaron and six from Israel; 6 learned in the book of hagy and 
in the principles of the covenant; between 7 twenty-five and sixty years. And 
no-one over 8 sixty years should hold the office of judging the congregation, for 
on account of man’s sin g his days were shortened, and because of God’s wrath 
against the inhabitants of the earth, he decided to remove knowledge 10 from 
them before they completed their days. Concerning purification with water. 
11 No-one should bathe in water which is dirty or which is less than the amount 
which covers a man. 12 Blank No-one should purify a vessel in it. And every 
cavity in the rock in which there is not the amount 13 which covers, if an im- 
pure person has touched it, he has defiled the water like the water of a vase. 
14 Concerning the sabbath, to observe it in accordance with its regulation. Blank 
No-one should do 13 work on the sixth day, from the moment when the sun’s 
disc is 16 at a distance of its diameter from the gate, for this is what he says: 
Dt 5:12 «Observe the 17 sabbath day to keep it holy». And on the day of the sab- 
bath, no-one should say a 18 useless or stupid word. He is not to lend anything 
to his fellow. He is not to discuss riches or gain, ig He is not to speak about 
matters of work or of the task to be carried out on the following day. 20 Blank 
No-one is to walk in the field to do the work which he wishes 2/ <on> the sab- 
bath. He is not to walk more than one thousand cubits outside the city. 22 Blank 
No-one is to eat on the sabbath day except what has been prepared; and from 
what is lost 23 in the field, he should not eat. And he should not drink except 
of what there is in the camp. 

Col. xi 1 On the road, if he goes down to bathe, he should drink where he 
stands. Blank But he is not to draw it with 2 any vessel. He is not to send a for- 
eigner to do what he wishes on the sabbath day. 3 Blank No-one is to wear dirty 


42 


RULES 


CD XI 3-XII 11 


clothes or (clothes) which are in the chest, unless 4 they have been washed with 
water or rubbed with incense. Blank No-one should fast voluntarily 5 on the 
sabbath. Blank No-one should go after an animal to pasture it outside his city, 
except for 6 a thousand cubits. Blank He is not to raise his hand to strike with 
the fist. Blank If 7 it is stubborn, he should not remove it from his house. Blank 
No-one should remove anything from the house 8 to outside, or from outside 
to the house. Even if he is in a hut, he should remove nothing from it 9 or 
bring anything into it. He is not to open a sealed vessel on the sabbath. Blank 
No-one should wear 10 perfumes on the sabbath, to go out or come in. Blank In 
his dwelling no-one should lift 1 1 a stone or dust. Blank The wet-nurse should 
not lift the baby to go out or come in on the sabbath. 12 Blank No-one should 
press his servant or his maidservant or his employee on the sabbath. Blank {Not} 
No-one should help an animal give birth on the sabbath day. Blank And if he 
makes it fall into a well 14 or a pit, he should not take it out on the sabbath. 
Blank No-one should stay in a place close 7 5 to gentiles on the sabbath. Blank No- 
one should profane the sabbath by riches or gain on the sabbath. 16 Blank And 
any living man who falls into a place of water or into a place <...>, 77 no-one 
should take him out with a ladder or a rope or a utensil. Blank No-one should 
offer anything upon the altar on the sabbath, 18 except the sacrifice of the sab- 
bath, for thus is it written: Lev 23:38 «except your offerings of the sabbath*. Blank 
No-one should send 79 to the altar a sacrifice, or an offering, or incense, or 
wood, by the hand of a man impure from any 20 of the impurities, so allowing 
him to defile the altar, for it is written: Prov 15:8 «the sacrifice 21 of the wicked 
is an abomination, but the prayer of the just is like an agreeable offering*. Blank 
And everyone who enters 22 the house of prostration should not enter with 
impurity requiring washing; and when the trumpets of the assembly sound, 23 
he may advance or retreat, but the whole service should not stop. . . 

Col. xii 7 it is holy. No man should sleep with his wife in the city of the temple, 
defiling 2 the city of the temple with their impurity. Blank Every /man/ over 
whom the spirit of Belial dominates 3 and he preaches apostasy, will be judged 
according to the regulation of the necromancer or the diviner. But every one 
who goes astray, 4 defiling the sabbath and the festivals, shall not be executed, 
for guarding him 5 belongs to men; and if he is cured of it, they shall guard 
him for seven years and afterwards 6 he shall enter the assembly. Blank He is not 
to stretch out his hand to shed the blood of one of the gentiles 7 for the sake of 
riches and gain. Blank Neither should he take any of his riches, so that they do 
not 8 blaspheme, except on the advice of the company of Israel. Blank No-one 
should sell an animal, 9 or a clean bird, to the gentiles lest they sacrifice them. 
Blank 10 And he should not sell them anything from his granary or his press, at 
any price. And his servant and his maidservant: he should not sell them, 77 for 
they entered the covenant of Abraham with him. Blank No-one should defile his 


CD XII 1 1 — XIII 15 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


43 


soul 12 with any living being or one which creeps, by eating them, from the 
larvae of bees to every living 13 being which creeps in water. And fish: they 
should not eat them unless they have been opened up 14 alive, and the[ir blood 
poured] away. And all the locusts, according to their kind, shall be put into fire 
or into water 13 while they are still alive, as this is the regulation for their spe- 
cies. And all the wood and the stones 16 and the dust which are defiled by 
man’s impurity, by defilement of oil in them, 17 in accordance with their un- 
cleanness will make whoever touches them impure. Blank And every utensil, 
{nail} nail or peg in the wall 18 which is with a dead person in the house will be 
unclean with the same uncleanness as tools for work, ig Blank Rule for the as- 
sembly of the cities of Israel. In accordance with these regulations, to keep 
20 the unclean apart from the clean, and distinguish between holy and profane. 
Blank And these are the ordinances 21 for the Instructor, so that he walks in 
them with every living thing, according to the regulation for every time. And 
in accordance with this regulation 22 shall the seed of Israel walk and it will not 
be cursed. Blank And this is the rule of the assembly 23 [of the ca]mps. Those 
who walk in them, in the time of wickedness until there arises the messiah of 
Aaron 

Col. xiii 1 and Israel, they shall be ten in number as a minimum to (form) thou- 
sands, hundreds, fifties 2 and tens. And in the place of ten, a priest learned in 
the book of hagy should not be lacking; and by 3 his authority all shall be 
governed. And if there should not be an expert in them all, and one of the 
levites is an expert 4 in them, the lot has fallen to all the members of the camp 
to go out and come in, on his authority. Blank But if 5 there is a judgment 
against anyone about the law of leprosy, the priest shall take his place in the 
camp 6 and the Inspector shall instruct him in the exact interpretation of the 
law. Blank Even if he is a simpleton, he is the one who shall intern him, for his 
is 7 the judgment. Blank And this is the rule of the Inspector of the camp. He 
shall instruct the Many in the deeds of 8 God, and shall teach them his mighty 
marvels, and recount to them the eternal events with their solutions, g He shall 
have pity on them like a father on his sons, and will heal all the strays (?) like 
a shepherd his flock. 10 He will undo all the chains which bind them, so that 
there will be neither harassed nor oppressed in his congregation. 11 Blank And 
everyone who joins his congregation, he should examine, concerning his ac- 
tions, his intelligence, his strength, his courage and his wealth; 12 and they shall 
inscribe him in his place according to his condition in the lot of light. Blank No- 
one 13 of the members of the camp should have authority to introduce anyone 
into the congregation against the decision] of the Inspector of the camp. 
14 Blank And none of those who have entered the covenant of God «should 
either take anything from or give (anything) to» the sons of the pit, 15 except 
for «from hand to hand». Blank And no-one should make a deed of purchase or 


44 


RULES 


CD XIII 15-XIV 22 


of sale without informing 16 the Inspector of the camp and making a contract; 
and he is not [...] ... 17 [...] And likewise, the one who divorces (?); [. ..] jS[...] 
they shall reply to him and with compassionate love shall not bear resentment 
against them [...] 19 [...] and the one which is not tied [...] 20 [...] Blank And 
this is the assembly of the camps in all [...] 21 [...] they shall not succeed in 
dwelling in the land [. . .] 22 [. . . These are the regulations ] for the Instructor, 
[to follow them...] 

Col. xiv 1 as have not come since the day on which Ephraim became separated 
from Judah»; and (to) all those who walk in them, 2 the covenant of God is 
faithful to save them from all the nets of the pit, for <they will come) suddenly 
and be punished. 3 Blank Rule of the session of all the camps. All shall be en- 
listed by their names: the priests first, 4 the levites second, the children of Is- 
rael third, and the proselyte fourth; and they shall be inscribed by their 
[na]mes, 5 each one after his brother; the priests first, the levites second, the 
children of Israel 6 third and the proselyte fourth. And thus shall they sit and 
thus shall they be questioned about everything. And the priest who is named 
7 [at the he]ad of the Many will be between thirty and sixty years old, learned 
in the book of 8 [hagy] and in all the regulations of the law, to say them in 
accordance with their regulations. Blank And the Inspector who is 9 over all the 
camps will be between thirty years and sixty years of age, master of every 
10 secret of men and of every language according to their families. On his au- 
thority, the members of the assembly shall enter, 11 each one in his turn; and 
every affair which any man needs to say to the Inspector, should say it 12 in 
connection with any dispute or judgment. Blank And this is the rule of the 
Many, to provide for all their needs: the salary 13 of two days each month at 
least. They shall place it in the hand of the Inspector and of the judges. 14 
From it they shall give to the orphans and with it they shall strengthen the 
hand of the needy and the poor, and to the elder who 15 [is dy]ing, and to the 
vagabond, and to the prisoner of a foreign people, and to the girl who 16 has no 
protector, and to the unma[rried woman] who has no suitor; and for all the 
works of the company, and 17 [the house of the company shall not be deprived 
of its means]. Blank And this is the exact interpretation of the session of [the 
Many, and these are the foundations] 18 [which the assembly make.] Blank And 
this is the exact interpretation of the regulations by which [they shall be ruled] 
ig [until there arises the messiah] of Aaron and Israel. He shall atone for their 
sins [. . . pardon, and guilt] 20 [. . .] in riches, although he knows, and [. . .] 21 [. . .] 
he shall be punished for six days. And he who spe[aks. . .] 22 [. . .] without justifi- 
cation, [shall be punished for a] year [. . .] 


CD XIX 1-26 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


45 


Damascus Document* (cd-b) 

Col. xix (= cd-a vii, 5 - 10 ; viii, 2-21) 1 is a guarantee for them that they shall 

live a thousand generations. Blank As it is written: Di 7:9 «He keeps the covenant 
and favour 2 for those who love him and keep his precepts for a thousand gen- 
erations*. And if they reside in the camps in accordance with the rule of 3 the 
land, as it was since ancient times, and take wives in accordance with the cus- 
tom of the law, and beget children, 4 they shall walk in accordance with the 
law. Blank And according to the regulation of the teachings, according to the 
rule of the law 5 which says: Num 30:17 «/Between/ a man and his wife, and 
between a father and his son». But (over) all those who despise the precepts 6 
and the ordinances, may be emptied over them the punishment of the wicked, 
when God visits the earth, 7 when there comes the word which is written by 
the hand of Zechariah, the prophet: Zech 13:7 «Wake up, sword, 8 against my 
shepherd, and against the male who is my companion -oracle of God -wound 
the shepherd and scatter the flock 9 and I shall return my hand upon the little 
ones*. Those who are faithful to him are the poor ones of the flock. 10 These 
shall escape in the age of the visitation; but those that remain shall be delivered 
up to the sword when there comes the messiah 11 of Aaron and Israel. As hap- 
pened in the age of the visitation of the first one, as {Ezekiel} said 12 by the 
hand of Ezekiel: Ez 9:4 « {mark} To mark with a tau the foreheads of those who 
sigh and groan*. 13 But those who remained were delivered up to the sword, 
which carries out the vengeance of the covenant. Thus will be the judgment of 
all who entered 14 his covenant, but did not remain steadfast in these precepts; 
they shall be visited for destruction at the hand of Belial. 15 This is the day 
when God will make a visitation, as he says: Hoss.-io «The princes of Judah will 
be like those who move 16 the boundary, upon them he will pour out his fury 
like w[ater]». For they entered the covenant of conversion, 17 but did not keep 
themselves apart from the path of traitors and defiled themselves by paths of 
licentiousness and with wicked wealth, 18 avenging themselves, each one bear- 
ing resentment against his brother and each one hating his fellow, and each one 
despising 19 his blood relative; they have approached for debauchery and have 
manipulated with pride for wealth and gain {. . .} 20 Each one did what was right 
[in his] eyes and each one has chosen the stubbornness of his heart. They did 
not keep apart from the people 21 and from their sins. And they have [rebe]lled 
with insolence, walking on the path of the wicked, about whom 22 God says: 
Dt 32:33 «Their wine is serpents’ venom and the head of cruel, harsh asps*. The 
serpents 23 are the kings of the peoples and the wine, their paths and the asps’ 
head is the head 24 of the kings of Greece, which comes to carry out vengeance 
against them. But the builders of 25 the wall have not understood all of these 
things, nor those who daub with whitewash, because of one who raises up 
storms, and preaches 26 lies, to the man, the one against whose congregation 


46 


RULES 


CD XIX 26-XX 18 


God’s wrath has been kindled. Blank And what Moses says 27 to Israel: Dt 9:5 and 
7:8 «Not for your justice, or for the uprightness of your heart are you going to 
possess these nations, 28 but because he loved your fathers and keeps the oath». 
So is 29 the judgment] of the converts of Israel, who turned away from the 
path of the people on account of God’s love. He loves the very first 30 who 
testified against the people, following God, and those who come after them, 
because to them belongs 31 the fathers’ covenant. And God hates and detests 
the builders of the wall and his anger is kindled against them and against all 
32 those who follow them. And like this judgment will be that of all who reject 
God’s precepts {...} 33 and forsake them and move aside in the stubbornness 
of their heart. And thus, all the men who entered the new 34 covenant in the 
land of Damascus and turned and betrayed and departed from the well of liv- 
ing waters, 35 shall not be counted in the assembly of the people and shall not 
be inscribed in their [lisjts, from the day of the session {of him who te<aches> 
/ of the teacher} 

Col. xx 1 of the unique Teacher until there arises the messiah of Aaron and 
Israel. Blank And so is the judgment 2 of everyone who enters the congregation 
of the men of perfect holiness and is slack in the fulfilment of the instructions 
of the upright. 3 This is the man who is melted in the crucible. Blank When his 
deeds are evident, he shall be expelled from the congregation, 4 like one whose 
lot did not fall among the disciples of God. In accordance with his misdeed, all 
the men 5 of knowledge shall reproach him, until the day when he returns to 
take his place in the session of the men of perfect holiness {for 6 his lot is not 
in the midst of}. But when his deeds are evident, according to the exact inter- 
pretation of the law in which 7 the men of perfect holiness walked, no-one 
should associate with him in wealth or work, 8 for all the holy ones of the Most 
High have cursed him. And (proceed) according to this judgment, with all 
those who despise, among the first 9 as among the last, for they have placed 
idols in their heart {and have placed} and have walked in the stubbornness of 
10 their heart. For them there shall be no part in the house of the law. Blank 
They shall be judged according to the judgment of their companions, who 
turned round 11 with insolent men, for they spoke falsehood about the holy 
regulations and despised 1 2 the covenant {of God} and the pact which they 
established in the land of Damascus, which is the first covenant. 1 3 And neither 
for them nor their families shall there shall be a part in the house of the law. 
Blank And from the day 14 of the gathering in of the unique teacher, until the 
destruction of all the men of war who turned back 15 with the man of lies, 
there shall be about forty years. Blank And in this age the wrath 16 of God will 
be kindled against Israel, as he says: Has 3:4 «There shall be no king, no prince, 
no judge, no-one [who] 17 reproaches in justice)). But the converts from the sin 
of [Ja]cob, those keeping the covenant of God, shall then speak, each 18 to his 


CD XX- 4 QD' 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


47 


fellow, each one to make his brother holy, so that their steps become steady in 
the path of God, and God pays attention to / g their words. And he will listen; 
and it will be written in a book of remembrance [before him] for those who fear 
God and think on 20 his name, until salvation and justice are revealed to those 
who fear [God. And they shall distinguish] again between the just 21 and the 
wicked, between whoever serves God and whoever does not serve him. He 
shows mercy to [thousands,] to whoever loves him 22 and whoever is faithful 
to him, for a thousand generations. [... those of] the house of Peleg, who left 
the holy city 23 and leaned on God in the age of Israel’s unfaithfulness; but 
they defiled the temple and turned back 24 to the pa[th] of the people in some 
things. All these, each one according to his spirit, shall be judged in the holy 
25 council. Blank And all, among those who entered the covenant, transgressing 
the limits of the law, when 26 the glory of God is manifested to Israel, shall be 
cut off from amongst the camp, and with them all the wicked men of 27 Judah 
in the days of the purges. Blank But all those who remain steadfast in these 
regulations, coming 28 and going in accordance with the law, and listen to the 
Teacher’s voice, and confess before God: ((Assuredly 29 have we sinned, both 
we and our fathers, walking contrary to the ordinances of the covenant; justice 
30 and truth are your judgments against us»; and they do not raise their hand 
against his holy regulations and his just 31 judgments and his truthful stipula- 
tions; and they are instructed in the first ordinances, 32 in conformity with 
which the men of the Unique One were judged; and they lend their ears to the 
voice of the Teacher of Righteousness; and do not reject 33 the holy regulations 
when they hear them; these shall exult and rejoice and their heart will be 
strong, and they shall prevail 34 over all the sons of the world. And God will 
atone for them, and they shall see his salvation, for they have taken refuge in 
his holy name. 


B Copies from Cave 4 
4QDamascus Document" (4Q266 [4QD"]) 

Frag. 1 (lines 2 - 8 = 4Q d* 11, 1 - 6 ; lines 9 - 17 = CD - A 1, 1 - 1 1) / [. . . .the] final 

[generations.] Did not, perhaps. . .[...]? 2 [.. .] this is his beginning and this, his 
end [...] 3 [...until] there comes upon them, for ... [...] 4 [... for there is no] 
before or after in his festivals [...] 5 Blank Did he not, perhaps, establish the 
time of an[ger for those who do not know] 6 [. . .] will, for those who examine 
his precepts and [walk on the perfect] 7 path and [... and examine hidden 
things and open their ears and [hear profound things] A’ and understand every- 
thing that happens when it comes upon them. Blank [. . .] 9 Now, then, listen to 
me, all you who know justice, and understand the deeds [of God; for he has a 
dispute] jo [with all flesh,] and will carry out judgment against all those who 


4 8 


RULES 


4QD a ~* 

despise him. For when they were unfaithful in] n [abandoning him, he hid his 
fa]ce from Israel [and] from his sanctuary, and delivered] them [up to the 
sword. But when he remembered] 12 [the covenant of the very] first, he 
preserved a re]mnant for Israel and did [not deliver them up to destruction.] 
13 [And at the moment of wrath,] three hundred and ninfety ye]ars [after hav- 
ing delivered them up into the hands of Nebuchadnezzar,] 14 [king of Baby- 
lon,] he visited them and cau[sed to sprout from Isra]el and from Aar[on] a 
shofot of the planting, in order to possess] is [his land and to become fat with 
the good] things of his soil. And they realised their s]in and knew that they 
were] 16 [guilty men; but they were like blind persons and like those who look] 
for the pa[th by groping w over twenty years. And] 17 [God appraised their 
deeds, because they sought] him [with a perfect heart and raised up for them 
a Teacher of Righteousness] 

Frag. 2 (= CD-A XIV, 2-6) 1 [and (to) all those who walk in them, the covenant 

of God is faithful, to save them from a]ll 2 [the nets of the pit, for (they come) 
suddenly and /. . . / Rule of the session of all the camps. All shall be en]listed 

3 [by their names: the priests first, the levites second, the children of Israel 
thi]rd, 4 [and the proselyte fourth; and they shall be inscribed by their [na]mes, 
each one after his brother; the priests first,] the levites 5 [second, the children 
of Israel third and the proselyte fourth. And thus shall they sit and th]us shall 
they be questioned about 

Frag. 3 ]. . .the holy[ one(s) 

4QDamascus Document* (4Q267 [4QD*]) 

Frag. 1 1 [.. .the so]ns of light to depart from the pa[ths of. . .] 2 [. . .] until the 

completion of time of the visitation [...] 3 [...] all their deeds. The flames [. . .] 

4 ... [. . . a]ll those who move the boundary, and he shall wreak destruction [. . .] 

5 the evil [. . .] ... and he shall make them know ... [. . .] 6 the terrible [. . .] his 
marvel (?), he will tell them [...] 7 of man [...] the heavens, who lives ... [...] 
Sin the depths of [...] 9 the seal [...] 10-13 [■■■] 14 in the precep[ts. . .] 15 in the 
offering [. . .] ?6 the voice of Moses [. . .] 17 he slanders the laws and precepts of 
God [...] 18 the small and the great ... [...] 19 We show, then, [...] 20 he has 
destroyed you [...] 21 you shall get up and understand [...] 22 [...] they shall 
reject [...we are dust] 23 and ashes, and whoever [...not] 24 understand [...] 
*5 ■■■[■■■] 

Frag. 2 col. 1 (lines 1-6 = 4QD S 1, 2-8; lines 6-23 = cd-a i, 1-20) 1 [this is his 

beginning and this is his end...] until 2 [there comes upon them, for ...] for 
there is no advancing or delaying his festivals. 3 [. . .] Did he not, perhaps, es- 


4QD* 2 I — II 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


49 


tablish the time of anger for those who do not know 4 [. . . will, for those who 
exa]mine his precepts and walk on the perfect path 5 [. . . and examine hidden 
things andj open their ears and hear profound things and understand 6 [every- 
thing that happens when it comes upon them. Blank ] Now then, listen, all those 
of you who know 7 justice, and understand the actions [of God; for he has a 
dispute with] all flesh and will carry out judgment 8 against all those who spurn 
[him. For when they were unfaithful in forsaking him,] he hid his fa[ce from 
Is]rael and from his sanctuary g and delivered them up to the sword. However, 
when he remembered the covenant of the very first, he saved a remnant] for 
Israel and did not 10 deliver them up to destruction. And at the moment of 
wrath,] three [hundred and ninety years] after having delivered them up into 
the hands u of Ne[buchadne]zzar, king of Babylon, he visited them [and 
caused to sprout from Israel] and from Aar[on] a shoot 12 [of the pla]nting, in 
order to possess [his land and to become fat with the good things of his soil. 
And they realised their s]in and knew 13 that they were guilty men; [but they 
were like blind persons and like those who look] for the path by groping over 
twenty [years. 14 And God appraised their [deeds, because they sought him 
with a perfect heart and raised up for them a Teacher of Righteousness,] 15 in 
order to direct them in the path of his heart. [And in order to make known to 
the last generations what] 16 he had done to the final generation, the congrega- 
tion of traitors. These are the ones who stray from the path. This is the time 
1 7 about which it has been written: Hos 4:16 «Like a stray heifer so has Israel 
strayed», 18 when ‘the sco[ffer’ arose, who scattered the waters of lies over Is- 
rael and] made them stray into a wilderness ig without path, flattening the ever- 
lasting [heights, diverging from tracks of justice and] removing the boundary 
with which the original ones had marked [their inheritance, so that the curjses 
of his covenant [would adhere to them,] 21 to deliver them up to the sw[ord 
carrying out the vengeance of the covenant. For they sought] easy interpreta- 
tions, 22 chose illusions, [scrutinised loopholes, chose the handsome] neck, 
acquitted 23 [the guilty and sentenced the just, violated the covenant broke the 
precept,] colluded together against 24 [the life of the just man, their soul abomi- 
nated all those who walk in perfection, they hunted them down with the sword 
and provoked the dispute of the people.] 

Frag. 2 col 11 (= CD- A 1, 21-11, 21) 1 And kindled was the wrath of God against 

his congregation, [laying waste all its great number, for their deeds were un- 
clean] 2 before him. Now, then, lis[ten to me, all who enter the covenant, and 
I will open your ears to the paths of the wicked] 3 and from all the tracks of s[in 
I shall divert you. God loves knowledge; wisdom and counsel] 4 has he estab- 
lished before himself; pruden[ce and knowledge are at his service; patience is 
his and abundance of pardons to atone] 5 for those who turn back from 
wickefdness. . .] 6 without there being servicef. . . For God did not choose them] 


— 


50 RULES 4QD 4 2-3I1 

7 at the beginning of the world, [and before they were established he knew their 
deeds, and abominated the generations on account of blood,] Sand hid his fa[ce 
from the country. . . until their extinction. And he knew the years of their exis- 
tence,] 9 and the number and detail [of their ages, of all those who exist over 
the centuries, and of those who will exist,] to until it ocfcurs in their ages 
throughout all the everlasting years. And in all of them he raised up for him- 
self,] a famous pefople, to leave a remnant for the country and in order to fill 
the face of the universe] 12 with their offspring. And he taught them by the 
hand of the anointed ones through his holy spirit and through seers of the 
truth.] 13 With precision their names [were established. But those he hates, he 
causes to stray. Now, then, my sons, listen] 14 to me [and I shall open your eyes 
so that you can see and understand the deeds of God, so that you can choose 
what] 15 he is [pleased with and repudiate what he hates. . . so that you can walk] 
16 perfectly on all his paths [and not allow yourselves to be attracted by the 
thoughts of a guilty inclination and lascivious eyes. For many went astray for 
these things;] 17 brave heroes yieldfed on their account, from ancient times 
until now. For having walked in the stubbornness of their hearts] 18 the Watch- 
ers of the [heavens fell; on its account they were caught, for they did not follow 
the precepts of God; in the same way their sons fell, whose height was like that 
of cedars] 19 [and whose bodies were like] mountains. [All flesh which there was 
in the dry earth decayed and became] 20 as if it had never [been, for having 
realized their desires and failing to keep their creator’s precepts, until] 21 his 
wrath [flared up against them. 22 [. . .] 

Frag. 3 col. 1 (= cd-a iv, 8- 10) 7 [the law in which the very first were instructed 

until] the period 8 [of these years is complete. According to the covenant which 
God established with the very] first, in order to atone 9 [for their sins, so will 
God atone for them. But when the period is complete] corresponding to [the 
number] 

Frag. 3 col. 11 (= CD - A v, 12 - vi, 7) 9 [God’s covenant, saying: «they are un- 

founded*. They speak abomination against] them. [They are all igniters of fire,] 
10 [kindlers of blazes; webs of a spider are their webs, and their eggs are 
vi]per’s eg[gs. Whoever is close] 11 [to them will not be unpunished; even more 
so, if the fault is greater, unless he has been compjelled. For since ancient 
[times God visited] 12 [their] deeds, [and his wrath flared up against their ac- 
tions, «for it is a people] in which there is no intelligence*, [they are a nation] 
13 [be]reft of counsels [in that there is no intelligence in them. For in ancient] 
times there afrose Moses] 14 [and Aa]ron, by the hand of the pri[nce of lig]hts, 
[and Belial, raised up Jan]nes and [his brother] 13 with his [cunning] [during the 
wickedness] during the first deliverance of Israel.] And in the [age of devasta- 
tion of] ib [the land there a]rose those who removed the boundary [and made 


4Qd“ 3 ii -iv 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


51 


Israel stray. And they razed the countryside, for they spoke] 77 [of rebellion 
against] God’s precepts through the hand of [Moses and also of the holy 
anointed ones. They prophesied deceit] 18 [in order to divjert Israel from fol- 
lowing [God. But God remembered the covenant of the very first, and from] 
ig [Aaron] raised men of knowledge /and from Israel wi[se men], and forced 
them to lisften.] /as Moses sa[ys: «. . ..] 20 [. . . with the spa]de». The well is the 
[law. And those who dug it are the converts of Israel,] 21 [who left the] land of 
Judah and lived [in the land of Damascus, all of whom God called] 22 [princes, 
for they sought him, and their renown] has not [been repudiated in anyone’s 
mouth.] 

Frag. 3 col. in (= cd -a vi, 9-17) 3 [that the spade decreed, to walk in them 

throughout the whole age of wickedness, and without whi]ch they will [not] 
4 [obtain it, until there arises he who teaches justice at the end of days.] But all 
those who have been brought 5 [into the cove]nant shall not [enter the temple 
to kindle his altar in vain.] He is the one who closes the door, 6 as God [said: 
Mai 1:10 «Whoever amongst you will close its door so that you do not kind]le my 
altar in vain!». 7 [Un]less [they are care]ful [to act in accordance with the exact 
interpretation of the law for the a]ge of wicke[dness: to be keep] apart from the 
sons of 8 [the p]it; [to abstain from wicked wealth which defiles, either by] 
promise or by [vow, and from the wealth of the] g [temple and from stealing 
from the poor of the people, from making their wi]dows their spo[ils, and or- 
phans] 

Frag. 3 col. iv (= cd-a vii, 1 1 — vm, 9) ; as for what he sa[ys: Isa 7:77 «There 

shall come upon you, upon your people and upon your father’s house, days 
such as] 2 have not comfe since the day Ephraim separated from Judah». When 
the two houses of Israel separated,] 3 all [the renegades were delivered up to the 
sword...] 4 [...] 5 [...] 6 [The King is the assembly; [and the plinths of the 
imag]es are the b[ooks of] the prophets, 7 whose wo[rds Israel despised. And 
the star] is the Interpreter of the] law, 8 [who will come] to Damascus, as is 
written: Num 24:13 «[A star] moves out [of Jacob 9 [and a sceptre ari]ses out of 
Israel». The sceptre is the prince [of the whole congregation] 10 [and when he 
rises he will demolish | all the sons of Seth. Blank The[se will escape in the age 
of] 77 t[he first one’s visitation.] Blank And the renegades will [be delivered up] 
to the sword. [Thus will be the judg]ment of 12 [all those entering his covenant 
but do not remain steadfast [ in these;] they will have a visitation for destruc- 
tion] at the hand of 13 [Belial.] This is the day when [God] will make a visita- 
tion, as [he says:] «Today 14 [. . .»] the day when 75 [. . .] all the rebels 16 [in so far 
as they have not left the path of the traitors and have been defined by paths of 
licentiousness 77 [and by wicked wealth and avenging themselves, and each one 
bearing resentment against his brother and] each one [hating his] fellow, 18 [and 


52 


RULES 


4 QD* 4 - 7 

each one despising his blood relative;] they have approached [for debauchery 
and have manipulated with pride for wealth] ig [and gain. Each one did what 
was right in his ey]es and each one has chos[en the stubbornness of his heart.] 
20 [They did not keep apart from the people and have rebelled with a raised 
hand] walking on the path of the wicked] 

Frag. 4 (= cd-b xx, 33-34) ; [and they shall rejoice] and their heart [will be 

strong, and they shall dominate all the sons of the world.] 2 [And God will 
atone for them, and they] shall see his salvatjion for they have taken refuge in 
his holy name.] 3 [. . .]and they shall strengthen 

Frag. 5 / [. . . the regulations [. . .] ... 2 [. . .] for all the upright of heart in Israel 

3 [...] the regulations of his justice [...] 4 [...] ... [...] 

Frag. 6 col. 1 6 [...] and they restore strength in leprosy [...] 7 [the holy men 

who are strengthened by his ho[ly] name [...]£ [and he binds himself to re- 
turn...]... for in Judah [...] 9 [...] Israel when he arises [...] to instruct w 
[. . .pe]ace. Blank And all those [of Israel] who are [left. . .] ?/[... for] each one [to 
approach him according to his spirit [...] for 12 [...] ... they shall depart in 
accordance with the Inspector [. . .] 13 [. . .] in them [shall] walk all the converts 
of Israel [...] 14 [...] the sons of Zadok, the priests. Behold, [...] 13 [... the 
exact interpretation] of the last law. And these are the ordinances for the 
Instructor...] 16 [...] in them for all Israel, for [...] not 17 [...]... to walk in ... 
[...] 

Frag. 6 col. 11 / [. . .] And anyone who [speaks weakly or with a faltering sound], 

2 [without] separating his words to make [his voice] heard [should not read in 
the book of] 3 [the Torah], so that he will not lead to error in a capital matter 
[. . .] 4 [. . .] to his brothers, the priests, in service. [. . . And whoever] 5 of the sons 
of Aaron has been a captive among the gentiles [. . .should not enter] 6 to defile 
it with his impurity. He should not approach the service [. . .] 7 in the house of 
the veil, and should not eat of the most holy things [. . .] 8 Whoever of the sons 
of Aaron emigrates to se[rve ...] 9 with him in the council of the people, and 
also to betray ...[... And whoever of the sons of] 10 Aaron has caused the name 
of truth to fall [... walking] 11 in the stubbornness of his heart to eat of the 
holy [...] 12 of Israel the council of the sons of Aaron ... [...] u he who eats 
shall incur the fault of the blood [...] 14 in genealogy (?). Blank And this is the 
rule of the session of [. . .] 15 of holiness in their [camps and in] their cities in 
a[ll — ] 76 [. . .] the ses[sion of . . . j 

Frag. 7 7 [...] of the blood [...] 2 [...] of a man on the he[ad...] 3 [...] a flock in 

one [...]*[...] his eyes [...] j [...] ... [...] 


4Qd* 8-12 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


53 


Frag. 8 i 2 [...] destroys [. . .] 3 his betrayal. No-one should keep [...] 

4 in the trial of the just man’s affliction. No [...]5 [...] ... [...] 

Frag. 9 col. I 1 [. . .But if the tumour] or the rash [is deeper] 2 [than the skin . . .] 
and the priest sees in it as it were living flesh or, as it were [. . .] 3 [. . .] it is [lep- 
rosy] which has taken hold of the living skin. And in accordance with this regu- 
lation, 4 [.. .] The priest shall examine it on the seventh day; if something live 
has been added 5 [to the dead,] it is malignant leprosy. And the regulation for 
ringworm of the head or of the beard: 6 [. . . the priest shall examine it, and] if 
the spirit enters the head or the beard in one block 7 [...] underneath the hair 
and changes its appearance to yellowish -for it is like a plant 8 under which 
there is a worm: cut its root and its fruit turns pale- . And as for what he 9 said: 
Lev 13:33 «The priest shall order them to shave their head, but not to shave their 
ringworm», it is so that 10 the priest can count the dead and living hairs, and 
see: if 11 living (hairs) have been added to the dead ones during seven days, he 
is impure; but if liv[ing] (hairs) have not been added 12 to the dead ones and the 
artery is full of blood, and the spirit of life goes up and down through it, 13 that 
disease [is healed]. This is the regulation of the law of leprosy for the sons of 
Aaron, so that they can differentiate [. . .] 14 Blank Regulation for the person with 
gonorrhoea. Everyone who [...] 13 [...]...[...] 

Frag. 9 col. 11 1 [...] ... [...] ... 2 [...] she has an impurity; and if, however, is 

seen, and she does not 3 [. . .] seven days. She should not eat anything holy or 
enter 4 the temple until sunset on the eighth day. Blank 5 And the woman who 
is pre[gnant] and gives birth to a male [she shall be impure] during seven [days] 

Frag. 10 ;[...] to separate; and if [. . .] 2 [. . .] he shall wash his clothes [. . .] 

Frag. 11 1 [. . .] to her [. . .] 2 [. . .] she shall not eat [. . .] 3 [. . .] penalty of death [. . .] 

4 [• • •] the wet-nurse in her impufrity . . .] 5 [. . .] If her means do not stretch [to 
turtle-doves. . .] 6 [. . .] ... [. . .] 

Frag. 12 1 [...]...[...] 2 [... who drank] lustral water [...It shall be an eternal 

precept] 3 [for the sons of Is]rael. Blank [...].#[...] And the bunches of the vi[ne: 
up to ten ber]ries of the clu[ster] 5 [. . .] and everything that shoots up [. . .up to 
one seah per bushel] 6 in which there is no seed [ shall be a sacred offering, and] 
the cluster fallen [from the vine] 7 [. . .] and on its bunch, up to ten ber[ries, and 
on the branch] 8 [of the olive. . . when the branch is complete. . .] you shall enter 
it. If [you trample] 9 [in the field, take from it only one from every three, and 
a]ll that [. . .] 


54 


RULES 


4QD* 13-17 III 

Frag. 13 1 2 plant of the vi[ne, and eve]ry [fruit tree] and every tree 

of the fiel[d...] 3 in accordance with its regulation. [It is a] sacred offering] in 
the land of residence, and afterwards they shall sell them 4 to b[uy...] And if 
a man plants in the third year [. . .] 5 he shall consecrate it [. . .] 6 what covers it 
[...] 7 [...] ... [...] Sand he shall add to it [...] 

Frag. 15 1 [...] each camp [...] 2 [...] its fourth part. Blank [...] 3 [...] ... [...] 

4 [. . .] which [. . .] not 5 [. . .] Every one who [. . .] 

Frag. 16 1 [...] the camp. Blank [...] 2 [...] interprets ... [...] 3 [...] whom he 

rejects [...] 

Frag. 17 col. 1 (= cd-a xv, 10- 17) 1 [in all the a]ge of [wickedness. But no-one 

should show him the precepts until] 2 he stands in front of the Inspector, so 
that he appears simple in his instruction. But when 3 he has imposed upon him 
to return to the law of Moses with all his heart and all his soul they will exact 
revenge 4 [from him] if he should sin. And if he carries out all that has been 
revealed of the law by for the majority of the camp, 5 the Teacher should teach 
him and give orders concerning him and he should learn 6 throughout a full 
year. And in accordance with (his) knowledge he will approach. And no-one 
stupid 7 or deranged should enter; and anyone feeble-minded and insane, those 
with sightless eyes, 8 [and] the lame or one who stumbles, or a deaf person, or 
an under-age boy, 9 none [of] these [shall enter] the congregation, for the ho[ly] 
angels [are in its midst]. 

Frag. 17 col. 11 (= cd-a xvi, 16-20 + ix, 1-2) 1 [...his property, pronounce 

holy...] also 2 this regulation [... will be punished he who dedicates ...] the 
sixth part of 3 money which corresponds [. . .] {by the regulation} [. . .] Blank [For 
the judges,] 4 in order to judge with jus[tice. . .] behind [. . .] he is the victim of 
an accident 5 until . . . and the [violence] is complete if he does not speak 6 the 
truth to his fellow, -and until [he is converted . . .] 7 [. . .] like who does not [. . .] 
8 Blank And as for what he said: Lev 27:29 [«Every man who gives to anathema a 
human] 9 person», [shall be executed] according to the la[ws of the gentiles.] 
10 And that matter: Lev ig.18 [«Do not avenge yourself or bear resentment 
against the sons of your people))] 

Frag. 17 col. ill (= cd-a x, 1- 12) 1 [he has completed his days to pass among 

those who are recruited, and is fearful of God. No-one is to be bel]ieved [as a 
witness against his fellow] 2 [who has consciously transgressed anything of a 
precept, u]ntil [he has been purified] to return. [. . .] Blank [. . .] 3 And [this is the 
rule of the judges] of the congregation. [Ten me]n [in number,] chosen from 
among the congregation, for a period; 4 fo[ur from the tribe of Levi and of 




4Qd* 18 i — hi 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


55 


A]aron and [six from Is]rael; [lea]rned in the book of hagy 5 and in the 
principles of the covenant; between] twenty-five and sixty years. And no-one 
6 over [sixty years should h]old the office of judging [the congregation, f]or on 
account of man’s sin [his days were shortened, 7 [and because of God’s wrath 
against the inhabitants of the earth, he decided to rejmove [knowledge from 
them before they completed] 8 [their days. Concerning purification with water. 
No-one should bathe in water which is dirty or which is le]ss 9 [than the 
amount which covers a man. No-one should purify a vessel in it. And every 
cavity in the rock] in which there is no 

Frag. 18 col. 1 (= cd-a xii, 14-22) 1 [their blo]od. And all the locusts, according 

to their kind, shall be put into fire or into w]ater while they are still [alive,] 2 [as 
this is the regulation for their species. And all the wood and the stojnes and the 
dust which 3 [are defiled by man’s impurity, by defilement of oil in them, in 
accordance with their unc jleanness will make 4 [whoever touches them impure. 
And every utensil, nail or peg in the wall which i]s with ; [a dead person in the 
house will be unclean with the same uncleanness as tools for work. Rule for the 
asse]mbly of the cities of Israel. 6 [In accordance with these regulations, to keep 
the unclean apart from the clean, and] distinguish 7 [between holy and profane. 
Blank And these are the ordinances for the Instructor,] so that he walks 8 [in 
them with every living thing, according to the regulation for every time. And 
in accordance with this regulation shall the seed of Is]rael walk. 

Frag. 18 col. 11 1 [And no-one should] do[. . .] 2 [a me]mber, unless [. . .] 3 which 

is in the cam[p...] 4 and they will not err. And thus with all those who [...] 
5 and he stands in the council [and thus] And thus [. . .] 6 he will admonish his 
sons [...]/ [in] a spirit of poverty and with[. . .] 8 He shall not bear resentment 
against them [...] 9 with their transgressions [,..]?o [in] their judgments [...] 
»[■•■]-[-.] 

Frag. 18 col. 111 (= cd-a xiv, 8-21) 1 [and in all the regulations of] the [law, to 

say] them in accordance with their regulations. And the] Inspector who is over 
2 [all the camps will be between] thirty years and sixty [years of age, master] of 
every secret 3 [of men and] of every language [according to their families. On 
his authority, [the members of] the assembly shall enter, 4 [each one in his 
turn;] and every afffair which] any [man] needs to say to the assembly, 5 [he 
shall say it to the Inspector,] in connection with any dispfute or judgment.] 
This is the rule of the Many, to provide for all 6 [their needs: the salary] of two 
[days] at least. They shall place it [in the hand] of the Inspector and of the 
judges. 7 [From it they shall g]ive to the woun[ded, and with it they shall] 
strengthen the hand of the needy and the poor, 8 [and to the elder] who is dy- 
ing, and to the vagabond, and to the prisoner of a foreign people, 9 [and to the 


56 


RULES 


4 QD* l8 III — V 


girl who] has no protector, and to the unmafrried woman] who has no suitor; 
and for all 1 o [the works of the company,] and the house of the company shall 
not be deprived of its means. This is the exact interpretation 12 [of the regula- 
tions by which] they shall be ruled until there arises the messiah of Aaron and 
Israel. 13 [He shall atone for their sins . . . par]don, and guilt [...]. Blank 14 [... 
in riches, although he knows, . . . and they shall keep him a]part from the [pure 
foo]d [...] 

Frag. 18 col. IV 1 [he shall be punished for two hundr]ed days, and he shall be 
punished for ten days. And if, in a capital matter, he bears resentment and does 
not repent 2 [. . . And whoever] insults his fellow who is not in the council, thev 
shall keep him apart one year, and he shall be punished 3 for si[x months;] and 
whoever utters a senseless word with his mouth, shall be punished for ten 
4 [days, and they shall keep him apart] for three monfths. And whoever speaks 
in the middle of a felflow’s words, shall be isolated 5 [and shall be punished for 
ten] days. And whoever lies down and sleeps during the me[eting of the 
Many...] 6 [ shall be kept apart] for thirty days and shall be punished for ten 
days. [And thus shall they act with whoever] goes away, 7 [who] is not in the 
council of the Many, without reason, up to three ti[mes] in a session, 8 [shall 
be pujnished for ten days; if he goes away [from the session] again [he shall be 
punished for thirty 9 days. And whoever walks [naked] in front of his fel[low. . . 
and whoever walks naked] in front of 10 the creatures, shall be kept apart for 
six [months... And whoever] 11 takes out {the} ‘his hand' from under his 
cloth[es...] 12 days, and shall be punished for ten; and he who bows [down 
stupidly, making his] voice [heard, shall be kept apart] 13 for thirty and shall be 
punished for five [days. And he who takes out] his left hand 14 to gesticulate 
with it, shall be punished [for ten days.] And whoever goes slandering 75 his 
fellow [shall be kept apart from the pure food of the Many for one year. . .] 

Frag. 18 col. v 1 about the Many and he will receive his judgment according to 
his merit, as he says through the hand of 2 Moses about the person who sins 
through oversight: Lev 4:27 «they should present 3 their sin-offering or their 
guilt-offering»; and about Israel it is written: Lev 26:31 «I shall go 4 to the edges 
of the heavens, and I shall not smell the aroma of your pleasant fragrances#; 
and in another place 5a /and in another place it is written: Joel 2: 13 «Tear your 
heart and not your clothes»/5 it is written: Joel 2: 12 (?) «to return to God in tears 
and in fasting#. And anyone who despises these regulations 6 according to all 
the precepts which are found in the law of Moses, shall not be counted 7 
among all the sons of his truth, for his soul is accursed by those disciplined by 
justice. In the rebellion he will be expelled from the presence of 8 the Many. 
And the priest who governs over the Many will speak to him; he will begin to 
speak, 9 saying: 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


57 


4 QD^ 

‘Blessed is he who is everything, 
and in whose hands is everything, 
and he does everything, 

who has founded the heavens according to their families, 

10 and according to their differences, 
and according to their classes. 

and he has made them walk through a trackless abyss. 

11 You chose the descendants of our fathers 
and gave them your truthful regulations 

12 and your holy precepts, 

so that man could carry them out and live, 
and you established frontiers for us, 

ij and you curse those who cross them. 

And we are the people of your ransom 
and the flock of your pasture. 

14 You curse those who cross them 
but we have raised ourselves up». 

And the one who has been expelled will leave, and the man 1 5 who eats from 
his riches, and the one who seeks his peace, {the one who has been expelled} 
and the one who is agreement with him. 16 And his sentence will be written 
down in the Inspector’s hand. . . and his judgment will be complete. The sons 
of Levi ?7 and the men of the camps will meet in the third month and will 
curse whoever tends to the right 18 [or to the left of the] law. And this is the 
exact interpretation of the regulations which they are to observe in every age 
of 19 [...who] remained firm in all the ages of anger and in their steps, to all 
those who 20 [dwell in their camps and in their cities. And so, then, all] this is 
with regard to the exact interpretation of the law. 

4QDamascus Document^ (4Q268 [4Q D r ]) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 1 [...] with money [.. .] 2 [. ..] ... sent [...] the work [.. .] j [.. .] and 

he will not forgive [. . .] his sins. Blank Not to [. . .] 4 [. . .] one, for it is an abomi- 
nation, and as for what he said: Lev 25:14 «If [you make a sale] 5 [to a fellow, or 
purchase from the hand of] your fellow, no-one is to harm his fellow». And this 
is the exact interpretation...] 6 [...] in everything that he knows had been 
found. . . [. . .He will not] give 7 [. . .] and he knows that there is a profit in it, in 
the man or in the animal. And if 8 [. . .To the man who joins] anything at all, it 
will be counted to him. This is why the judgment of [a curse] w ill come upon 
him 9 [as he says: Deut 2-4:18 «Accursed] whoever leads a blind man astray from 
the path», and also: «He is not to give, for he is not ready for her», because 10 
[he ... two different things... like] a bull and an ass, and woollen and linen 


5 « 


RULES 


4 QD f 1-2 II 


clothing together. Blank No-one should enter u [...], whoever knows how to do 
the work {of the wilderness} in word, and who knows 12 [how to do the work 
in her father’s] house, or the widow who prostitutes herself after she is wid- 
owed. And every 13 [woman who has had] a bad reputation during her maiden- 
hood in her father’s house, no-one should take her, unless 14 [on inspection 
(the) women are] trustworthy and certain is the knowledge of the decision of 
the Inspector who is over 15 [the session of the Many; he is not] to take her and 
if they take her, he should proceed in accordance with the regulation of [...] 

Frag. 1 col. 11 1 [...] of the threshing floor will lower a tenth of the hom[er and 

of the ephah ] 2 [. . .] the ephah and the bath {. . .} are both the same measure, and 
a sixth [of a homer ] 3 [is a hin . . .] the wood which a man removes in the moun- 
tains; of the cattle, one from every hundred 4 [...No-]one should eat [...] and 
from the garden. Before this [the pri]ests shall stretch out their hands 5 [...] 
first [...] whoever sells ... [...] and if he is free from 6 [...] and [...] the mort- 
gaged field 7 [. . . ] one three times. 8 No-one should bring in [flesh . . . with the 
blood of the sacrifices of the gentiles...] in its purity. And of any 9 gold and 
silver [and copper and] tin and le[ad with which the gentiles make imjages, no- 
one should bring them 10 into the purity [ 1 ] Whoever from [ . . . ] enters. [ ... No- 
one should bring in] any skin, or clothing or u any utensil [...they work]ed 
with them a work which defiles the soul of [man. And if they were sprinkled 
according to the regulation 12 [. . . And this is the rule of] the congregation in the 
age of wickedness. Every [. . . and every insane person] 13 [who mortgages . . . 
f]or their days were fulfilled to pass to [. . .] 

Frag. 2 col. 1 7 [...] the judges 8-10 [...] 1 1 [...] Israel 12 [...] the age 

Frag. 2 col. 11 (lines 3- 16 = cd-a xvi, 1-18) /[...]...[...] 2 and the coven- 

ant.. .] the covenant; and about the covenant [...].? saying: [ in accordance with 
these wo]rds I established with you a covenant and with [all Israel. For this the 
man will pledge himself] 4 to return [to the law] of Moses, {for} for in it all is 
defined. And the exact interpretation of their ages about the blindness of] 5 
Israel in all these matters, behold, [it is defined] in the book [«of the divisions 
of the periods according to the jubilees and their weeks’*] 6 Blank And on the 
day on which [the man] pledges himself [to return to the law of] Moses, [the 
angel] Mastema will leave 7 off following him, should he keep his wo[rds. This 
is why Abraham circumcised himself on the] day [of his knowledge. And what] 
it says: Dt 23:24 «What issues 8 from your mouth, keep it and carry it out». Every 
mandatory oa[th by which anyone has pledg]ed to fulfil 9 the letter of the law, 
he should not [redeem], even at the price of death. [Anything by which he has 
ple]dged himself to turn away 10 from the law, he should not ful[fil,] not even 
when the price is death. [Concerning the oath of a woman. As for what] he 


4QD‘ 3 i 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


59 


said: Num 30:7-9 «It is for the husband 11 to annul her oath», no-one should annul 
an o[ath if he does not know] whether he should ratify it or 12 annul it. If it is 
to violate the covenant, he should annul it [and should not ratify it. And the 
regulation applies also] to the father. Concerning 13 the regulation for freewill- 
offerings. Blank No-one should dedicate [anything, obtained by unjust means, 
to the al]tar. Neither should the priests take from 14 Israel Blank No-one should 
pronounce holy the fo[od of his mouth for God, for] this is what he says: Mic 
7.2 «Each one <5 traps his fellow with anathema#. Blank And no-one should pro- 
nounce holy anything off...] and if it is from his fie[ld.. .] 16 [.. . his property, 
which he pronounces holy...] this regulation also [...] he who dedicates the 
[. . .will be punished] 

Frag. 3 col. 1 (= CD- A xi, 3 -xii, 6) 1 [in the chest, unless they have been wa]shed 
with water or rubbed with incense. [No-one] should fast voluntarily 2 [on the 
sabbath. No]-one should go after an animal to pasture it outside his city, 
exce[pt for a thousand] cubits. 3 [He is not to raise] his hand to strike with the 
fist. If it is stubborn, [he should not rem]ove [it] 4 [from his house. No-one 
should remove] anything from the house to outside, or from outside to the 
house. Eve[n if he is in a h]ut, 5 [he should remove nothing from it] or bring 
anything into it. He is not to open a sealed vessel on the sabbath. [No-o]ne 
should wear 6 [perfumes, to go] out or come in on the sabbath. No-one should 
press his servant 8 [or his maidservant or his employee on the sabbath. No]-one 
should help an animal give birth on the sabbath day. And if it has fallen into 
a well 9 [or a pit, he should not take it out on the sa]bbath. No-one should stay 
in a place close to gentiles on the sabbath. 10 [No-one should profane the 
sab]bath by riches or gain on the sabbath. And any living man who falls u [into 
a place of water or a we]ll, no-one should take him out with a ladder or a rope 
or a utensil. No-one should offer anything 12 [upon the altar on the sabbath, 
except the sacrifice of the sabbath, for th]us is it written: Lev 23:38 «except your 
offerings of the sabbath#. No-one should send 13 [to the altar a sacrifice, or an 
offering, or incense,] or wood, by the hand of a man [impure from a]ny of the 
impurities, so allowing him 14 [to defile the altar, for] it is written: Prov ?5.-<?«the 
sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination, [but the prayer] of the just is like an 
agreeable 15 [offering#. And everyone who enters] the house of prostration 
should not enter with impurity requiring washing; and when the 16 [trumpets 
of the assembly sound,] he may advance or retreat, but the whole service 
should not stop. [All] 77 [the sabbaths are holy.] No man should sleep with his 
wife in the city of the temple, defiling [the city of the] 18 [temple with their 
impurity. Ev]ery man over whom the spirit of Belial dominates and he 
preaches apostasy, will be judged according to [the regulation] 1 9 [of the necro- 
mancer or the diviner.] But every one who goes astray, defiling the sabbath and 
the fes[tivals,] 20 [shall not be executed, for] guarding him [belongs to m]en; 


6o 


RULES 


4QD' 7 1-9 


and if he is cured of it, they shall guard him for [seven] 21 [years and afterwards 
he shall en]ter the assembly. No-one is to stretch out his hand to shed [the 
blood...] 

4QDamascus Document' 7 (4Q269 [4QD‘ / |) 

Frag. 1 1 [...] ... 2 [...] If j [...] you lift up 4 [and you build...] 5 [...they will 

reject... And w]e are dust and ashes 6 [...] they do not understand 7 [...] and in 
your mouths 8 [. . .] all flesh and crefature] 

Frag. 2 (= CD -a v, 17 -VI, 7) ; [For in ancient times there arose Moses and 

Aaron, by the hand of the] prince of ligfhts,] 2 [and Belial,] with his cunning, 
[raised up Janjnes and his brother during the fi[rst] salvation of 3 [Israel], Blank 
[...] 4 [And in the age of devastation of] the la[nd there arose] those who re- 
moved the boundary and made Israel stray. 5 [And they razed the countrywide, 
for they spoke of rebellion against God's precepts through the hand of 6 [Mo- 
ses] and also of the holy anointed ones. They prophesied deceit in order to 
divert 7 [Isra]el from following God. But God remembered the covenant of the 
very first, and raised 8 [from Aaron men of knowledge and from Israel wise 
men, [and forced them to lijsten. And they dug g the well: Num 21:18 «A well 
which the princes dug, which 10 the nobles [of the people] struck with the 
spade». Blank 11 The well is the law. [And those who dug it] are the converts of 
Is[rael,] 12 who left the land of Jufdah and lived in the land of Damascus, all of 
whom 13 God called princes, for [they sought him, and their renown has not 
been repudiated 14 in anyone’s mouth. Blank 1 5 [And the spade is the inter- 
preter] of the law, [ . . . ] 

Frag. 4 col. 11 (= 4QD 7 6 1) 1 [...and they res]tore the stre[ngth in the leprosy 

]. . .the holy 2 [me]n who are strengthened by his holy name. . .] 3 [. . .] and he 
is required to return [... for in Judah...] 4 [to Isr]ael when [...] arises [to in- 
struct. . .] 5 [. . .pea]ce. Blank [. . .] 6 And all those [of Israel] who rem[ain. . . for 
each one to approach him] 7 [according to his spirit [. . .] 

Frag. \col. in (= 4QD* 6 II, 1-5) /[...] ... [...] 2 [...] or [...]j And everyone who 

[speaks weakly or] with a [faltering] sound, 4 and does not separate his words 
to [make his voice heard, should not read in the book of] 5 [the Torah, so that 
he will not lead to error in a capital matter ...] 6 [...]...[... to his brothers,] 
7 [the priests, in servjice. And not [...]£ [And whoever of the sons of A]aron 
[has been a captive among the gentiles...] 

Frag. 9 (= 4D 7 12:2-9) 1 [•••]■•• 2 [It shall be an eternal precept for the sons of 

Israel. And the bunches of the vine:] up to ten berries of the cluster 3 [. . . and 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


6l 


4 QD </ 10-11 II 

everything that shoots up .. .up to one seah per bushel] in which there is no 
seed shall be a sacred offering, 4 f. . .] Blank 5 [. . . If you trample in the field, only 
take from] it one from every three. Blank And all 6 [that. . . the] field, or you shall 
burn it with fire and it shall be separated 7 [... up to one seah per bushel shall 
be the tithe, and] if anyone gathers it 

Frag. 10 (= cd-a, ix, 5-14) / [he avenges himself against his foes, and he bears 

resentment against his enemies». If he kept silent about him] from one month 
to the other, 2 [or accused him of a capital offence, he has testified against him- 
self, for he did not] fulfil the commandment of God 3 [which tells him: Lev ig:iy 
«You should reproach your fellow so as not to incur] sin [because of him».] 
Blank 4 [Concerning the oath. As for what he said: 1 Sam 25:26 «You shall not do 
justice with your (own) hand»: wh]oever forces the making of an oath 5 [in the 
open field, not in the presence of judges or at their command, has done justice 
for himself with his] hand. Every 6 [lost object about which it is not known who 
stole it from the property of the camp in which it was stolen - ] its owner 
should make a maledictory 7 [oath; whoever hears it, if he knows and does not 
say it, is guilty. Every] illegal object 8 [which should be given back and has no 
owner -he who gives it back should confess to the priest and it will be for him- 
self,] apart from the ram 

Frag. 1 1 col. 1 (= CD- a xiii, 4-14) 1 [according to his word all the members of 

the camp. But if there is a judgment against anyone about the law of] leprosy, 
2 [the priest shall take his place in the camp, and the Inspector shall instruct 
him] in the exact interpretation of the law. [Even if] 3 [he is a simpleton, he is 
the one who shall intern him, for his is the] judgment. Blank [. . .] 4 [And this is 
the rule of the Inspector of the camp. He shall instruct the Many in the de]eds 
of God, [and shall teach them] 5 [his mighty marvels, and recount to them the 
eternal] events with their solutions. He shall have pity 6 [on them like a father 
on his sons, and shall heal all the str]ays (?) like a shepherd his flock. He shall 
undo 7 [all the chains which bind them, so that there] is neither harassed nor 
oppressed 8 [in his congregation. And everyone who joins his congregation, he 
should examine] concerning his actions, his intelligence, [his strength,] 9 [his 
courage and his wealth; and they shall inscribe him in his place according to his 
inheritance in the lot of truth. Blank No 10 [-one of the members of the camp 
should have authority to] introduce anyone into the congregation n [against the 
decision] of the Inspector of the camp. And none of those who have entered 
the covenant] of God «neither 

Frag. 1 1 col. 11 (= cd-a xiii, 22-xiv, 10) 1 [. . . These are the regulations for the 

Instructor, to wal]k in them. 2 [When God visits the] earth [the] word will be 
fulffilled] which says: Isa 7:17 «There will come 3 [upon you days such a]s have 


62 


RULES 


4 QD‘ > 1-5 


not come since the day on which Ephraim became separated from 4 []udah»; 
and (to) all those who wal]k in them, the covenant of God is faithful 5 [to save 
them from all the ne]ts of the pit, for they will pass suddenly 6 and they will be 
punished. [Rule of the session of] all the camps. Each one shall be enlisted by 
his name: 7 the priests [first, the levites] second, the children of Israel 8 third; 
and they shall be inscribed [by their names, each one after his brother: the 
priests g [fi]rst, [the levites second, the sons of] Israel third 10 [and the 
pro]selyte fourth. Thus shall they s[it and thus shall they be questioned] about 
everything. And the priest who 11 [is na]med at the head of the M[any will be 
between] thirty and sixty 12 [years old,] learned [in the book of] hagy, and in 
all the regulations of the law, to say them /for the words/ 13 [in accordance 
with] their regulations. And the [Inspector who] is over all the camps will be 
between thirfty y]ears and sixty [years of age, master of every secr]et of me[n 
and in every language 

Frag. 12 1 [shall be punished for six days. . .] And whoever 2 [despises the judg- 

ment of the Many, shall leave and] never [ret]urn. Blank 3 [An whoever takes his 
meal outside of the regulation, is to give it back to the one 4 [from whom he 
took it. . .]. Whoever approaches 5 [his wife] for lust, [not in accordance with the 
regulation, shall leave and] never [retu]rn. Blank 

qQDamascus Document* 1 (4Q270 f^QD* 1 ]) 

Frag. 1 (= cd-a 11, 16- 18) ; [by the thoughts of a] guilty [inclination] and las- 

civious eyes. [...] 2 [For many wandered off for these] matters; bra[ve] heroes 
[yielded on account of them, from ancient times until now. For having walked 
in the stubbornness] 3 [of their hearts the Watchers of the hea]vens fell; on its 
account they were [caught, for they did not follow the precepts of God.] 

Frag. 2 (= cd-a ill, 14) 1 [hidden matters] in which [all Israel] had gone astray 

[: ...] 2 [His holy sabb]aths and his glor[ious feasts. . .] 

Frag. 4 (= cd-a iv, 6-8) ? [These are the very first, for whom God atoned and 

who declared the just man as just, and declared the wi]cked as wicked, 2 [and 
all those who entered after them in order to act in agreement with the exact 
interpretation of the law in which] the very first [were instructed 

Frag. 5 (= 4QD f 1 1, 8- 14) 14 [. . .] To the man who joins [anything at all, it will 

be counted to him. This is why] 15 [a judjgment of a curse [will come upon him 
as he says: Dm 27:18 «Accursed whoever leads a blind man astray from the 
path», and also: «He is not to give,] 16 [for he is not re]ady for her*, because he 
[two different things. . . like] a bull and an ass, and woollen and linen clothing 


4QD 1 ’ 6-9 I 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


63 


together.] 77 [. . .] Blank [No-one] should enter [. . .] the holy one, 18 [who kn]ows 
how to do the work [in word, and who knows how to do] the work [in the house 
of] 19 [her fatjher, or the widow who prostitutes herself after she is widowed. . . 
And ev]ery 20 [woman who] has had a bad reputation during her maidenhood 
in her father’s house, no-one should take her, 21 [un]less on inspection (the) 
women [are trustworthy and certain is the knowledge of the decision of the 
Inspector] 

Frag. 6 (=4QD* 12:2-9) 6 [•■■] this [...] 7 [...] Blank [...]£[...] Blank 9 [...] of the 

day, and the sun the harvest the field [. . .] who drank the [lustral 

water] 1 1 [. . .It shall be an eternal precept for the children of Israel. Blank] 12 [. . . 
And the bunjches of the vine: up to te[n berries of the] 13 clufster. . . and every- 
thing that shoots up . . .] up to one seah per bushel in which 14 there is no seed, 
shall be a sacred off[ering, and] the cluster fallen from the vine ...] and on its 
bunch, up to ten berfries,] 15 [and on the bra]nch of the olive [...] when the 
gathering is complete [...] 16 [you shall en]ter [it.] If you trample in the field, 
[take only from it one from every thr]ee, and all [that which. . .] 77 [the field, or 
you burn with fire, and it will be separated. . .] up to one seah per bushel shall 
be the tithe, and if anyone gathers it 18 [. . .] and gathers one of it on the first 
day, the tenth part shall be a sacred offering 19 [...] the cakes of the sacred 
offering shall be for all the houses of Israel which eat the bread 20 [. . .] once a 
year a tenth shall be their possession [. . .] 21 [. . .] it shall be complete for Israel 
once [a year.] Every man 

Frag. 7 (= 4QD f 1 II, 8- 10) 20 [the flesh. . . with the blood of the sacrifices of the 

gentiles. . . in its pu]rity. And of any gold and [silver] 21 [and copper and tin and 
lead with which the] gentiles make images, no-one should bring them into the 
purity 

Frag. 8 1 [. . . And if] a man draws away a woman to curse her 2 [. . .] he who looks 

if he sees the woman from 3 [...] ... 4 [...] ... and if her blood should flow 
5 [...] the priests, and will untie 6 [...] ... and he will make drink 7 [...He] 
should not take from his hand any 8 [...] the holy ones 9 [... He] should give 
anyone 10-11 [...] 12 [...] for the kings 13 [...] with the woman 14 [...] the 
/bought/ maid, unless 15 [...] says: « [...] not 16 [...] he shall take her [...] 
77 [...] ... [...] 18 [...] his bread [...] 19 [... He should not] lie with 

Frag. 9 col. 1 9 [. . .] he will pass or send [. . .] the sun 10 [. . .] the days, or he will 

consult a necromancer or diviners 11 [...] who curses the name 12-15 [■• •] '6 [•■■] 
a young girl in house of 1 7 [... He should not] lie with her after 18 [...He 
should not approach his wife on the day of 19 [...] or who [...] 20 [...] 21 [...] 
all 


64 


RULES 


4QD' ! 9 ii- 10 iii 


Frag, g col. ii i concerning [...] 2 to [...] 3 at the place [...] 4 [...] 5 [...] to the 
mountains [...] 6 [...] the sons of Aaron the plantation [...] 7 [... and he will 
give] all that there is for them, and a tenth part of the cattle 8 and of the flocks, 
and the ransom for [the] clean [animal] and the money of the assessments for 
the ransom of their souls. [. . .] 10 without returning it, and on top of that a fifth 
part or [...] 11 in their names, in order to defile his holy spirit [...] 12 or in- 
fected by the disease of leprosy or one with an impufre] discharge. [And who- 
ever] 13 divulges the secret of his people to the pagans, or curses or [preaches] 
14 rebellion against those anointed with the spirit of holiness and leads astray 
[his people, or disobeys] 75 God’s word, or slaughters an animal carrying a live 
foetus, [or] a pregnant woman [...] 77 in the woman’s bed [...] 18 enrolled in 
them in order to make his so[n] pass ... 79 And how, listen to me all you who 
know justice and fulffil the] law. 20 I [shall give] you paths of life, but the ways 
to the pit I shall open for [the wicked and their deeds.] 21 You shall not be 
made prisoners and [. . .] in the understanding of my deeds from generation to 
generation. 

Frag. 10 col. 1 (= CD -A xv, 3-5) 20 [of the covenant, he should do it before the 

judges. If he should transgress, he will be guilty and will have to confess and 
make amends,] but not 21 [be burdened with sin nor shall he die. Whoever 
enters into the covenant, which is for all Israel for eternal law], his sons 

Frag. 10 col. 11 (= cd-a xv, 13-18; xvi, 3-8) [shall exact vengeance for] him if 
he should sin. And if [he fulfils] all that [has been revealed of the law for the 
multitude of the camp,] 7 [the Instructor should instruct him and] give orders 
concerning him which he should learn [for a whole year. And in accordance 
with (his) knowledge he will approach. And no-one] 8 [stupid or deranged 
should enter; and any]one feeble-minded or insane, and [those with sightless 
eyes, the lame or one who stumbles,] 9 [or a deaf person, or an under-age boy, 
n]one of these [should enter the congregation, since the holy angels are in its 
midst.] 70 [. . .] ... the second [. . .] 11 [. . .] ... the man [. . .] 13-16 [. . .] 77 [in the 
book] «of the divisions [of the periods] according to their jubilees [and their 
weeks’])). And on the day on which the man has pledged himself 18 [to return] 
to the law [of Moses,] the angel Mastema [will turn aside from following him], 
should he keep his word. This is why 79 Abraham circumcised himself on the 
day of his knowledge. And as for what] he said: Dt 23:24 «What issues [from 
your mouth, keep to it and carry it out». Every binding oath by which anyone 
has pledged to fulfil the letter of the law, he should not annul, even at the price 
of death. Any2?thing by which [he might pledge to turn aside from the law, he 
should not fulfil, even at the price of death. 

Frag. 10 col. in (cd-a xvi, 18-24; ix, 1-7) 13 [... to the jud]ges to judge [with 


4 QD f 10 III — IV 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


65 


justice. . .he is victim of an accident until] 14 [. . .] and the violence is complete 
if he does not tell the trfuth to his fejllow, until [he converted . . .] 15 [. . .as] who 
does not ... [. . .] And as for [what he says. . .] 16 [. . .Every man who gives a ma]n 
from among men to anathema, shall be executed according to the laws of the 
gentiles. iy And as for what he said: Lev ig:i8 «Do not avenge yourself or bear 
resentment against the sons of your people* -everyone of those who entered 
the cove[nant, who bri]ngs [an accusation] against his fellow, [this should not 
be with reproach] before witnesses, or brings it when he is angry, or tells it [to 
his elders] so that they despise him, he is «the one who avenges himself and 
bears resentment*.] ig [Is it not perhaps written that on]ly Nah 1:2 «he (God) 
[avenges] himself on his foes and bears resentment against his enemies*? If he 
kept silent about him from one day to the other, or in the heat of his anger 20 
[against him...] the matter. Thus [...] 

Frag. 10 col. iv (= cd-a ix, 10- 12; ix, 20 -x, 13) 3 [or at their command, has 
done justice for himself] with his hand. [Every lost object about which it is not 
known who stole it from the property of the camp in which it was stolen] 4 [its 
owner should make a maledictory oa[th; whoever hears it, if he knows and 
does not say it, is guilty.] 5-10 [. . .] 11 [someone alone, his judgment is complete; 
but if they are two, one and one, who testify about a different matter,] the man 
[is only to be excluded from the pure food,] 12 [on condition that they are trust- 
worthy, and that on the same day on which he saw him, he denounces him to 
the Inspector. And concerning ric]hes, they shall accept two trustworthy wit- 
nesses. 13 [And] on the testimony of one, to exclude from the holy food. A wit- 
ness is not to be accepted] by the judges to condemn to death on his word, 14 
[if he has not] completed his days to pass [among those who are recruited, and 
is fearful of] God. Not to be believed [as a witness] against his fellow, is anyone 
15 [who has transgressed [knowingly] anything of a precept, [until he has been 
purified to return. And this] is the rule of the judges of the congregation. 16 
Ten men in number, chosen [from among the congregation, for a period; 
[four] from the tribe of Levi and of Aaron and [six from Israel;] 1 7 learned in 
the book of hagy [and in the principles of the covenant; [between] twenty-five 
and [sixty] years. 18 And no-one over sixty years should hold the office [of 
judging] the congregation, for on account [of man’s] sin 1 g his days [were 
shortened, and because of God’s wrath against the inhabitants of the earth, [he 
decided to remove] knowledge [from them] before [they completed their] days. 
20 Blank Concerning purification with water. No-one [should bathe in water 
which is dirty or which is less than the amount which covers a man] 21 No-one 
should purify a vessel in it. [And every cavity in the rock in which there is not 
the amount which covers, if an impure person has touched it,] 

Frag. 10 col. v (= cd-a x, 13-19; xi, 7-19) 1 [he has defiled the water like the 


66 


RULES 


4QD*’ 10 V- 11 I 


water of a vase. Concerning the sabbath, to observe it in accordance with its 
regulation. No-one should do wo]rk [on the sixth day, from] 2 [the moment 
when the sun’s disc is at a distance of its diameter from the gate, for th]is is 
what he sa[id: 0/5:12 (/Observe the sabbath day to keep it holy». And on the day 
of the sabbath, no-one should say] a useless or stupid word. 4 [He is not to lend 
anything to his fellow. He is not to discuss riches or gain. He is not to speak 
about matters of wo]rk or of the task to be car[ried out] 5-/2 [...] 13 No-one 
should re]move [anything from the house to outside, or from outside to the 
house. Even if] 14 he is in a hut, he should remove nothing from it or bring 
[anything into it. He is not to open a sealed vessel on the sabbath. No-one 
should wear] 15 perfumes on the sabbath, to go out or come in. [No-one should 
lift, in his dwelling, a stone or dust.] 16 [The wet-nurse should] not lift the baby 
[to go out or come in on the sabbath.] No-one should press] 77 his servant or 
his maidservant or his employee on the sabbath. [No-one should help an animal 
give birth on the sabbath day.] 18 And if it falls into a well or a pit, [he should 
not take it out on the sabbath. No-one should profane the sabbath by] 79 riches 
or gain on the sabbath. And any living man [who falls into a place of water or 
into a place,] 20 no-one should take him out with a ladder or a rope or a utensil. 
No-[one should offer anything upon the altar on the sabbath, except the sacri- 
fice of the sabbath, for thus] 21 is it written: Lev 23:38 //except your offerings of 
the sabbath». [No-one should send to the altar a sacrifice, or an offering, or 
incense, or wood, by the hand of] 

Frag. 11 col. 1 (= 4QD* 18 iv, 9- 15; v, 1-7) 3 [...] in the house or in the field, 

walks nakfed in front of the creatures, shall be kept apart for six months.] 
4 [And whoever takes out] ‘his hand’ from under his clothes and [. . .] 5 [days, 
and shall be punished for ten; and he who bows do]wn stupidly, making [his 
voice] heard, [shall be kept apart for thirty and shall be punished for five] 
6 [days. And he who takes out his left ha]nd to gesticulate with it, shall be 
pun[ished for ten days. And whoever] 7 [goes slandering his fellow shall be kept 
apart] from the pure food for one year [...] 8 [...and] shall [not] come back 
again [...] 9 and not [...] and the one whose [spirit] is disturbed [...] 10 about 
[. . .] ... [shall be pu]nished for six [days. ..] 11 [and whoever] despises the judg- 
ment of the Many shall leave and [not return again. And whoever takes] 12 his 
food outside the regulation shall return it to the one from whom he took it [. . .] 
Whoever approaches 13 his wife from lust, not in accordance with the regula- 
tion, shall leave and not come back again. [. . .] about the fathers, 14 [shall leave] 
the congregation and not come back [again. But if it is] about mothers, he shall 
be punished for ten days because for mothers there is no mingling (?) in the 
midst of 75 [the congregation . . . And these are] the regulations [in which shall 
walk] all those disciplined and everyone who 16 [... and whoever] enters will 
inform the priest who is at the frfont of the Many and he will receive his judg- 


4 Qd/ 1-4 1 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


67 


ment according to his merit, as he] 17 says through the hand of Moses about 
the person who sifns through oversight: Lev 4:27 «they should present] their sin- 
offering or their guilt-offering»; and about 18 Israel it is written: Lev 26:31 «I shall 
go to the edges of the hea[vens, and I shall not smell the aroma of your 
ple]asant fragrances#; and in anofther place it is written:] 1 g Joel 2:13 «Tear your 
heart and not your clothes# and it is writtfen: Joe! 2:12 (?) «to return to God in 
tears and in fasting#.] And anyone who des[pises these regulations] 20 according 
to all the precepts which are found [in the law of Moses, shall not be counted 
among all the so]ns of his truth, [for his soul is accursed] 21 by those disciplined 
by justice. Blank And al[l . . .] 

Frag. 11 col. 11 (= 4QD* 18 v, 16-20) 11 [The sons of Levi and the men of the 

camps will meet in] the third month and will cu[rse] 12 [whoever tends to the 
right or to the left of the law. And th]is is the precise interpretation of the reg- 
ulations which 13 [they are to observe in every age of ...] who remained firm 
in all the ages of anger 14 and in their steps, to all those who dwell in their 
camps and all [. . .] in their cities. And so, then, all this is 15 with regard to the 
last interpretation of [the law.] Blank 16-21 Blank 

4QDamascus Document^ (4Q271 [4Qi/|) 

Frag. 1 (= CD -A 11, 4-6) 1 [and the abundance of] pardon, [to atone for those 

who repent from wickedness; however, strength and power and a great anger 
with flames of fire] 2 [by the hand of all] the angels [of destruction ...] 

Frag. 2 (= CD-A ill, 6-11) 1 [and they ate blood, and their males were cut off. 

He spoke to them in Qadesh: Deutg:23 «Go and] possess [the land#. . ..] 2 [... and 
they did not listen] and did not open their ears [to the voice] 3 [of their creator, 
to the precepts he had taught them and murmured in their tents. And the 
wrath] of God flared up against their congregation. And their sons 4 [died 
through it, and through it their kings were cut off and their warriors perished] 
through it and through it their land was laid waste. 5 [... Through it] the very 
first to enter the covenant 6 [made themselves guilty and were delivered up to 
the sword, for having deserted God’s covenant and having chosen] their w hims 
and having followed 

Frag. 3 (= CD- A iv, 19-21) 1 [he is] a preacher, [as it is said: Mic 2:6 «Assuredly 

he will preach»-they are caught twice] 2 [in fornic]ation: by tafking two wives 
in their lives. . .] 

Frag. 4 col. 1 (= cd-a v, 20 -vi, 2) 2 [And in the age of devastation of the land 

there arose those who shifted the boundary and made Israel stray. And they 


68 


RULES 


4QE/4II-9 


laid waste] the land, 3 for they spoke of rebellion against God’s precepts 
through the hand of Moses and also of the holy anointed ones.] They prophe- 
sied 4 [deceit in order to turn Israel away from following God. But God re- 
membered the covenant of the very first, and rai]sed 

Frag. 4 col. n (= cd-a vi, 20-Vii, 3) 1 according to their exact interpretation; 

to love, [each one, his brother like himself;] 2 to strengthen the hafnd of the 
poor, the needy and the foreigner; to seek,] 3 each one, the peace [of his brother 
and not commit sin against his blood relation;] 4 [to refrain from fornication in 
accordance with the regulation; to reprove] 5 each one, [his brother in accor- 
dance with the precept, without bearing resentment from one day to the next;] 
6 to keep ap[art from every uncleanness according to their regulations...] 

Frag. 5 (= cd-a vii, 16-20) 1 [the fallen Sukkat of David». The King is the 

assembly; and the plinths of the ima]ges [are] 2 [the books of the prophets, 
whose words Israel despised.] And the star [is] 3 [the Interpreter of the law, 
who will come to Damascus, as is written: Num 24:13 «A star] moves out of [Ja- 
cob] 4 [and a sceptre arises out of Israel». The sceptre is the prince of the 
wh]ole [congregation. . .] 

Frag. 7 (= 4QD* 911-4) 1 [...].. . and if the rash is a wound of wood 2 [or of 

stone, or any wound through the arrival of the spirit which takes h]old of the 
artery and the blood returns 3 [upwards or downwards, and the artery . . .] be- 
hind the blood Blank 4 [The priest shall examine the skin, living and] d[ead. . .] 
5 [...] seven [days...] 6 [...] says, and the ra[sh ... If the dead (skin) is not 
deeper that the living (skin)] 7 [he shall confine him until] the flesh grows. The 
priest shall examine him [on the sevjenth [day;] [if the spirit of life goes up] 
8 [and] goes down and the flesh [has grown... is cured... the rash.] 9 [The 
priest shall not examine] the skin of the fl[esh. . .] 10 [But if the tumour or the 
rash is deeper than the skin ...] 11 [and the priest sees in] it as it [were the form 
of living flesh. . .] 12 [it is leprosy which has taken hold] of the living skin. [And 
in accordance wfith this regulation] 13 [...] The priest [shall examine it on the 
seventh day...] 

Frag. 9 (= 4QD f 1 1, 8- 14) / [anything at all, it will be counted to him. This is 

why the judgment of a curse will come upon him,] as he says: 2 [Deut 27:18 «Ac- 
cursed whoever leads a blind man astray from the path», and also: «He is not 
to give, for he is not ready for her»,] because he, two different things 3 [. . . like 
a bull and an ass, and woollen and linen clothing together.] 4 [No-one should 
enter . . .] the holy one, who [knows how to do the work] 5 [in word, and who 
knows how to do the work in the house of] her father, or the widow who 6 [pro- 
stitutes herself after she is widowed. . . And every woman who] has had] a bad 


4 Ql/ i I 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


69 


reputation during her maidenhood 7 [in her father’s house, no-one should take 
her, unless on inspection (the) women are trustworthy] 

Frag. 10 (= 4QD‘ 1 11, 7 - 13) 1 [one] three tim[es. No]-one [should bring in 

flesh. . .] with the blood of the sacrifices [of the gentiles. . .] 2 [in its purity. And 
of any gold and] silver [and copper and tin and lead] with which the gentiles 
make im[ages,] 3 [no-one should bring them into the purity . . .] from it new [. . .] 
No-one should bring in any [skin,] 4 [or clothing or any utensil. . . they work]ed 
with th[em which defiles the] soul of man. And if they were sprinkled 
according to the regulation] 5 [...And this is the rule of the congregation in] 
the age of wic[kedness and] every insane person who mortgages 

Frag. 12 (= CD -a xv, 4-7) / [If he transgresses, he will be guilty and will have 

to confess] and make amends [but he shall not be liable for sin and shall not 
die.] 2 [Whoever enters the covenant, for all Israel for an eternal law, he must 
impose upon his so]ns who [succeed in passing among whose who are enrolled] 
3 [the oath of the covenant. And such is] the regulation, [throughout all the age 
of wickedness, for whoever] 

Frag. 13 (= CD -A xiv, 1-22) 1 [And this is the exact interpretation of the ses- 

sion of the Many and these are the foundations which make the assem]bly 
And this is the exact interpretation of 2 [the regulations by which they shall be 
ruled until there arises the messiah of] Aaron and of Israel. 3 [He will atone for 
their sins ... pardon, and guilt...] 4 [...in riches, although he knows, and ... 
and they keep him apart] from the pure food 5 [. . . he shall be punished] for six 
6 [days.... shall be punished] for ten 

4QDamascus Document^ (4Q272 [4QD 8 ]) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 (= 4QD* 9 1, 1 - 12) 1 [. . . a tumour,] or a rash, or a [white spo]t [. . .] 

2 [and the rash is a wound of wood or of] stone, or any wound through the 
arrival of the spi[rit which takes hold] 3 [of the artery and the blood returns] 
upwards or downwards, and the artery [...] 4 [...] ... [...] 5 [The priest shall 
examine the skin,] living and [dead. If the] dead [skin is not deeper] than 6 [the 
living (skin) he shall confine him until] the flesh grows. / [until] the blood re- 
turns to the artery, and afterwards he shall compare. / The priest shall examine 
him 7 [on the seventh day: if the] spirit of life goes up [and down and the] flesh 
has grown 8 [he is cured. . . the] rash. The priest shall not examine the skin of 
the fl[esh] 9 [. . .] But if the tumour or the rash is deeper 10 [than the skin and 
the priest sees in] it as it were the form of living flesh [...] 11 [it is leprosy 
which has taken hold] of the living skin. And in accordance with this regulation 
12 [. . . The priest shall examine it] on the [sev]enth day; if something [live] has 


7 o 


RULES 


4 QD* 

been added 13 [to the dead. . . it is mal]ignant [leprosy.] Blank 14 [And the regula- 
tion for ringworm of the head or of the beard: ...] the priest shall examine it, 
is [and if the spirit enters the head or the beard in one block ...] underneath 
the hair 16 [and changes its appearance to yellowish, for it is like a pla]nt under 
which there is a worm: 7 7 [cut its root and its fruit turns pale.] And as for what 
he sa[id: Lev 13:33 «The priest shall order them to shave] 18 [their head, but] not 
to shave [their ringworm»,] it is so that the priest can count 1 9 [the dead and 
living hairs, and see: if] some living (hairs) [have been added] to the dead ones 
20 [during seven days, he is impure; but if] living (hairs) [have not been added 
[to the dead ones] 

Frag. 1 col. 11 (= 4QD* 9 1, 12- 16) 1 and the artery is full of blood and the spirit 

of life goes up and down [through it,] 2 this plague [is healed.] This is [the 
regulation for the so]ns of Aaron, [so that they differentiate ...] 3 And the 
regulation for the man with go]norr[hoea. Everything which . . .] 4-6 [. . .] 7 and 
he shall wash his clothes [...] 8 in it. He who touches [...] 9 the discharge of 
blood or of se[men...] 10 seven days [...] 11 he who touches [...] 12 and in ... 
[...] 13 you shall scrape [...] 14 the water [...] 75 [...] 76 alive [...] 1 7 his hand 
[...] 18 [. . .] 


4QDamascus Document* (4Q273 [4QD*]) 

Frag, i col. 11 (= 4Q1T 1 1, 6- 15) 1 ...[...] 2 says [. . .until the flesh grows. And] 

3 the priest [shall examine him on the] seventh [day: if the spirit of life goes up 
and down] 4 [and] the flesh has grown, he is cured of [. . .The priest shall not 
examine] 5 [the] skin of the flesh [. . .] 6 or the rash in it [. . . and the priest sees 
in it as it were the form] 7 of [living] flesh [...] 8 [...] 9 if something live has 
been added to the [dead...] it is [malignant leprosy] 10 And the regulation for 
ringworm of the he[ad or of the beard...] 11 the priest [shall examine it,] and 
if the spi[rit] enters [the head or the beard. . .] 

Frag. 2 7 [...].. . and she covers [...] 2 [...]... in her impurity ... for she [. . .] 

3 [. . .] are [. . .] eternal. No-one should take [. . .] 4 [. . .] ... and he shall count . . . 
[...] until [...] 


c Copies from other caves 
5QDamascus Document (5Q12 [5QD]) 

Frag. 1 (= CD -A ix, 7- 10) 1 ...[...] 2 which tells him: Lev 79:77 «You shall 8 

reproach your fellow so as not to incur sin because of him». 3 Concerning the 
oath. As for what [he said: 7 Sm 25:26 «You shall not do justice with your (own) 


4 QD- 6 QD 


THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT 


71 


hand», - whoever forces the making of an oath] 4 in the open field, [not in the 
presence of judges or at their command, has done justice for himself with his 
hand.] Blank Every lo[st] object 

6QDamascus Document (6Q15 [6qd]) 

Frag. 1 (= CD-A iv, 19-21) 1 [The builders of the wall who] go [after Zaw-Zaw 

is a preacher 20 as it is said:] 2 [Mic 2:6 ((Assuredly he will preach»-are] caught 
[twice in fornication: by taking two wives] 3 [in their lives, even though the 
principle of crea]tion is Gen 1:27 ((male [and female he created therm. ] 

Frag. 2 (= CD -a v, 13- 14) 1 [They are all ignit]ers of fire, ki[ndlers of blazes; 

webs of a spider are their webs, and their eggs are] 2 [vip]er’s [eggs.] Whoever 
is close to them [will not be unpunished; the more he does it, the guiltier he 
shall be, unless he has been compelled.] 

Frag. 3 (= CD -A v, 18 -VI, 2) 1 [For in ancient times there arose Moses and] 

Aaron, by [the hand of the prince of lights and Belial raised up] 2 [Jannes and 
his brother with his cun]ning during the [first deliverance [of Israel. And in 
the age of devastation of the land] 3 [there arose those who shifted the bound- 
ary and] made Israel stray. And they la[id the land waste, for they spoke of 
rebellion] 4 [against God’s precepts through the hand of Mos]es and al[so] of 
the holy anointed ones. [They prophesied deceit in order to turn] 5 [Israel away 
from following G]od. But God remembered the covenant of the very fir[st, and 
from Aaron raised men of knowledge ...] 

Frag. 4 (= CD -a vi, 20 -vii, 1) 1 [ho]ly [portions] according to their exact 

interpretation; for each to love his brother] 2 like himself; to strengthen [the 
hand of the poor, the needy] 3 [and the foreigner;] for each to seek [the peace 
of his brother, and not commit sin] 4 [each one against his bloo]d relative;] to 
[refrain from fornication ...] 

Frag. 5 1 2 [...Whoever] lies with [...] 3 [...No-one should lie with 

a] man as one lies [with a woman . ..] 4 [...]... to cause to pass [...] 5 [...] the 
covenant of God in their hearts [...] 


72 


RULES 


4QSD 


3 Fragments of other rules 
4QSerek Damascus Rule (4Q265 [4QSD]) 

Frag, icol.i 1 2 j [.. .] days. Blank [...] 4 [...] thirty days 

[• • •] 5 to half his bread, for fifte[en. . .] 6 he shall be punished for three months 
[■••] 7 his fellow what is written in front of him, shall be kept apart [...]# in 
them to half his bread. Blank And whoever [. . .] 9 thirty days. Blank And whoever 
cheats kfnowingly ...] 10 months and shall be punished in them to half his 
bread [...] 11 knowingly in any matter, shall be punished for thirty days. [...] 
12 kn[owingly,] shall be kept apart for six months. Blank [...] 

Frag. 1 col. 11 1 [...] in the session of the Many, shall be punished for thfirty 

days . . .] 2 [. . .] he shall count him who sleeps up to three times; and if [. . .] j 
[. . .And] whoever enters for [. . .] the council [of the communi]ty [. . .] 4 [. . .] the 
Many, if it falls upon him [...] they shall instruct him and explain for a year 
[• • •] j [•••] the Many shall question him. Blank And if [...] is not fou[nd . ..] 6 
[...] the Inspector of the Many [...] the law and not [...] 7 [...] yet another full 
year. [And when] the year of [. . .] [is complete [...]$[...] the Inspector of the 
Many [. . .] 9 [. . .] he shall enter [. . .] 

Frag. 2 col. 1 1 and [. . .] 2 on the sabbath day. No-one should [. . .] dirty [clothes] 

3 [• ■ ■] And whoever (goes) with dir[ty] clothes [or] which have dust on them or 
[••■] 4 [• ••] sabbath. Blank No-one should take out of his tent a vessel or food 

5 on the sabbath Blank day. No-one should take out an animal which has fallen 

6 [into] water on the sabbath day. Blank But if it is a man who has fallen into 
water 7 on the sabbath day, his garment should be thrown to him to lift him out 
with it. No-one should carry a vessel 8 [. . .] sabbath. And if . . . [. . .] 

Frag. 2 col. 11 /[...] on the [sabbath] day [...] 2 [...] sabbath. And [...] not [...] 

3 [■ ■ ■] Whoever is afraid [. . .] 4 [. . .it is] a great day and a fast(-day). On the day 
[...] s [■■■] the animal shall walk two thousand cubits [...] 6 [...from the 
temjple, thirty stadia. Do not remfove. . .] 7 [. . .] will be in the community coun- 
cil fifteen [...] 8 [And] when the community council is established [... those 
chosen by its] 9 will, and it shall be the aroma of a pleasant fragrance to atone 
for the land [. . .] 10 shall end in the judgment of the times of wickedness [. . .] 
11 Blank In the first week [...] 12 for he did not enter the garden of Eden. And 
their counsel [. . .] 13 [. . .] until . . . not [...]/,#[...] holy the garden of Eden. And 
every father who is within it will be holy [. . .] is shall be impure for seven days, 
as in the days of menstrual impurity, shall be impure. And thfirty . . .] 16 of her 
purification. But if she gives birth to a baby girl, she shall be impure [...] ,7 
[. . .] in the blood of her purification. In everything which is holy [. . .] 


5Q 13 


FRAGMENTS OF OTHER RULES 


73 


5 QR.uk ( 5 Q 13 ) 


Frag. 1 i 2 [...] God of all [...] j [...] and he founded upon [...] 

4 [•■•]••• the treasures [...]5 [...] for them alone, for he made [...] 6 [...] you 
chose from the sons of the gods [...] 7 [...] and with Noah, your chosen one 
you have destroyed [. . .] 9 [. . .] to understand your works [. . .] ,0 [. . .] 

. . . the service of [. . .] 77 [. . .] ... you commanded him [. . .] 72 [. . .] every man of 
Israel [. . .] 

Frag. 2 1 [...]... 2-3 [...] 4 [...} for ever 5 [...] with Abraham 6 [.. .] you showed 

yourself to Jacob at Beth El 7 [. . .] and Levi [you made hjoly and placed to undo 
*[••■] y° u chose the sons of Levi to go out 9 [. . .] in their spirits in your pres- 
ence 70 [..J and after two 77 [...] an oath upon 12 [...] to 

Frag. 4 7 [. . .he] stands before the Inspector [. . .] 2 [. . .] and shall not become 

pure through atonement, [. . .] 3 [. . .] Unclean, unclean shall he be all the days 
[••■]* [■•■] these things shall they do, year after year al[l the days ...] 

Frag. 5 ,[...] his reward ...[...] 2 [...] by the hand of Belial, and not [. . .] 3 [. . .] 

Israel when [...] arose 



Halakhic Texts 


76 


HALAKHIC TEXTS 


A large part of the contents of the ‘Rules’ comprises halakhic regulations, ac- 
tual rules of behaviour obtained from a particular interpretation of Old Testa- 
ment law-codes. Likewise, many of the texts classed as ‘Biblical Interpretation’, 
The Temple Scroll , for example, are nothing more than a collection of halakhot. 
Even within para-biblical stories, such as the book of Jubilees , halakhah holds 
an important position. In spite of this, it has been considered helpful to devote 
a special chapter to ‘halakhic texts’. Included is a unique composition, the 
Halakhic Letter , in which the halakhah differentiating the Qumran group from 
the rest of Judaism at that time is set out systematically. Included, too, are 
those fragments which, in the state they have reached us, contain chiefly 
halakhic regulations. However, due to the loss of the rest of the works to which 
they belong, it is impossible to know whether these halakhot actually formed 
part of works of different literary forms, or whether they belonged to composi- 
tions intended chiefly to establish and hand on the halakhah of the group. 

The Halakhic Letter , known by the abbreviation 4QMMT ( 4QMiqsat Ma ‘aseh 
ha-Torah = ‘Some precepts of the Law’), is important. However, it is difficult 
to determine with any precision its contents through reading separately the 
various fragments of the copies preserved. Therefore, here the translation of 
the fragments of the different manuscripts is prefaced with the translation of 
the ‘composite text’ compiled by professors Strugnell and Qimron, who are in 
the process of editing the different manuscripts in the tenth volume of the 
Series Discoveries in the Judaean Desert. In this way, as in the cases of the Rule 
of the Community and of the Damascus Document , it is possible to gain some idea 
of what each individual manuscript has preserved for us. Although it would be 
easy to separate it into different sections -a calendar, an introduction, a collec- 
tion of halakhot and the closing exhortation -each line of the ‘composite text’ 
is numbered consecutively, for easier reference to the fragments which have 
been preserved. 


4 QMMT 1-41 


HALAKHIC LETTER 


77 


1 Halakhic Letter (4QMMT) 
a Composite text 

/[...] a sabbath in it; after the sa[bbath, the first and of the second day, a third 
day] 2 is added. And the year is complete, three hundred and si[xty-four] 
3 days. These are some of our regulations [concerning the law of G]od, which 
are pa[rt of] 5 the precepts we [are examining and] they [a]ll relate to [. . .] 6 and 
the purity of [. . .] ... [Concerning the offering of the] wheat of the Genftiles 
which they . . .] 7 and they touch it [. . .] and they defi[le it: you shall not eat it.] 
8 [None] of the wheat of the Gentiles shall be brought into the temple. [. . .And 
concerning the sacrifice] 9 which they cook in vessels [of bronze. . .] w the flesh 
of their sacrifices and [...] in the courtyard the [...] u with the broth of their 
sacrifices. And concerning the sacrifice of the Gentiles: [we say that they sacri- 
fice] 1 2 [...] which he is pulling towards it. [And concerning the thank-offer- 
ings] 13 which they postpone from one day to another, w[e think] 14 that the 
ce[real]-offering [should be eaten] with the fats and the meat on the day of their 
sacrifice, and that the] 13 priests should oversee in this matter in such a way 
that the [sons of Aaron] do not 16 lead the people into error. And also in what 
pertains to the purity of the red heifer in the sin-offering: 17 that whoever 
slaughters it and whoever burns it and whoever collects the ash and whoever 
sprinkles the [water of] 18 purification, all these ought to be pure at sunset, 
ig so that whoever is pure sprinkles the impure. For the sons of 20 [Aaron] 
ought [to be ...] 21 [And concerning the] hides of cat[tle and the flocks, we 
think that...] 22 the vessels of [hide...] 23 [in order to bring] them into the 
tem[ple. . .] 24 [. . .] And also concerning the hid[es and the bones of the unclean 
animals; they shall not make,] 25 [from their bones] and from their hides, han- 
dles of ves[sels. And also, concerning the carcases] 26 [of the] clean [animals]: 
the one who [carries] its carcase [shall not approach the holy purity] 27 [. . .] And 
also concerning [. . .] which they [. . .] 28 \_... for] 29 the priests ought to com[ply 
with all these] things [so that they do not] 30 lead the people into sin. And con- 
cerning what is written: Lev 17:3 [«When a man slaughters within the camp»- 
they] 31 [slaughter] outside the camp-«a bull, or a [she]ep or a she-goat»: the 
pl[ace of slaughter is to the north of the camp.] 32 And we think that the temple 
[is the place of the tent of meeting, and Jerusalem 33 is the camp; and outside 
the camp is [outside Jerusalem;] it is the camp of 34 their cities. Outside the 
ca[mp. . .] ... [. . .] You shall remove the ashes 35 from the altar and bur[n there 
the sin-offering, for Jerusalem] is the place which 36 [ he chose from among all 
the tribes of Israel...] 37 [...] 38 [... they] do not slaughter in the temple [...] 
39 [And concerning pregnant animals, we think that] the mother and son 
[should not be sacrificed] on the same day 40 [. . .And concerning who eats, w]e 
think that one can eat the son 41 [who was in the womb of his mother after she 


78 


HAI.AKHIC TEXTS 


4QMMT 41-85 


has been slaughtered; and you know that] this is so and that this matter is writ- 
ten down; the pregnant 42 [. . . And concerning the Ammonite and the Moabite 
and the bastard and the one with crushed testicles and one with severjed penis, 
if these enter 43 [the assembly... and ] take a bone 44 [...] 45 [...] we think 
46 [. . .] concerning these 47 [. . . that they should not] join them and make them 
48 [. . .] and not be brou[ght] 49 [into the temple. . . And you know that some] of 
the people 50 [. . .some associating with others. 51 [Because the sons of Israel 
ought to keep themselves from all] uncleanness of the male 32 [and be respect- 
ful towards the temple. And also] concerning the blind 33 [who cannot see: they 
should keep themselves from all uncleanness,] and they do not see the unclean- 
ness of 34 the sin-offering. 33 And also concerning the deaf who do not hear the 
law or the regulations concerning purity and do not 56 hear the laws of Israel; 
for whoever neither sees nor hears, does not 57 know how to apply (them); but 
these are approaching the purity of the temple. And also concerning flowing 
liquids: we say that in these there is no 59 purity. Even flowing liquids cannot 
separate unclean 60 from clean because the moisture of flowing liquids and 
their containers is 6 j the same moisture. And into the holy camp dogs should 
not be brought which 62 could eat some of the bones from the te[mple...] the 
flesh on them. Because 63 Jerusalem is the holy camp, the place 64 which He 
has chosen from among all the tribes of Is[rael, since Jerusalem is the head 
63 of the camps of Israel. And also [concerning] the planting of fruit trees: a 
plant 66 in the land of Israel is like the first-fruits, it is for the priests. And the 
tithe of the cattle 67 and the flocks is for the priests. And also concerning lep- 
ers: we 68 s[ay that] they should [not] enter the holy purity, but instead 69 [re- 
side outside the camp], alone. [And] also it is written that from the moment he 
shaves and washes he should reside outside 70 [his tent for seven] days. And it 
happens that when they are unclean, 71 [lepers approach] the holy purity, the 
house. And you know 72 [. . .] and apart from him, shall 73 bring [a sin-offering. 
And concerning him who acts offensively it is wrijtten that he is a slanderer and 
a blasphemer. 74 [And further: when they have the uncleanness of leprosy] they 
should not eat any of the holy things 75 until the sun sets on the eighth day. 
And concerning [the uncleanness of a] 76 corpse: we say that every bone, 
[whether stripped of flesh] 77 or complete is subject to the law concerning a 
dead or murdered person. 78 And concerning the fornications carried out in the 
midst of the people: they are [members of the congregation of perfect] 79 holi- 
ness, as it is written: «Holy is Israel». And concerning his [pure animal] 80 it is 
written that he shall not pair off two species; and concerning clothing, [it is 
written that no] 81 materials are to be mixed; and he will not sow his field [or 
his vineyard with two species] 81 because they are holy. And the sons of Aaron 
are the [holiest of the holy,] 83 but you know that a part of the priests and of 
the peo[ple mingle] 84 and they squeeze each other and defile the [holy] seed 
[and also] 83 their (own) [seed] with fornications, befcause the sons of Aaron] 


4 Qmmt 86 - n8 


HALAKHIC LETTER 


79 


86 [...] ... [...] who will come*? and who [...]8g And concerning 

women: [.. .] and betrayal [. . .] go for in these matters [. . . for] violence and for- 
nication [several] gi places have been ruined. And [further] it is writ[ten in the 
book of Moses that] an abomination [is not] to be brought [into a house, for] 
gz an abomination is odious. [And you know that] we have segregated ourselves 
from the rest of the peop[le and (that) we avoid] gj mingling in these affairs and 
associating with them in these things. And you k[now that there is not] g 4 to be 
found in our actions deceit or betrayal or evil, for concerning [these things w]e 
give [. . . and further] 95 to you we have wrfitten] that you must understand the 
book of Moses [and the words of the pro]phets and of David [and the annals] 
96 [of eac]h generation. And in the book it is writtenf...] not to 97 [...] And 
further it is written that [you shall stray] from the path and you will undergo 
evil. And it is written g 8 [. . .] and we determined [. . .] 99 [. . .] And it is written 
that 700 [all] these [things] shall happen to you at the end of days, the blessing 
701 and the curse [. . . and you shall ass jent in your heart and turn to me with all 
your heart 102 [and with a]ll your soul [. . . at the e]nd [of time] and you shall be 
[...] 103 [And it is written in the book of] Moses and in [the words of the 
prop]hets that [blessings and curses] will come upon you] which [...] 104 [the 
bl]essings which c[ame upon] him in the days of Solomon the son of David and 
also the curses 1 05 which came upon him from the [days of Je]roboam son of 
Nebat right up to the capture of Jerusalem and of Zedekiah, king of Judah 
106 [that] he should bring them in [. . .]. And we are aware that part of the bless- 
ings and curses have occurred 107 that are written in the b[ook of Mo]ses. And 
this is the end of days, when they go back to Israel 108 for [ever...] and not 
return [. . .] and the wicked will act wickedly and [. . .] iog And [. . .] remember 
the kings of Israel and reflect on their deeds, how whoever of them no who 
respected [the Torah] was freed from his afflictions; those who sought the To- 
rah in [were forgiven] their sins. Remember David, one of the ‘pious’ and he, 
too, 112 was freed from his many afflictions and was forgiven. And also we have 
written to you 113 some of the precepts of the Torah which we think are good 
for you and for your people, for in you [we saw] 114 intellect and knowledge of 
the Torah. Reflect on all these matters and seek from him so that he may sup- 
port 11 5 your counsel and keep far from you the evil scheming and the counsel 
of Belial, 116 so that at the end of time, you may rejoice in finding that some of 
our words are true. 117 And it shall be reckoned to you as in justice when you 
do what is upright and good before him, for your good 118 and that of Israel. 

B Translation of the individual copies 
4QHalakhic Letter 3 (4Q394 I4QMMT"]) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 (= 4QMMT 1-19) 1 [. . .] a sabbath in it; after the safbbath, the first 


8o 


HALAKHIC TEXTS 


4QMMT" 1-2 


and of the second day, a third day] 2 is added. And the year is complete, three 
hundred and si[xty-four] 3 days. Blank 4 These are some of our regulations [con- 
cerning the law of G]od, which are pa[rt of] 5 the precepts we [are examining 
and] they [a]ll relate to [...] 6 and purity Blank [. ..] ... [And concerning the of- 
fering of the] wheat of the Gen[tiles which they . . . ] 7 and they touch it [ . . .] and 
they defi[le it: you shall not eat it.] 8 [None] of the wheat of the Gentiles shall 
be brought into the temple. [. . .And concerning the sacrifice] 9 which they cook 
in vessels [of bronze. . .] 10 the flesh of their sacrifices and [. . .] in the courtyard 
the [. ..] 11 with the broth of their sacrifices. And concerning the sacrifice of the 
Gentiles: [we say that they sacrifice] 12 [. . .] which he is pulling towards it. [And 
concerning the thank-offerings] 13 which they postpone from one day to an- 
other, w[e think] 14 that the ce[real]-offering [should be eaten] with the fats and 
the meat on the day of their sacrifice, and that the] 15 priests should oversee 
in this matter in such a way that the [sons of Aaron] do not 16 lead the people 
into sin. Blank And also in what pertains to the purity of the red heifer in the 
sin-offering: 1 7 that whoever slaughters it and whoever burns it and whoever 
collects the ash and whoever sprinkles the [water of] 18 purification, Blank All 
these ought to be pure at sunset, 79 so that whoever is pure sprinkles the im- 
pure. For the sons of 

Frag. 1 col. 11 (= 4QMMT 29-35) '3 the priests ought to be vigilant [in all these] 

things [so that they do not] 14 lead the people into sin. And concerning what is 
written: Lev 17:3 [«When a man slaughters within the camp»-they] 15 [slaughter] 
outside the camp-«a bull, or a [she]ep or a she-goat»: the plface of slaughter is 
to the north of the camp.] 16 And we think that the temple [is the place of the 
tent of meeting, and Jerusalem 17 is the camp; and outside the camp is [outside 
of Jerusalem;] it is the camp of 18 their cities. Outside the ca[mp...] ... [...] 
You shall remove the ashes from the ig [al]tar and bur[n there the sin-offering, 
for Jerusalem] is the place which 

Frag. 2 (= 4QMMT 40-53) 6 [.. . And concerning who eats, we think that one can 

eat] the son 7 [who was in the womb of his mother after she has been slaugh- 
tered; and you know that this is so and that] this matter is written; 8 [the preg- 
nant . . . And concerning the Ammonite and the] Moabite 9 [and the bastard and 
the one with crushed testicles and one with severed penis, if these enter] the 
assembly 10 [... and ] take 11 [a bone ...] we thifnk] 12 [that...] concerning these 
13 [... that they should not join them and] make 14 [... and not be brou[ght] 
75 [into the temple. . . And you know that some] of the people 16 [. . .some asso- 
ciating with others. 17 [Because the sons of Israel ought to keep themselves 
from all] uncleanness of the male 18 [and be respectful towards the temple. And 
also] concerning the blind 79 [who cannot see: they should keep themselves 
from all uncleanness,] and the uncleanness of 


4QMMT a ' f 


HALAKHIC LETTER 


8l 


Frag. 3 (= 4QMMT 54-69) / [the sin] offering these do not see it. Blank 2 [And 

al]so concerning the deaf who do not hear the law or the precepts concerning 
purity and do not 3 [h]ear the laws of Israel, for whoever neither sees nor hears, 
does not 4 [k]now how to apply (them). But these are approaching the purity of 
the temple. Blank 3 [And al]so concerning flowing liquids: we say that in these 
there is no 6 [pu]rity. Neither can flowing liquids separate unclean 7 [from] 
clean, because the moisture of flowing liquids and their vessels is 8 the same 
moisture. And into the [ho]ly camp dogs should not be brought which 9 can eat 
some of the bones from the te[mple with] the flesh on them. Because 10 Jerusa- 
lem is the holy camp, the place 11 which he has chosen from among all the 
trifbes of Israel, since Jerusalem is the head 12 of the camps of Israel. And also 
concerning the planting of] fruit [trees: a plant] 13 [in the land of Israel is like 
the first-fruits, it is for the pr]iests. And the tit[he of the cattle] 14 [and the 
flocks is for the priests. And also concerning] lepers: [we] 13 [say that] they 
should not enter the holy pur]ity, but instead] 16 [reside outside the camp, 
alone. And also it is written that from the moment he] shav[es and washes he 
should reside outside] 

4QHalakhic Letter* (4Q395 [4QMMT*]) 

Frag. 1 (= 4QMMT 10-20) 1 [the flesh of their sacrifices and ... in the courtyard 

...] 2 to [...with the broth of their sacrifices. And concerning the sacrifice of 
the Gentiles: we say that they] 3 sacrifice. . . which he is pulling towards it. And 
concerning] 4 the than(k-offerings which they postpone from one day to an- 
other, we think] 3 that the ce[real-offering should be eaten with the fats and the 
meat on the day of their sacrifice, and that the priests should] 6 oversee in this 
matter [in such a way that the sons of Aaron do not lead the people into sin.] 
7 And also in what pertains to the purity of the re[d] /heifer/ [in the sin-offer- 
ing: that whoever slaughters it and whoever burns it and whoever collects] 8 the 
ash and whoever sprinkles the [water of purification, all these, at sunset,] 
9 ought to be pure so that [whoever is pure sprinkles the impure. For the sons 
of] 10 Aaron ought to be vigilant [. . .] 11 ... [. . .] 

4QHalakhic Letter^ (4Q396 [4QMMT 1 ]) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 (= 4QMMT 38-43) 1 [... they do not] slaughter in the tem[ple.] 

2 [And concerning pregnant animals: we think that] the mother and son [should 
not be sacrificed] on the same day 3 [. . .And concerning who eats: w]e think that 
one can eat the son 4 [who was in the womb of his mother after she has been 
slaughtered; and you know that this is] so and that this matter is written down; 
the pregnant Blank 3 [... And concerning the Ammonite and the Moabite and 
the bastard and the one with crushed testicles and one with severed] penis, if 
these enter 6 [the assembly. . .] ... a bone 


82 


HALAKHIC TEXTS 


4 QMMT f 1 II — IV 


Frag. 1 col. II (= 4QMMT 52-63) 1 and to be observant of the temple. [And also 

concerning the blind] who cannot 2 see: to keep themselves from all 
uncleann[ess; and the uncleanness of the sin-offering] they cannot 3 see it. Blank 
And also concerning the de[af who do not] hear the law 4 and the precept of 
purity and do not hear [the laws of] Israel 3 for whoever neither sees nor hears, 
does not [know] how to apply (them). But these 6 are approaching the purity of 
the temple. And al[so concerning flowing liquids, we] 7 say that in these there 
is no [purity. Neither can flowing liquids] 8 separate unclean from clfean, be- 
cause the moisture of flowing liquids] 9 and what contains them is like them. 
[And into the holy camp] dogs [should not be brought] 7 0 which e[at some of 
the bones from the tefmple. . . with the flesh] ;; [on them.] Because Jerusalem 
is the holy camp, the place] 

Frag, t col. in (= 4QMMT 64-74) ' which He has chosen from among all the 

tribes of Is[rael, since Jerusalem is the head 2 [of the cam]ps of Israel. Blank 
And also [concerning the planting of] fruit trees: a plant 3 in the land of Israel 
is like the first-fruits, it is for the priests. And the tithe of the cattle 4 and of the 
flocks, is for the priests. And also concerning lepers: we 5 s[ay that] they should 
[not] enter {the pur} the holy purity, but instead 6 [reside outside the camp], 
alone. And also it is written that from the moment he shaves and washes he 
should reside outside 7 [his tent for seven] days. And behold, that when they 
are still unclean 8 [lepers approach] the holy purity, the house. And you know 
9 [. . .] and apart from him, must bring 10 [a sin-offering. And concerning him 
who acts offensively it is written that he is a slanderer and a blasp[hemer.] 7; 
[And further: when they have the uncleanness of leprosy] they should not eat 
any of the holy things 

Frag. 1 col. iv (= 4QMMT 75 - 85) 7 until the sun sets on the eighth day. And 

concerning [the uncleanness of the corpse of] 2 a man: we say that every bone, 
[whether stripped of flesh] 3 or complete, is subject to the law concerning a 
dead or murdere[d person.] 4 And concerning the fornications carried out in 
the midst of the people: they are [members of the congregation of perfect] 

5 holiness, as it is written: «Holy is Israel*. And concerning the [pure animal] 

6 it is written that he shall not pair off two species; and concerning clot[hing, 
it is written that no] 7 materials are to be mixed; and he will not sow his field 
[or his vineyard with two species] 8 because they are holy. But the sons of 
Aaron are the [holiest of the holy] 9 [and yo]u know that a part of the priests 
and of the peo[ple mingle] 10 [and they] squeeze each other and defile the [holy] 
seed [and also] n their (own) [seed] with fornications, [because the sons of 
Aaron] 


4 Qmmt' / 1-6 


HALAKHIC LETTER 


83 


4QHalakhic Letter^ (4Q397 [4 Qmmt^]) 

Frag. 1 (= 4QMMT 31-36) ?[...] ... [.. .] 2 [. . .but the place of slaughter is to the 

norjth of the camp. [And we think that the temple] 3 [is the place of the tent of 
meeting, and Jerusalem] is the camp; and outside the [camp is outside Jerusa- 
lem.] 4 [It is the camp of their cities. Outside the camp. . . You shall remove the 
ash]es [from the altar and burn there the sin-] 5 [offering, for Jerusalem is the 
place which he chose from among] all [the tribes of Israel...] 

Frag. 2 (= 4QMMT 42-49) 1 [. . . And concerning the Ammonite and the Moabite 

and the] bastard [and the one with crushed testicles and one with severjed pe- 
nis, if these enter the assembly 2 [. . . and ] take a bone [.. .] 3 [.. .] their impuri- 
ties. And also, we think [. . .] 4 [. . .concerning these . . . that they should not] join 
them and make [. . .] 5 [. . . and not be brought into the temple. . . And you know 
that some] of the peo[ple . . .] 6 [. . .] ... [. . .] 

Frags. 3 + 4 (= 4QMMT 59-67) / [... Even flowing liquids cannot separate] un- 

clean from clean [because the moisture of flowing liquids and their vessels] 
2 [is the same moisture. And into the holy camp] dogs [should not be brought] 
which could eat some of the bones from the tefmple...] 3 [...] the flesh on 
[them. Because Jerusalem is the] holy camp, [the place which He has chosen 
from among all] 4 [the tribes of] Israel, since [Jerusalem is the head of the 
camps of Israel. And also concerning the planfting of fruit trees: a plant in the 
land of] 5 [Isra]el is like the first-[fruits, it is for the pr]iests. [And the tithe of 
the cattle and the flocks is for the priests.] 6 [. . .] ... [. . .] 

Frags. 5 + 6 (= 4QMMT 70-82) 1 [...]...[...] 2 [... And it happens that when 

they are uncl]ean lefpers approach the holy purity, the house. And you know 
. . .] 3 [ . . . and apart from him, [shall bring] a sin-offering. [And concerning him 
who acts offensively it is written that he is a slanderer and a blasphemer.] 
4 [And further: when they have the unclea]nness of lefprosy they should not] 
eat [any of the holy things until] the sun [sets on the eighth day.] 5 [And con- 
cerning the uncleanness of a corp]se, we say that every [bone, whether stripped 
of flesh or complete is subject to the] law concerning a dead or murdefred per- 
son.] 6 And concerning the fornications carried out in the midst of the peop[le: 
they are members of the congregation of perfect holiness,] as it is written: 
«Holy is [Israel*.] 7 [And concerning the pu]re [animal], it is written that he 
shall not pair off [two species; and concerning clothing, it is written that no] 
materials [are to be mixed;] and he will not [sow his field] 8 [or his vineyard 
with two] species because they are [holy. But the sons of Aaron are the holi]est 
of the holy, 


8 4 


HALAKHIC TEXTS 


4QMMT S 


Frags. 7 + 8 (=4QMMT 86- 103) /[...] ... [. ..] 2 [...] ... [...] who will come 3 and 

who [...] ... [...] 4 And concerning womfen...] and betrayal [ ] 5- for in these 

matters [... ] for violence and fornication [several] 6 places have been ruined. 
And [further] it is written in the book of Moses that | an abomination [is not] 
to be brought [into a house for] 7 an abomination is odious. [And you know 
that] we have segregated ourselves from the rest of the peop[le and (that) we 
avoid] 8 mingling in these affairs, and associating with [them] in these things. 
And you k[now that there is not] g to be found in our actions deceit or betrayal 
or evil, for concerning [these things] we give [. . . and further] w to you we have 
written] that you must understand the book of Moses [and the words of the] 
prophets and of David [and the annals] u [of eac]h generation. And in the book 
it is written [...] ... [... not to] 12 [...] ... And further it is written that [you 
shall stray] from the path and you will undergo [evil. And it is written that] 

13 a]ll [these] things [shall happen to you at the e]nd of days, [the blessing] 

14 [and the curse . . . and you shall ass]ent in your heart [and will turn to me 
with all your 15 [...] which came [...] 16 [...] ... [...] 


4QHalakhic Letter 1, (4Q398 [4QpapMMT‘]) 

Frag. 1 (=4QMMT 104- 1 10) 1 [the bl]essings which c[ame upon] him in the days 

of Solomon the son of David and also the curses 2 which came upon him from 
the [days of Je]roboam son of Nebat and up to the capture of Jerusalem and of 
Zedekiah, king of Judah 3 [that] he should bring them in [...]. And we are 
aware that part of the blessings and curses have occurred 4 that are written in 
the b[ook of Mo]ses. And this is the end of days, when they go back to Israel 

5 for [ever...] and not return [...] and the wicked will act wickedly and [...] 

6 And [. . .] remember the kings of Israel and reflect on their deeds, how who- 
ever of them 7 respected [the Torah] was freed from his afflictions; those who 
sought the Torah 

Frag. 2 col. 1 1-3 [...]... 4 [...] and we have been established [...] 5 And it is 

written. And this will happen because 6 [...] the days of blessing 7 [...] all your 
heart 

Frag. 2 col. 11 (= 4QMMT 111-118) 1 [they were forgiven] their sins. Remember 

David, one of the 'pious’ and he, too, 2 was freed from his many afflictions and 
was forgiven. And also we have written to you 3 some of the precepts of the 
Torah which we think are good for you and for your people, for [we saw] 4 in 
you intellect and knowledge of the Torah. Reflect on all these matters and seek 
from him so that he may support 5 your counsel and keep far from you the evil 
scheming and the counsel of Belial, 6 so that at the end of time, you may re- 
joice in finding that some of our words are true. 7 And it shall be reckoned to 


4Qmmt^ 


HALAKHIC LETTER 


85 


you as in justice when you do what is upright and good before him, for your 
good 8 and that of Israel. 


4QHalakhic Lette/(4Q399 [4QMMTfy 

Frag. 1 col. 1 (= 4QMMT 111-113) 9 [• • • Remember David, one of the ‘pious’ and 

he, too, was frejed 10 [from his many afflictions and was forgiven. And also] to 
you we n [have written some of the precepts of the Torah which we think are 
good for you] Blank for we saw 

Frag. 1 col. II (= 4QMMT 114-118) 1 [in you, intellect and knowledge of the 

Torah. Reflect on all these matters and seek] from him 2 [so that he may sup- 
port your counsel and keep far from you the] evil scheming 3 [and the counsel 
of Belial, so that at the end of time, you may rejoice] in finding that some of 
our words 4 [are true. And it shall be reckoned to you as in justice when you] 
do what is upright Blank before him, 5 [for your good and that of Is]rael. Blank 
6-11 Blank 


86 


HALAKHIC TEXTS 


4 Q 159 


2 Other Halakhic Texts 
2Qjuridical text (2Q25) 

Frag. 1 /[...] his mouth [...] is full [...] 2 [...] these obligations [...] 3 [... for] 

this is what is written in the book of Moses [. . .] 

4Q(')rdinances“ (4Q159 [4QOrd"]) 

Frag. 1 col. II /[...] Not [...] ... [...] 2 [,..Isra]el and [their infringements and 
to atone for all their sins. [When someone harvests] 3 [his field and] makes it 
into a threshing floor or a press, whoever comes to the threshing floor [or to the 
press, whether levite, foreigner, orphan or widow,] 4 [whoever in Israel owns 
nothing, that person can eat some and garner for himself; but he is [not to har- 
vest for his household, for «whoever comes into the grain of] 5 a field can eat 
it himself, but is not to remove it to his house to store it[»...] 6 Concerning 
[ransom:] the money of the census which one gives as ransom for his own per- 
son will be half a shekel [corresponding to the shekel of the temple, as an offer- 
ing to God.] 7 Only once will he give it in all his days. The shekel comprises 
twenty geras in the [shekel of the temple. For all those who enter to be en- 
rolled,] 8 for the six hundred thousand: one hundred talents', for the third, half 
a talent, [thirty minas ; for the five hundreds, five minas,] g and for the fifty, half 
a mina, [twenty]-five shekels. The total [is six thousand and thirty-five and 
minas and half a] 10 mina. [Their peace-offering, according to the enrolled: a 
thousand m]en, ten minus', [one hundred men, one mina; fifty men, half a mina;} 
u [ten men, five sAc£e/s - fi]ve ( shekels ) of silver (make) the tenth part of [a 
mina; one man, ten geras -ten (geras) of silver] 12 [(make) half a shekel, since the 
shekel has twenty geras at the rate of the she]kel of the temple; haflf a shekel is 
the offering for God. . .] the ephah and the hath are the same mea- 

sure [. . .] 14 [. . .] three tenths [. . .] 15 [. . .] Blank [. . .] 16 [. . .] all the people, and 
they will raise their ha[nds ...] 17 [...] Israel and he will burn the fa[t. ..] 

Frags. 2-4 1 [and if he has become poverty-stricken and sells himself to a] for- 

eigner or the descendant of a [foreign] fam[ily, to be a day labourer for a year. 
He is not to govern him with harshness] 2 in the presence of Isra[el. They] are 
not to serve gentiles; with [a powerful hand and an outstretched arm he 
brought them out of the land of] 3 Egypt and commanded them not be sold for 
the price of a slave. [In an exceptional case, they should go to the ten] men 
4 and two priests and be judged by these twelve. [...If there is] 5 a capital 
offence in Israel, their authority should be consulted, and whoever disobeys 
them [. . .] 6 he will be executed, for he acted presumptuously. A woman is not 
to wear the clothes of a male; every[one w ho does so commits an abomination; 


4Q 25i 


OTHER HALAKHIC TEXTS 


8 ? 


he is not] 7 to put on a woman’s cloak, and he is not to dress in a woman’s tu- 
nic, for it is an abomination. Blank [...] 8 In the case where a man slanders a 
maiden of Israel, if he says it at the mo[ment] of taking her, they shall examine 
her; [if] 9 it is proved that he has not lied about her, they shall put her to death; 
but if he has testified [false]ly against her, they are to fine him two minas [and 
he is not] 10 to divorce her for all the days (of her life). Anyone who [. . .] 

4QHalakhah (4Q25 1 [4QHalakah“]) 

Frag. 1 1 [...] of (the) sin [...] 2 [...] he will compensate for the [enforced 

unem]ployment and defray the cost of the treatment. 3 [If a bull gores a man 
or a wom]an and (s)he dies, they shall stone the bull 4 [and its meat is not to be 
eaten; but the owner will be acquitted. But if the bull had been gorjing in the 
past 5 [and, the owner having been warned, had not restrained it and it should 
kill a ma]n or a woman 

Frag. 2 1 [No-one is to consume grain, wi]ne or oil until [the priest has waved] 

2 their first fruits. And no-one is to separate the must, for [wine] 3 is the first 
of the must, and the grain is the best part of [. . . And the bread of] 4 the first 
fruits are the leavened cakes which they have to carry on the day of [the first 
fruits.] 5 These are the first fruits. No-one is to eat the new wheat [...] 6 until 
the day of the bread from the first fruits arrives. Not [...] 

Frag. 3 z [...] ... [...] 2 [...] Not to 3 [...] the issaron [...] 4 [...] and the animal 
[...] 5 [. . .the first]-born of man and of an unclean animal, 6 [.. .the bu]ll and 
ram, and the temple of 7 [...] is like the first-born. And the produce of a tree 
<?[... and the oijl and the olive(-tree) in the fourth year 9 [. . .] offering, every 
holocaust (is) for the priest. 

Frag. 4 z [. . .bu]ll or ewe or she-goat which are not perfe[ct] 2 [. . .] And you shall 
not eat their flesh, for [. . .] 3 [. . .] No-one is to eat the meat of an animal Blank 
4 [and the de]ad [animal] or the torn animal which is not alive, for 5 [. . .] to the 
foreigner, and the fat, to ma[ke. . .] 6 [. . .to sacrifice from it [. . .] 7 [. . .] ... [. . .] 

Frag. 5 z [...].. . and the woman 2 [. . .] they shall eat with his bread, only a dove 

3 [. . .] Blank Any fraud used to commit fraud 4 [. . .] to eat, for it is an abomina- 
tion. 5 [. . .] an owner (and) has no-one to ransom him 

Frag. 6 z [. . .a ma]n with his fellow [. . .] 2 [. . .] ... to the unclean [. ..] 3 [. . .] the 
wounded man who falls [...] 4 [...] changes his soul [...] 5 [...] it is a change; 
everything that is cut [...] 6 [...] in which there is no soul is dead. 


88 


HALAKHIC TEXTS 


4 Q 274 


Frag. 7 1 Concerning nakedness: [. . .] 2 A man is not to take the daughter 

of his brother or the daughter of [. . .] 4 a man the nakedness of the sister of his 
mo[ther. . .] 5 her father and the brother of her mother [. . .] 6 A man is not to 
expose the nakedness of [...] 7 A man is not take the wife [...] 

4QPurification rules A (4Q274 [4QTohorot a]) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 1 he shall begin to lay down his [re]quest; he shall lie down in the 

bed of sorrows, and in the residence of lamentation he shall reside; he shall 
reside apart from all the impure, and far from the 2 pure food, at twelve cubits; 
he shall dwell in the quarter reserved for him, to the North-east of every dwell- 
ing, at the distance of this measure. 3 Every man of the impure who [touches] 
him, shall bathe in water and wash his clothes, and afterwards he will eat. For 
this is what it says: Lev 13:45-46 «Unclean, unclean, 4 he will shout, all the days 
that [the condition la[sts] him». And she who has a discharge of blood, during 
the seven days shall not touch the man with gonorrhoea or any of the utensils 
which the man with gonorrhoea has touched, 5 <upon which he has lain) /or/ 
upon which he has sat. And if she does touch, she shall wash her clothes and 
bathe, and afterwards, she will eat. And she must not mingle in any way during 
her seven 6 days, so that she does not contaminate the camps of the holy [ones 
of] Israel. Nor should she touch any woman [with a discharge] of blood of sev- 
eral days. 7 And the one who counts (their seven days), whether male or female, 
should not tofuch ...] at the onset of her menstruation, unless she is pure of 
[her menstruation, for behold, the blood 8 of menstruation is considered like 
a discharge [for] him who touches it. And whoever [has an emission of semen 
contaminates through contact. [And whoever tou]ches anyone 9 of these impure 
persons, during the seven days of [his purification, shall not eat, like whoever 
is impure through (contact with a) corpse. [He shall bathe in water] and wash, 
and aft[erwards . . .] 

Frag. 2 col. 1 1 [...] upon whom he sprinkled for the first time, and he shall 

bathe and wash before 2 [.. .shall imm]erse upon him the seventh, on the sab- 
bath day. He shall not sprinkle on the sabbath, because 3 [...] on the sabbath; 
only, he should not touch the pure food until he changes 4 [...] Whoever 
touches a man’s emission of semen shall immerse even all the utensils, and 
whoever carries it 5 [...] and shall immerse the clothing upon which it was 
found and the utensils which carry it 6 [. . .] And if in the camp there is a man 
whose hand does not reach [. . .] 7 [. . .] the clothing which he has not touched; 
only that he should not touch it, his food. And whoever does touch 8 [. . .] ... 
If he does not touch it [...] in water, and if 9 [...] and he shall wash. And con- 
cerning all these holy things, he shall wash [. . .] in water 


4 Q 275-277 


OTHER HALAKHIC TEXTS 


89 


Frag. 2 col. 11 1 his flesh and thus [. . .] 2 And if [. . .] 3 says [. . .] 4 his bread [. . .] 

5 impure reptile [. . .] 6 And whoever touches it [. . .] 7 and all [...] A And if [. . .] 
9 who [...] 

Frag. 3 /[...] Not [...] the apple of his eyes [...] 2 [...] and every regulation 

Blank [...] 3 [...] or every [...] 4 [...] ... [...] 5 [...] and is impurje...] 6 [...] ... 
Blank And he shall eat it in purity [. . .] 7 [. . .which] they dissolve by rubbing and 
its liquid has evaporated, no-one shall eat it [...]£[...] the impure among them. 
And also from among the greens [...] 9 [...] or a stewed cucumber, the man 
who pours [. . .] 


4QPurification rules b (4Q275 [4QTohorot b]) 

Frag. 1 1 [. . . the pre]cept, and shall be put to the test until the week [. . .] 2 [. . .] 

they will take possession of their inheritance, because ... [. . .] 3 [. . .] the truth; 
and those who hate the pillaging [. . .] 4 [. . . they will] flee so as not to kill a man 
[• ■ •] 5 [■ ■ •] the judgment. [...] 6 [...] the place. Blank [...] 7 [...] If ... [...] 

Frag. 2 ?[...] they will go by the track [. . .] 2 [. . .] those appointed by name [. . .] 

3 [...] in the third month [...] 4 [...] And he shall answer and shall say: Blank 
[• • •] 5 [••■] and the nations in [...] 6 [...] to them [...] 7 [...]... [...] 

Frag. 3 ; and the elders with him until [...] 2 and he shall note in the register 

[• • •] 3 The Inspector [will curse. . . and there shall be no] 4 mercy. Accursfed be 
...] 5 from his inheritance forever [...] 6 in his destructive] visitation. [...] 

4QPurification rules b ; ’ (4Q276 [4QTohorot is*]) 

Frag. 1 ?[...] with those which he has not ministered in the holy 2 [of holies. . .] 

and he shall pronounce the clothes guilty, and slaughtered shall be 3 [...] the 
heifer before him, and he shall place its blood in a new vessel which [.. .] 4 on 
the altar, and sprinkle some of the blood with his finger. Blank Seven 5 [times 
...] at the entrance of the tent of meeting. And he shall cast the cedar, 6 [the 
hyssop and] scarlet into the midst of its fire. 7 [... and he who collects the 
ashes of the heifer 8 [. . .] ... as a reserve 9 [for the lustral water . . .] The priest 
shall put on 


4QPurification rules b‘ (4Q277 CQTohorot b'|) 

Frag. 1 1 [... the cedar,] the hyssop and the [scarlet...] 2 [...] pure from every 

impurity of [. . .] 3 the priest who atones with the heifer’s blood and all the [. . .] 
4 [■■■] and the sewn tunic with which atonement was made for the precept [...] 


90 


HALAKHIC TEXTS 


4 Q 277-79.477 


5 [. . .] in water [and it will be imjpure till the evening. Whoever carries the vase 
of the water of purification will be im[pure . . .] 6 [.. .No-one should sprinkle] 
the water of purification upon the impure, [ex]cept a pu[re] priest 
upon] them, since he atones for the impure. And a wicked man should not 
sprinkle over the impure. [...]« [...] the water of purification. And they shall 
enter the water and shall be pure from the impurity of the corpse [...] 9 [...] 
other. The prie[st] shall scatter over them the water of purification to purify 
10 [. . .] rather, they will be purified and their flesh [will be pu]re. And everyone 
who touches [. . .] 11 [. . .] his discharge [. . .] in the water [. . .] 12 [. . .] will be im- 
pure [...] his be[d and his] dwelling [...] they touched his discharge, like he 
who touches the impurity of [a corpse.] 13 [...] Whoever touches [...][... and 
will] be impure till the evening, and whoever carries them [shall wash] his 
clothes and will be impure until the evening. 

4QPurification rules c (4Q278 [4QTohorot c]) 

Frag. 1 1 [...no-]one is to lie down 2 [...] where he resides 3 [...] If he does not 

touch it 4 [... the th|ird among them who touch 5 [...] the one who touches the 
bed 6 [. . .] ... in the place 7 [. . .] ... 

4QPurification rules d (?) (4Q279 ? [4QLeqet]) 

Frag. 1 1 [they shall] glean. And they shall not glean it [...] 2 no-one who 

touches the drink of the Many, for [...] 3 [they shall] glean, and the figs {...} 
[...] 4 his drink will come out according to ...] All shall glean [in purity...] 
5 not to [...] And if they mock (?) [...] 6 They are not to ransom a[ll. ..]... /to 
run the risk/ until [. . .] 7 [they shall] glean in purity [. . .] their work [. . .] 

Frag. 2 1 [...]...[...] 2 [...] they shall glean in purity [...] 3 [...] ... and they 
shall glean, each one [...]■/ [...]...[...] 5 [...] innocent [...] 6 [...]... [...] 

4QDecrees (4Q477) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 /[...] and also the men of the community 2 [. . .] their soul, and to 

reproach 3 [. . .] the camps of the Many over 4 [. . .] 

Frag. 1 col. 11 1 to [...] 2 which [...because] is one who does evil [...] 3 the Many 

[...] ... [... Blank And they reproached] Johanan, son of Mata[thias because he 
■ • •] 4 and was quick for anger, [and . . .] with him, and has the evil eye, and also 
hasaboastful spirit. [...]j[...] ... to darkness. [. . .] Blank - And they reproached 
Hananiah Notos because he [...] 6 [...to] reduce the spirit of the commun- 
ity...] and also to mortgage [...] 7 [...] And they reproached [...] son of Jo- 


4 Q 5 i 3 


OTHER HALAKHIC TEXTS 


91 


seph, because he has the evil eye , and also because no-one [...]£[.. .] and also 
he who loves the covering of his flesh [...] 9 [...]- And [they reproached] 
Hananiah, son of Sime[on •••] 10 [•••] And also he who loves the [. . .] 

-pjOrdinanccs* (4Q513 [4QOrd / ’|) 

Frags. 1-2 col. 1 2 [. . . the shekel comprises twe]nty \geras] at the rate 

of the [temple she]kel [. . .] The half -^[shekel has twe]lve obols, two] zuzirn [. . .] 
/and also/ from them comes impurity. 4 [The ephah and the] bath /from these 
comes impurity/ are of the same size: [ten issarons. Like the ephah of] grain, is 
the bath of wine. The seah 5 [is of three issa\rons and a third of an is[saron. 
From them comes imp]urity. And the tenth of the ephah 6 [is an issaron...] 

Frags. 1-2 col. 11 1 to approach the holy foodstuffs, for they are unclean [...] 

2 ladies of sons of foreigners and all fornication which [. . .] 3 he chose for him- 
self, to feed them with all the share of [. . .] 4 and for foo[d (?) of an]gels, and to 
atone {in them] with them on Is[rael]’s behalf [...] 5 the fornication of their 
food, he bears the sin because he has defiled [...] 6 they [...] sin in their defile- 
ment [. . .] 

Frags. 3-4 /[...]...[...] 2 [.. .] [holy] convocation [. . .] the waving of the sheaf 

[...] j [...] on the sabbath day to ... [...] without counting the sabbaths [...] 

4 [. . .] to celebrate the memory of [.. .] the failure of blindness [. ..]5 [. ..] which 
... [. . .] and not of the law of Mosesf. . .] 

Frag. 10 1 [...]...[...] 2 and the sons of Israel [...] j who should not mingle 

with [...] 4 them in pu[rity ...]5 and ... [...] 6 in purity [...] 7 the temple [...] 
8 of the sons of Aa[ron . . .] 

Frag. 13 /[...] and the natural cavities in the rock 2 [. . .] for their pleasing atone- 

ment 3 [...] doing and becoming defiled 4 [... becoming defiled by oil [...] 

5 [...] in their impurity [...] 6 [...] to the drifnk...] 7 [...] And if [...] S[...] of 
all that [. . .] 


4QOrdinances‘ (4Q514 [ 4Q<)rd‘]r) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 1 ...[...] a woman [. . .] 2 he must not eat [. . .] for all the impure 

[. . .] j to reckon for [him seven days of ablu]tions; and he shall bathe and wash 
(his clothes) on the day of [his] purification [. . . And whoever] 4 has not begun 
to purify himself of ‘his spring’ is not to eat [. . .Nor can he eat] 5 in his original 
impurity. And all the temporarily impure, on the day of their purification, 
bathe 6 and wash (their clothes) in water and they will be pure. Blank After- 


92 


HALAKHIC TEXTS 


4Q 514 


wards, they shall eat their bread in conformity with the law of purity. 7 He is 
not to eat insolently in his original impurity, whoever has not started to cleanse 
himself from «his spring», 8 and likewise he is not to eat during his original 
impurity. All the temporarily impure, on the day of g their purification, bathe 
and wash (their clothes) in water and they will be pure and afterwards they shall 
eat their bread 10 in conformity with the law. No-]one is to eat or drink with 
any woman who prepares 11 [...] in the service...] 


Literature with Eschatological Content 


94 


LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 


Although eschatology flourishes in one form or another in many of the writings 
which come from Qumran, it is useful to group together in this chapter a series 
of texts devoted completely to describing or exploring this event, which the 
texts denote as the ‘final days’ or ‘the end of time’, an event which the Qumran 
community felt as imminent (and, to some extent, as already present) and for 
which their expectation determined their whole way of life. 

The texts collected here are distinguished by content, and not by the literary 
form they reveal. In fact, the War Scroll and the Rule of the Congregation could 
have been included with the other ‘Rules’; the Description of the New Jerusalem 
and 4Q246 are genuine ‘apocalypses’; 1 lQMelchisedek, 4QTestimonia and 
4QFlorilegium are various forms of thematic pesharim. The decision to present 
together in this chapter material which in terms of form is so varied, is due to 
the theme central to all these writings which comprises the various scenarios 
of the ‘final days’, the last war and the ensuing peace, the various heavenly 
agents of salvation, the different messianic characters, the composition of the 
eschatological community, the new Jerusalem and the new temple, etc. 

The various continuous pesharim are not included in this chapter, although 
these works interpret the biblical text in terms of the ‘final days’, because in 
those compositions the exegetical aspect is paramount. 

As in the case of other Qumran compositions which have been preserved for 
us in various copies, the different versions of the War Scroll exhibit clear signs 
of a lengthy editorial development. The problem is so severe, that it would be 
quite in order to ask whether particular manuscripts are in fact different edi- 
tions of the War Scroll. Or it may be that w hat the manuscripts have conveyed 
to us are some of the written sources which the author of the War Scroll used 
to produce his work. Or perhaps even these texts are really remnants of other 
quite different compositions on the same topic. In spite of these problems the 
designation 4QM (War Scroll from Cave 4) has been retained for all the manu- 
scripts which have been published under this label, except for 4Q47 1 . Although 
published as 4QM A , none of the elements preserved in the minuscule fragments 
of this manuscript compels us to consider the work from w hich they originate 
to be a copy of the War Scroll. 


1QM I 1- 15 


THE WAR SCROLL 


95 


1 The War Scroll 
A The Cave 1 Copy 
lQWar Scroll (iqm [+1Q33]) 

Col. 1 1 For the Instructor: The Rule] of the War. The first attack by the sons 

of light will be launched against the lot of the sons of darkness, against the 
army of Belial, against the company of Edom and of Moab and of the sons of 
Ammon 2 and the comp|any of . . . and of] Philistia, and against the companies 
of the Kittim of Ashur and [those who assist them from among the wicked] of 
the covenant. The sons of Levi, the sons of Judah and the sons of Benjamin, 
the exiled of the desert, will wage war against them. 3 [. . .] against all their com- 
panies, when the exiled sons of light return from the desert of the peoples to 
camp in the desert of Jerusalem. And after the war, they shall go up from there 
4 [■ ■ •] of the Kittim in Egypt. And in his time, he will go out with great rage to 
wage war against the kings of the North, and his anger will exterminate and cut 
oft the horn of 5 [... There] will follow a time of salvation for the people of 
God and a period of rule for all the men of his lot, and of everlasting destruc- 
tion for all the lot of Belial. There will be 6 g[reat] panic [among] the sons of 
Japhet, Ashur shall fall and there will be no help for him; the rule of the Kittim 
will come to an end, wickedness having been defeated, with no remnant re- 
maining, and there will be no escape 7 [for the so]ns of darkness. Blank 8 And 
[the sons of jus]tice shall shine in all the edges of the earth, they shall go on 
illuminating, up to the end of all the periods of darkness; and in the time of 
God, his exalted greatness will shine for all the [eternal] times, 9 for peace and 
blessing, glory and joy, and long days for all the sons of light. And on the day 
on which the Kittim fall, there will be a battle, and savage destruction before 
the God of 10 Israel, for this will be the day determined by him since ancient 
times for the war of extermination against the sons of darkness. On this (day), 
the assembly of the gods and the congregation of men shall confront each other 
for great destruction, n The sons of light and the lot of darkness shall battle 
together for God’s might, between the roar of a huge multitude and the shout 
of gods and of men, on the day of the calamity. It will be a time of 12 suffering 
fo[r al]l the people redeemed by God. Of all their sufferings, none will be like 
this, from its haste (?) until eternal redemption is fulfilled. And on the day of 
their war against the Kittim, 13 they [shall go out to destruction. In the war, 
the sons of light will be the strongest during three lots, in order to strike down 
wickedness; and in three (others), the army of Belial will gird themselves in 
order to force the lot of 14 [. . .] to retreat. There will be infantry battalions to 
melt the heart, but God’s might will strengthen the hea[rt of the sons of light.] 
And in the seventh lot, God’s great hand will subdue 15 [Belial, and a]ll the 


96 


LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 1QM I 15 — III 1 


angels of his dominion and all the men of [his lot.] Blank ?6 [. . .] the holy ones, 
he will shine out to assist the [. . .] truth, for the destruction of the sons of dark- 
ness [...] 17 [...] great [...] they shall stretch out the hand for [...] 

Col. 11 1 fathers of the congregation, fifty-two. They shall arrange the chiefs of 

the priests behind the High Priest and of his second (in rank), twelve chiefs to 
serve 2 in perpetuity before God. And the twenty-six chiefs of the divisions 
shall serve in their divisions and after them the chiefs of the levites to serve 
always, twelve, one 3 per tribe. And the chiefs of their divisions shall each serve 
in their place. The chiefs of the tribes, and after them the fathers of the con- 
gregation, shall have charge of the sanctuary gates in perpetuity. 4 And the 
chiefs of the divisions with their enlisted shall have charge of their feasts, their 
new moons and their sabbaths and all the days of the year -those of fifty years 
and upwards. 5 These shall have charge of the holocausts and the sacrifices, in 
order to prepare the pleasant incense for God’s approval, to atone for all his 
congregation and in order to grow fat in perpetuity before him 6 at the table of 
his glory. They shall arrange all /these/ during the appointed time of the year 
of release. During the remaining thirty-three years of the war, the famous men 
7 called to the assembly, and all the chiefs of the fathers of the congregation, 
shall choose for themselves men of war for all the countries of the nations; 
from all the tribes of Israel they shall equip for them 8 intrepid men, in order 
to go out on campaign according to the directives of war, year after year. How- 
ever, during the years of release they shall not equip themselves in order to go 
out on campaign, for it is a sabbath of 9 rest for Israel. During the thirty-five 
years of service, the war will be prepared during six years; and all the congrega- 
tion together will prepare it. 10 And the war of the divisions (will take place) 
during the remaining twenty-nine years. During the first year they shall wage 
war against Aram-Naharaim; during the second, against the sons of Lud; dur- 
ing the third 11 they shall wage war against the remnant of the sons of Aram, 
against Uz and Hul, Togal and Mesha, who are beyond the Euphrates; during 
the fourth and fifth, they shall wage war against the sons of Arpachsad; 12 dur- 
ing the sixth and seventh they shall wage war against all the sons of Assyria and 
Persia, and the eastern peoples up to the great desert; during the eighth year 
they shall wage war against the sons of 13 Elam; during the ninth they shall 
wage war against the sons of Ishmael and Ketura; and during the following ten 
years the war will be divided against all the sons of Ham, 14 according to their 
clans, in] their dwellings; and during the following ten years the war will be 
divided up against all [the sons of Japhet, in their dwellings. Blank 13 [. . .] Blank 
[...] 16 [...] of alarm for all their services, for [...] for their enlisted men [...] 
and tens above [...] 

Col. hi 1 {the battle formations and the trumpets} / the battle formations and the 


1QM III 1 -IV3 


THE WAR SCROLL 


97 


trumpets/ of rallying, when the gates of battle open for the men of the infantry 
to go out and the trumpets of alarm of the slain and the trumpets of 2 ambush, 
and the trumpets of pursuit, when the enemy is struck, and the trumpets of re- 
assembly, when they retreat from battle. On the rallying trumpets of the as- 
sembly they shall write: «Rallied by God». 3 On the rallying trumpets of the 
commanders they shall write: «Princes of God». And on the trumpets for en- 
listing, they shall write «Rule of God». And on the trumpets of 4 famous men, 
{they shall write} chiefs of the fathers of the congregation, when they meet in 
the meeting house, they shall write: ((God’s directives for the holy council*. 
And on the trumpets of the camps 5 they shall write: «Peace of God in the 
camps of his holy ones*. And on the trumpets of pulling out they shall write: 
«God’s mighty deeds to scatter the enemy and force all those who hate 6 justice 
to flee*, and «Withdrawal of mercy from those who hate God*. And on the 
trumpets of battle formations they shall write: «God’s battle formations for 
avenging his wrath against all the sons of darkness*. 7 And on the trumpets for 
rallying the infantrymen when the gates of battle open so they can go out up 
to the enemy line they shall write: «Memorial of revenge at the moment ap- 
pointed by 8 God*. And on the trumpets of the slain they shall write: «God’s 
mighty hand in the battle to fell all the slain of unfaithfulness*. And on the 
trumpets of ambush they shall write: 9 «God’s mysteries to destroy wicked- 
ness*. And on the trumpets of pursuit they shall write: «God has struck all the 
sons of darkness, he shall not cause his wrath to return, until they are extermi- 
nated*. 10 And when they retreat from battle to return to the line, they shall 
write on the trumpets of retreat: «May God re-assemble». And on the trumpets 
of the path of return 1 1 from battle with the enemy, to go back to the congrega- 
tion of Jerusalem, they shall write: ((Exultations of God in a peaceful return*. 
Blank 12 Blank 13 Rule of the banners of all the congregation in order of compa- 
nies. On the large banner which goes at the head of all the people they shall 
write: «God’s people*, and the name of Israel 14 and of Aaron and the names 
of the twelve tri[bes of Israjel according to their genealogies. Above the banner 
of the camp chiefs of the three tribes 15 they shall write: [. . .] On the banner of 
the tribe they shall write: «God’s flag*, and the name of the prince of [the 
tribe...] 16 [...] the name of the princes of the ten thousand and the names of 
the prifnces of . . .] 1 7 [. . .] ... [. . .] 

Col. iv / And on the banner of Merari they shall write: «God’s offering* and the 
name of the prince of Merari and the names of the commanders of his thou- 
sands. And on the banner of the thousand they shall write: «God’s Fury un- 
leashed against 2 Belial and against all the men of his lot so that no remnant (is 
left)* and the name of the commander of the thousand and the names of the 
commanders of his hundreds. And on the banner of the hundred they shall 
write: «Of 3 God, hand of battle against all degenerate flesh* and the name of 


9 » 


LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 1QM IV 3-V 6 


the commander of the hundred and the names of the commanders of his tens. 
And on the banner of the fifty they shall write: «No longer 4 do the wicked rise, 
due to God’s might», and the name of the commander of the fifty and the 
names of the commanders of his tens. On the banner of the ten they shall 
write: «Songs of jubilation of 5 God on the ten-string lyre» and the name of the 
commander of the ten and the names of the nine men under his command. 
Blank 6 And when they go to battle they shall write on their banners: «God’s 
truth#, «God’s justice#, «God’s glory#, «God’s judgment# and after these 
(names) all the ordered list of their names. 7 And when they approach for battle 
they shall write on their banners: «God’s right hand#, «Time appointed by 
God#, «God’s confusion#, «God’s slaughter#, and after these the complete list 
of their names. 8 And when they retreat from battle, they shall write on their 
banners: «God’s glorification#, «God’s greatness#, «God’s praise#, «God’s glory#, 
with a complete list of their names. Blank 9 Rule of the banners of the congrega- 
tion. When they go out to battle they shall write on the first banner: «God’s 
congregation#; on the second banner: «God’s camps#; on the third, 10 «God’s 
tribes#; on the fourth: «God’s families#; on the fifth: «God’s battalions#; on the 
sixth: «God’s Assembly#; on the seventh: «Summoned by 11 God#; on the 
eighth: «God’s army#; and they shall write the list of their names in their order. 
And when they approach for battle they shall write on their banners: 12 «God’s 
battle#, «God’s revenge#, «God’s lawsuit#, «God’s reward#, «God’s might#, 
«God’s prize#, «God’s power#, «God’s destruction of all futile nations#, and all 
the list of is their names they shall write on them. And when they retreat from 
battle they shall write on their banners: «God’s acts of salvation#, «God’s vic- 
tory#, «God’s help#, «God’s support#, 14 «God’s joy#, «God’s thanksgiving#, 
«God’s praise#, «God’s peace#. Blank 1 5 [Sizes of the banjners: banner of the 
whole congregation, fourteen cubits long; banner of the th[ree tribes, thirteen 
cubits long; 16 [tribal banner], twelve cubits; [banner of the ten thousand, 
eleven [cubits; banner of the thousand, ten cubits; banner of the hundred,] nine 
cubits; [banner of the fifty, eight] cubits; banner of the ten, seven [cubits. 
Blank\ 

Col. v 1 And upon the sh[ield] of the Prince of the whole congregation they shall 
write his name and the name of Israel and Levi and Aaron and the names of 
the twelve tribes of Israel, according to their generations, 2 and the names of 
the twelve commanders of their tribes. Blank s Rule of the formation of fighting 
battalions. When their army is complete, to fill a front line, the line will be 
formed of one thousand men, with seven forward 4 formations per line, each 
formation in its order, each man being behind the other. And all shall be armed 
with bronze shields, polished like 5 a mirror. And the shield will be surrounded 
by a plaited border and will have a pattern engraved, a work of art in gold, 
silver and copper blended together, 6 and precious stones, many-hued decora- 


1QM V 6-VI 10 


THE WAR SCROLL 


99 


tions, work of a skilful craftsman. Height of the shield: two and a half cubits; 
and its width, one and a half cubits. And in his hand, a spear 7 and a sword. 
Length of the spear: seven cubits, including the haft, and the tip of half a cu- 
bit. In the haft there will be three rings cut, with an border 8 plaited in gold, 
silver and bronze intermixed, like a work of art and an engraved pattern. On 
both parts of the ring, the pattern will be surrounded 9 with precious stones, 
many-hued decorations, work of a skilful craftsman, and an ear of wheat. And 
the haft will be engraved between the rings in the style of 10 an artistic column. 
The point will be of shining white iron, work of a skilful craftsman, and will 
have an ear of wheat, of pure gold, in the centre of the point pointing towards 
11 the tip. The swords shall be of purified iron, refined in a crucible and whit- 
ened like a mirror, work of a skilful craftsman; and it will have shapes of an ear 
of wheat, 12 of pure gold, encrusted in it on both sides. And it will have two 
straight channels right to the tip, two on each side. Length of the sword: one 
cubit 13 and a half. And its width: four fingers. The scabbard will be four 
thumbs; it will have four palms up to the scabbard and diagonally, the scabbard 
from one part to 14 the other (will be) five palms. The hilt of the sword will be 
of select horn, craftwork, w ith a pattern in many colours: gold, silver and pre- 
cious stones, is Blank 16 And when they stand up [. . .] they shall line up in seven 
lines, one line behind the other, 17 [...] thirty cubits in which the me[n] shall 
have 18 [. . .] the faces [. . .] 

Col. VI 1 seven times and they shall return to their position. After them, three 
battalions of infantry shall go out and shall take up position between the lines. 
The first battalion will hurl against 2 the enemy line seven javelins of war. On 
the point of the javelin they shall write: «Sheen of the spear by God’s might». 
On the second dart they shall write: j «Arrow of blood to fell the dead by God’s 
wrath». And on the third javelin they shall write: «Flame of the sword devour- 
ing the wicked dead by God’s judgment#. 4 All these they shall hurl seven times 
and go back to their position. And after them, two infantry battalions shall go 
out and they shall take up position between the two lines. The first 5 battalion 
will be equipped with a spear and a shield and the second battalion will be 
equipped with a shield and a sword, to fell the dead by the judgment of God 
and to humiliate the enemy line 6 by God’s might, to pay the reward of their 
evil towards all the nations of futility. For kingship belongs to the God of Israel 
and with the holy ones of his people he will work wonders. 7 Blank 8 And seven 
cavalry formations shall take up position, they also, on the right and on the left 
of the line. Their formations shall take up position on one side and the other, 
seven hundred 9 cavalry on one flank and seven hundred on the second flank. 
Two hundred cavalry shall go out with the thousand soldiers of the infantry of 
one line. And thus 10 shall they take up position on all the flanks of the camp. 
In all, four thousand six hundred; and fourteen hundred mounts for the men 


100 


LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 1QM VI 10-VII 14 


of the rule of the lines, 11 fifty for each line. The cavalry, including the mounts 
of the men of the rule, will be six thousand, five hundred per tribe. All the 
mounts which go out 12 to the battle with the infantry-men shall be stallions, 
fleet of foot, tame of mouth, long in w ind, in the fullness of their days, trained 
for battle 13 and disciplined to hearing din and the sight of every display. And 
those who mount them shall be men, hardened in battle, trained in horseman- 
ship. The range of 14 their days will be from thirty up to forty-five years. The 
horsemen of the rule shall be between forty and fifty years old. They 15 and 
their mounts [shall be attired in cu]irasses, helmets and greaves and shall hold 
in their hands circular shields and a spear of eight cufbits] ?6 [...] and a bow 
and arrows and war javelins. And all shall be ready 77 [. . .] to shed the blood of 
the fallen on account of their wickedness. These are the ones who /#[...] Blank 
[...]. 

Col. VII 1 The men of the rule shall be between forty and fifty years (old). Those 
governing the camps shall be between fifty and sixty years (old). The supervi- 
sors 2 shall also be between forty and fifty years (old). And all those w ho despoil 
the fallen and those who pillage the loot and those who cleanse the earth and 
those w ho protect the weapons 3 and those who prepare the supplies all shall 
be between twenty-five and thirty years (old). And no young boy or any woman 
at all shall enter the camps when they leave 4 Jerusalem to go to war, until they 
return. And no lame, blind, paralysed person nor any man who has an indelible 
blemish on his flesh, nor any man suffering from uncleanness 5 in his flesh, 
none of these will go out to war with them. All these shall be volunteers for 
war, perfect in spirit and in body, and ready for the day of vengeance. And 
every 6 man who has not cleansed himself of his ‘spring’ on the day of battle 
w'ill not go down with them, for the holy angels are together with their armies. 
And there will be a space 7 between all their camps and «the place of the hand» 
of about two thousand cubits. And no immodest nakedness w ill be seen in the 
surroundings of all their camps. 8 Blank g When they draw up the battle lines 
against the enemy, one line opposite another line, out from the central gate 
towards (the space) between the lines, shall go seven 10 priests of the sons of 
Aaron, robed with garments of white byssus, a linen tunic and linen trousers, 
and they shall gird on a belt of intertwined byssus, violet, 11 purple and crim- 
son, with manv-hued patterns, work of a craftsman, and upon their heads (they 
shall wear) turbans. (These are) the garments of war; they shall not bring them 
into the sanctuary. 12 The first priest will walk in front of all the men of the 
line, to strengthen their hands for battle. And the (other) six shall hold in their 
hand 13 the rallying trumpets, the memorial trumpets, the alarm trumpets, the 
pursuit trumpets and the trumpets of re-assembly. When the priests go out 
14 towards (the space) between the lines, seven levites shall go out with them, 
with seven ram’s horns in their hands. Three supervisors from among the 


1QM VII I4-IX7 


THE WAR SCROLL 


101 


levites (shall go) in front of 15 the priests and the levites. The priests will blow 
the two rallying trumpets [. . . of bat]tle upon fifty shields, 16 and fifty infantry- 
men shall go out of a gate [ . . . ] the officers of the levites. And with each 17 line 
they shall go out in accordance with this ru[le. . . the infantrymen [shall go out] 
of the gates id? [and take up position between the li[nes . . . ] the ba[ttle . . . ] 

Col. viii 1 The trumpets shall continue sounding, to guide the slingers until 
they have finished throwing seven 2 times. After, the priests shall blow the 
trumpets of return for them, and they shall return to the flank of the first 3 line 
to remain in their position. And the priests shall blow the rallying trumpets and 
there shall go out 4 three battalions of infantry from the gates and they shall 
take up position between the lines; at their side, cavalrymen, 5 right and left. 
The priests shall blow the trumpets with a sustained blast, the signal for battle 
order. 6 And the columns shall deploy in their formations, each in his own 
position. When they are in three formations, 7 the priests shall blow for them 
a second blast, low and sustained, the signal to proceed, until they approach 
8 the enemy line and take hold of their weapons of war. The priests shall blow 
the six trumpets g of slaughter with a shrill, staccato blast, to direct the battle. 
And the levites and all the throng with ram’s horns shall blow 10 a single blast, 
a deafening war alarm, to melt the heart of the enemy. And at the alarm blast 
11 the war javelins shall fly, to bring down the slain. The blast of the ram’s 
horns will stop, but with the trumpets 12 the priests shall continue blowing a 
shrill staccato blast, to direct the fighting hands until they have thrown against 
the 13 enemy line seven times. Next, the priests shall blow for them the trum- 
pets of retreat, 14 with a low blast, steady and continuous. According to this 
rule, the priests shall blow for the three battalions. When 15 the first throws, 
the [...], a 16 deafening war alarm to direct the batjtle [... ] the priests [shall 
blow] 17 the trumpefts] for them [...] in their positions in the line 18 [...] and 
take up positions ig [. . . the sl]ain 

Col. IX 1 will begin to strike the fallen with their hands. And all the throng shall 
stop the alarm signal, but the priests shall continue blowing the trumpets 2 of 
destruction to direct the battle until the enemy has been routed and turns its 
back, and the priests shall follow, blowing, to direct the battle. 3 And when they 
have been routed in front of them, the priests shall blow the rallying trumpets, 
and all infantry-men shall go out towards them from the midpoint 4 of their 
front lines. Six battalions shall take up position together with the battalion 
which is fighting, seven lines in all, twenty-eight thousand 5 warriors and six 
thousand on horse. All these shall pursue the enemy to exterminate them in 
God’s battle for 6 eternal destruction. The priests shall blow the trumpets of 
pursuit for them, and they shall divide for the pursuit to destruction of all the 
enemy. And the cavalry 7 will make them return to the battle zone, until their 


102 


LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 1QM IX 7-X 10 


annihilation. When the dead fall, the priests shall follow, blowing at a distance, 
and they shall not enter 8 in the midst of the fallen so as not be defiled with 
their impure blood, for they are holy. They shall not desecrate the oil of their 
priestly anointing with the blood g of futile nations. Blank w Rule for changing 
the order of the combat battalions. To establish the formation against [...] a 
semicircle with towers, n and an bow of towers and when it advances a little, 
the heads go out and the wings [go out, on both] sides of the line, to crush 
12 the enemy. The shields of the towers shall be three cubits long and the 
length of their spears will be eight cubits. When the towers 13 go out from the 
line, (they shall have) one hundred shields on each face of the towers, in all, 
each tower will be surrounded on its three forward faces 14 by three hundred 
shields. The tower will have two gates, one on the right and the other on the 
left. And on all the shields of the towers 15 there will be written: on the first: 
‘Michael’, [on the second: ‘Gabriel’, on the third:] ‘Sariel’, on the fourth: ‘Ra- 
phael’; 16 ‘Michael’ and ‘Gabriel’ on [the right, and ‘Sariel’ and ‘Raphael’ on 
the left..] Blank 17 [...] on the four [...] they shall set an ambush against [...] 

Col. x / in our camps and to keep ourselves from any immodest nakedness. And 
also he told us that you, great and terrible God, will be in our midst to plunder 
all 2 our enemies before us. And he taught us about our generations from an- 
cient times, saying: Dt 20:2-5 «When you approach for battle, the priest is to 
stand up and speak to the people 3 saying: ‘Listen Israel, those of you ap- 
proaching for battle against your enemies. Do not be afraid, and may your 
hearts not fail; 4 do not fear and do not tremble in front of them, for your God 
goes with you to do battle for you against your enemies to save you’». 5 Our 
officers shall speak to all those in readiness for battle: to those with resolute 
hearts, to strengthen them with God’s power, 6 and to all (those) whose heart 
melts, to send them away and to strengthen together with all the intrepid he- 
roes. For (this is) what you [said] by Moses’ hand, saying: Num 10:9 «When there 
is a war 7 in your land against the enemy who oppresses you, you shall blow the 
trumpets and you shall be remembered before your God, 8 and you shall be 
saved from your enemies.» 

Who (is) like you, God of Israel, 
in the heavens or on earth, 
to do great deeds like your deeds, 

9 marvels like your feats? 

And who (is) like your people, Israel, 
whom you chose 

from among all the peoples of the earth, 

10 a people of holy ones of the covenant, 
learned in the law, wise in knowledge, 


1QM X 11-XI 1 


THE WAR SCROLL 


103 


[...] 

11 alert to the voice of Glory, 
seers of the holy angels, 
with open ears, 

hearing profound things? 

[. . . You created] the dome of the sky, 
the army of luminaries, 

12 the support of the spirits, 
the control of the holy ones, 
the treasures of glory, 

[in the darkness] of the clouds; 

(you are) creator of the earth 
and of the laws of its divisions 
ij in desert and steppe, 
of all its products, 
its frui[ts and seeds,] 
of the circle of the sea, 
of the reservoirs of the rivers, 
of the chasm of the abyss, 

14 of beasts and birds, 
of man’s image, 
of the generations of . . .], 
of the division of tongues, 
of the separation of peoples, 
of the dwelling of the clans, 
is of the legacy of the nations, 

[...] 

of the sacred seasons, 
of the cycle of the years 
and of appointed times 
for ever. 

[...] 

We have known this through your knowledge 
that [...] 

your heed of our cry, 

for [•••] 

[...] his house [...] 

Col. xi 1 For the battle is yours! 

With the might of your hand 
their corpses have been torn to pieces 
with no-one to bury them. 


104 


LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 1QM X 12-10 


2 Goliath from Gath, gallant giant, 
you delivered into the hands of David, your servant, 
for he trusted in your powerful name 
and not in sword or spear. 

For the battle is yours! 
j The Philistines you humiliated many times 
for your holy name. 

By the hand of our kings, besides, 
you saved us many times 

4 thanks to your mercy, 

and not by our own deeds by which we did wrong, 
nor by our sinful actions. 

For the battle is yours! 

And it is from you that power comes, 

5 and not from our own being. 

It is not our might 

nor the power of our own hands 
which performs these marvels, 
except by your great strength 
and by your mighty deeds. 

6 Thus you taught us from ancient times: Num 24:17-19 
«A star will depart from Jacob, 

a sceptre will be raised in Israel. 

It will smash the temples of Moab, 
it will destroy all the sons of Seth. 

7 It will come down from Jacob, 

it will exterminate the remnant of the city, 
the enemy will be its possession, 
and Israel will perform feats». 

By the hand of your anointed ones, 

8 seers of decrees, 

you taught us the times of the wars of your hands, 
to {fight} /to cover you with glory/ with our enemies, 
to fell the hordes of Belial, 

9 the seven nations of futility, 

by the hand of the poor, those you saved, 

with the strength and the peace of your wonderful power. 

The melting heart you open to hope. 

You shall treat them like pharaoh, 

10 like the officers and their chariots in the Red Sea. 


1QM XI IO-XII4 


THE WAR SCROLL 


1°5 


Like a torch of fire in straw 
you shall burn the fallen spirits, 
devouring wickedness, 
without ceasing, 

11 until the sin has been consumed. 

From of old you foretold the moment 

of the power of your hand against the Kittim: Isa 31:8 
«Ashur will fall by the sword of no-one, 

12 the sword of a nobody will devour it.» Blank 

13 For you will deliver into the hands of the poor 
the enemies of all the countries, 

and by the hand of those prone in the dust 
you shall fell the powerful ones of the peoples, 
you shall give the wicked their reward, 

14 on the head of [. . .] 

you shall carry out justice by your truthful judgment 
on every son of man, 

gaining everlasting renown for yourself among the people. 

75 [...] the wars, 

in order to show yourself great and holy 
in the eyes of the remainder of the peoples, 
so that they know [. . .] 

16 [...] you shall carry out sentence on Gog 
and on all his gathering [. . .] 

17 [. . .] for you shall wage war against them from the heavens [. . .] 

Col. xii 1 For there is a multitude of holy ones in heaven 
and a host of angels in your holy dwelling 
to praise your name. 

And the chosen ones of the holy people 
2 you have established for yourself in [...] 

The [bo]ok of the names of all their armies 
is with you in your holy dwelling, 

[. . .] in the dwelling of your glory, 
j And the rewards of your blessings 
[...] the covenant of your peace 
you engraved for them 
with the chisel of life, 

in order to rule [. . .] during all times eternal, 

4 to organize the arm[ies] of your chosen ones 
in its thousands and in its myriads, 
together with your holy ones and your angels, 


106 LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 1QM XII 5 — 1 5 

5 to direct the hand in battle 

[and destroy] the rebels of the earth 
by your great judgments. 

And the people of the chosen ones of the heavens 
will triu[mph]. Blank 

6 Blank 

7 You are a God, awesome in the splendour of your majesty, 
and the congregation of your holy ones is amongst us 

for everlasting assistance. 

[We will] treat kings with contempt, 

8 the powerful with jeers and mockery, 
for the Lord is holy 

and the King of glory is with us 
together with his holy ones. 

The heroes of the army of his angels 
are enlisted with us; 
g the war hero is in our congregation; 
the army of his spirits, with our infantry and our cavalry. 

They are like clouds and dew to cover the earth. 

10 like torrential rain which pours justice on all that grows. 

Get up, hero, 

take your prisoners, glorious one, 

11 collect your spoil, worker of heroic deeds! 

Place your hand on the neck of your foes 
and your foot on the piles of the dead! 

Strike the nations, your foes, 

12 and may your sword consume guilty flesh! 

Fill the land with glory 

and your inheritance with blessing: 

herds of flocks in your fields, 

gold, /silver,/ and precious stones in your palaces! 

13 Rejoice, Sion, passionately! 

Shine with jubilation, Jerusalem! 

Exult, all the cities of Judah! 

14 Open the gates for ever 

so that the wealth of the nations can come in! 

Their kings shall wait on you, 
all your oppressors lie prone before you, 
is [and they shall lick] the dust [of your feet]. 

[Daughters] of my people, shout with jubilant voice! 

Deck yourselves with splendid finery! 

Rule over the government of . . .] 


1QM XII 16 -XIII 10 


THE WAR SCROLL 


IO 7 


16 [...] Israel, in order to reign for ever. 

Blank 

77 [. . .] the heroes of the war, Jerusalem [. . .] 

18 [. . .] above the heavens, the Lord [. . .] 

Col. xin 1 their brothers the priests and the levites and all the elders of the rule 
with him. And from their positions they shall bless the God of Israel and all the 
deeds of his truth and there they shall damn 2 Belial and all the spirits of his 
lot. They shall begin speaking and say: 

- «Blessed be the God of Israel 
in all his holy plan 
^ and in all the deeds of his truth, 
j and blessed be all who serve him in justice, 
who know him in faith. Blank 
4 Accursed be Belial in his malicious plan, 

— may he be damned for his wicked rule. 

Accursed be all the spirits of his lot 
in his wicked Blank plan 

- 5 may they be damned for their deeds of filthy uncleanness. 

For they are the lot of darkness 

and the lot of God is for everlasting light. 

6 Blank 

7 You are the God of our fathers, 
we bless your name always. 

We are the people of your [inhejritance. 

You established a covenant with our fathers 
and ratified it with their offspring 

8 for times eternal. 

In all the edicts of your glory 

there has been a memorial [of your clemency] in our midst 

in aid of the remnant, 

the survivors of your covenant 

- 9 and in order to number the deeds of your truth, 

— and the justice of your wonderful might. 

_ You, [have crea]ted [us] for you, eternal people, 

and you have made us fall into the lot of light 

- 70 in accordance with your truth. 

" From of old you appointed the Prince of light 
to assist us, 
and in [...] 

and all the spirits of truth are under his dominion. 


108 LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 


1QM XIII 11-XIV 5 


11 You created Belial for the pit, 
angel of enmity; 
his [dom]ain is darkness, 
his counsel is for evil and wickedness. 

■wa All the spirits of his lot 
angels of destruction 
^walk in the laws of darkness; 
towards them goes his only desire. 

We, instead, in the lot of your truth, 
rejoice in your mighty hand 
- 13 we exult in your salvation, 

•— we are happy with your aid and your peace. 

Who is like you in strength, God of Israel? 

14 Your mighty hand is with the poor! 

- And which angel or prince is like you for aid? 

- Since ancient time you determined the day of the great battle 
^ is [••■] to assist truth, 

_ and destroy wickedness, 
to demolish darkness 
and increase light. 

[...] 

^ 16 [...] for an everlasting stay 

^ to exterminate all the sons of darkness 

- and happiness for [...] 

1 7 Blank 

^ 18 [ . . .] You have destined us [. . .] » 

Col. xiv 1 like the fire of his wrath against the idols of Egypt. Blank 2 And when 
they have departed from the slain in order to enter the camp, they shall all sing 
the hymn of return. In the morning they shall wash their clothes and shall wash 
3 off themselves the blood of the guilty corpses. They shall go back to the site 
of their positions, where they arranged their lines before the slain of the enemy 
fell. And there they shall all bless 4 the God of Israel and exalt his name in 
joyful chorus. They shall begin to speak and say: 

«Blessed be the God of Israel, 
the one who keeps mercy for his covenant 
5 and pledges of deliverance 

- for the people he has redeemed. 

He has called those who are tottering 
to prodigious [exploits]. 

He has gathered an assembly of nations 


1 QM XIV - 13 


THE WAR SCROLL 


109 


for destruction with no remnant. 

— In judgment he has lifted up 

6 the melting heart; 

he has opened the mouth of the dumb 

— to sing God’s marvels. 

The hands of the frail 

-- he has trained in war. 

The knees that shake 

he gives strength to stand upright. 

7 And he girds the kidneys 
of those with broken backs. 

Among the poor in spirit 

[. . .] to a hard heart. 

For the perfect ones of the path 
-all the wicked nations shall be destroyed. 

-- 8 None of their heroes 

— will remain standing. 

Only we, the remjnant of your people]. 

Blessed be vour name, God of mercies, 
guardian of the covenant of our fathers. 

— 9 In all our generations 

- you have caused your favours to fall on the remjnant of our people] 
^ during the empire of Belial. 

In all the mysteries of his enmity, 

he has not separated us from your covenant. 

10 You have excluded from us 
his spirits of destruction. 

— • You have protected the soul of your redeemed ones 
[when the mjen ot his empire [were scheming], 

— You have raised the fallen with your strength, 

11 but those who arose, you cut down to humiliate them [. . .] 

For their heroes there is no saviour, 

there is no refuge for their swift ones. 

To their most esteemed 

12 you return scorn. 

All their useless Blank existence 
[you have turned into] nothing. 

' We, your holy people, 

- will praise your name 

- for the deeds of your truth, 

__ 13 for your mighty deeds 

we will extol Blank [your spl]endour, 


110 LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 1QM XIV 13 -XV 1 1 

at [every] moment 

and at the times indicated 

by your eternal edicts, 

at the onset of day and at night 

14 at the fall of evening and at dawn. 

For great is the p[lan of you]r glory 
and your marvellous mysteries on high; 

in order to raise from the dust for yourself 

15 and subdue gods. Blank 

— 16 Rise up, rise up, Oh God of gods, 

^ and be exalted with power, [King of kings!] 

iy [. . .] the sons of darkness, 
and your great light [...] 

18 [. . .] like a fire will burn [. . .] 

Col. xv 1 For there will be a time of suffering for Israel [and a decree] of war 
/against/ all the peoples. For God’s lot there will be everlasting redemption 
a and destruction for all the wicked peoples. All those who [are ready ] for the 
war shall go and camp opposite the king of the Kittim and opposite all the 
army 3 of Belial, assembled with him for the day [of extermination] by God’s 
sword. Blank 4 The High Priest will take up position, and his brothers the 
priests and the levites and all the men of the rule shall be with him. And he w ill 
say in their hearing 5 the prayer for the time of war, [as it is written in the 
«Bo]ok of the Rule for this time», with all the words of thanksgiving. And he 
will array there 6 all the lines, as is written in the «Book of War»], And the 
priest assigned for the time of vengeance according to the decision 7 of all his 
brothers will go forward, and he will strengthen [the heart of the warriors.] He 
will begin speaking and say: 

«Be strong and valiant, 
show yourselves men of valour. 

— 8 Do not be afraid or [tremble, 

may your hearts not weaken], 

do not be startled, or hesitate in front of them, 

•" 9 do not turn back, or [. . .] 

For they are a wicked congregation 
and all their deeds are in darkness 
— i 70 and to it go their desires, 

[...] from their refuge, 

- their power is like smoke that disappears, 
and all the assembly of their hordes 

„ 77 [...] will not be found. 


1QM XV 11-XVI 13 


THE WAR SCROLL 


111 


All the essence of their being 
swiftly vanishes. 

12 [...] 

Exert yourselves for God’s battle 
for today is the {day}/time/ of war. 

>3 [•••] 

,, against all flesh. 

The God of Israel is raising his hand 
with his marvellous power. 

14 [...] against all the wicked spirits 

[...] heroes of the gods girding themselves for battle, 
and the formations of the holy ones 
75 [gather] for the day of [. . .] 
j 6 God of Israel [...] 

Col. xvi / until is complete all [. . .] 

The God of Israel has summoned the sword 

against all the nations 

and with the holy ones of his people 

he will perform marvels#. 

2 Blank 3 They shall act in accordance with all this rule on this [day], when they 
are positioned opposite the camp of the Kittim. Afterwards, the priest will 
blow for them the trumpets 4 of memorial, and the gates of battle shall open. 
The infantrymen shall go out and take up positions in columns between the 
lines. The priests will blow for them 5 the call of formation, and the columns 
[shall deploy] at the blow of the trumpets until each man is stationed in his 
position. The priests shall blow for them 6 a second call [... for the atta]ck. 
When they are at the side of the Kittim line, at throwing distance, each man 
will take up in his hand his weapons 7 of war. The six [priests shall blow] the 
trumpets of slaughter with a shrill, staccato note to direct the battle. And the 
levites and all the throng 8 with ram’s horns shall blow [the battle call] with a 
deafening noise. And when the sound goes out, they shall set their hand to 
finish off the severely wounded of the Kittim. And all g the throng will inter- 
rupt the sound [of the call, and the priests] shall continue blowing the trumpets 
of slaughter, leading the battle against the Kittim. 10 Blank 11 When [Belial] 
girds himself to assist the sons of darkness, and there start to fall the dead of 
the infantry in accordance with God’s mysteries, and all those appointed for 
battle are tested by them, 12 the priests shall blow the rallying trumpets in or- 
der to make the other line of reserves go out to fight and they shall take up 
position between the lines. 13 And for those involved in the fight, they shall 
blow the withdrawal. The High Priest will approach and take up position in 


112 LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 1QM XVI 13 -XVII 8 


front of the line, and will strengthen 14 their hearts [with the power of Go]d , 
and their hands in their fight. Blank 1 5 And starting to speak he will say: 

«[...] the heart of his people 
he has tested in the crucible, 

[. . .] your dead, 

for from ancient times you heard 

16 in the mysteries of God [. . .] 

17 [• ■ •] 

Col. xvii 1 He will place peace for them in the burns 

[...] 

to those tested in the crucible; 
he will whet the weapons of war 
and they shall not be blunted until 
[all the] wicked [nations are destroyed.] 

2 And you, remember the trial 
[of Nadab and Abi]hu, sons of Aaron, 
a judgment by which God showed his holiness 
to the eyes of all the people; 
j while Eleazar] and Itamar 
he confirmed in his everlasting covenant. 

Blank 

4 And you, exert yourselves and do not fear. 

They incline towards chaos and emptiness, 
and their support is the void[...] 

5 [To the God of] Israel what is and will be 
[. . .] in all that always happens. 

This is the day appointed to humiliate 
and abase the prince of the dominion of evil. 

6 He has sent everlasting aid 
to the lot redeemed 

by the power of the majestic angel 
for the dominion Blank of Michael 
in everlasting light. 

7 He will the covenant of Israel shine with joy, 
peace and blessing to God’s lot. 

He will exalt the service of Michael above all the gods 

8 and the dominion of Israel over all flesh. 

Justice will rejoice in the heights 

and all the sons of your truth 

will have enjoyment in everlasting knowledge. 


1QM XVII 8-XVIII 8 


THE WAR SCROLL 


113 


And you, sons of the covenant, 

9 be strong in God’s crucible 
until he shakes his hand 
and fills up his crucibles, 
his mysteries concerning your being». 

Blank 

10 After these words they shall blow for them /the priests/ in order to arrange 
the battalions of the line: the columns shall deploy at the sound of the trumpets 
n until each man is in his position. The priests shall blow a second call on the 
trumpets, the signal for attack. When 12 [the infantry]men reach [the side of 
the] Kittim line, a f throwing distance, each man will take his weapons of war 
in his hand and the priests shall blow the 13 trumpets of the slain. [The levites 
and all] the throng with ram’s horns shall blow the call for war. The infantry- 
men will stretch out their hand against the army 14 of the Kittim. [When the 
sound of the call ends], they shall start to finish off the severely wounded. All 
the throng will stop at the sound of the call, but the priests 15 shall continue 
blowing [the trumpets of the slain] and the battle against the Kittim will con- 
tinue [...] those struck in front of them. 16 In the third lot [...] i 7 [...] God [...] 

Col. xviii 1 [...] when the mighty hand of God is raised against Belial and 
against all the army of his dominion for an everlasting blow. 2 [. . .] and the call 
of the holy ones when they pursue Assyria; the sons of Japhet shall fall without 
rising; the Kittim shall be crushed without a 3 [remnant. . .] when the hand of 
the God of Israel is raised against the whole horde of Belial. At this instant, the 
priests shall blow 4 the memorial trumpets and all the battle lines shall combine 
against them and shall divide up against all the camps of the Kittim 5 to elimi- 
nate them. And when the sun travels towards its setting on this day, the High 
Priest will take up position, likewise the priests and levites who are 6 with him 
and the ch[iefs of the men] of the rule. And there they shall bless the God of 
Israel. They shall begin speaking and say: 

7 «Blessed be your name, God of gods, 
for you have made [your people] great 
[in order to work] wonders. 

From of old you have kept for us your covenant. 

You have opened for us many times 
the gates of salvation. 

8 By reason of your covenant 

[you have removed] our unhappiness 
in your goodness towards us. 

You, just God, have acted 


114 LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 1 QM XVIII 8 -XIX 4 


for the Glory of your Name. 

Blank 
9 Blank 

10 [...] 

You have performed with us miracle after miracle. 
From of old there has not been anything similar. 

/For/ you know our appointed time 
and today it shines for us. 

11 With us you show a merciful hand 
in everlasting redemption, 
removing for ever the enemy dominion 
with mighty hand. 

12 [. . .] against our enemies 
for complete extermination. 

And now there approaches us the day 
of pursuing their mob, 

13 for you [. . .] 

have overcome the heart of the heroes 
and no-one is able to stand. 

To you the might, 
in your hand the battle, 
and there is no [...] 

14 the moment predetermined according to your will [. . .] 

Col. xix 1 [. . .] for the heroes. 

For the Lord is holy 

and the King of glory is with us. 

The army [of his spirits 
is with our infantry and cavalry 
like clouds and dew] 

2 to cover the land 

like torrential rain which pours down justice 
on everything that grows. 

Get up, hero, 

3 take your prisoners, oh glorious one, 
collect your spoil, wonder-worker! 

Place your hand on the neck of your foes* 
and your foot [on the piles of the dead! 

4 Strike the nations, your enemies,] 
and may your sword consume flesh! 

Fill your land with glory 

and your inheritance with blessing: 


4QM" 1-3 


THE WAR SCROLL 


115 


[a herd of flocks in your fields, 

5 gold, silver, and precious stones in) your palaces! 

Rejoice, Zion, passionately! 

Exult, all the cities of Ju[dah! 

Open the gates for ever 

6 so that] the wealth of the nations [can go in to you!] 

Their kings shall wait on you, 

[all your oppressors] lie prone in front of you, 
and they shall lick the dust of your feet]. 

7 [Daughters] of my people, shout with jubilant voice! 

Deck yourselves with splendid finery! 

Rule over the government of . . .] 

8 [. . .] Israel, in order to reign for ever. Blank 

9 [. . .] on this night to rest until the morning. And in the morning they shall go 
out to the place of the line 10 [...] the heroes of the Kittim and the horde of 
Assyria and the army of all the peoples [...] 11 fallen there by God’s sword. 
And the High Priest will approach [■•■]«[■•■] of war and all the chiefs of the 
lines and their enlisted men [. . .] 13 [. . .] the dead of the Kittim. And they shall 
praise there the God of [Israel...] 

b Copies from Cave 4 

4QWar Scroll 11 (4Q49 1 1 4QM" |) 

Frags. 1-3 1 Qorah and his congregation [. . .] judgment [.. .] 2 in the sight of all 

the assembly [ . . . the j udg]ment like a sign [ . . . ] j and the chief of his angels is 
with his [armies] to direct the hand in battle [. . .] And this is the regulation (?) 
for the mounts and the cavalfry . . . ] 4 And God’s hand will strike [...] for eternal 
destruction [...] and they shall atone for you [...] all the prinfces ...] shall not 
go towards the enemy lines [. . .] 6 This is the rule in their camps and in [. . .] 
and in their divisions [...] round about, outside [...] And the woman, the 

under-age boy, everyone who is affec[ted by impurity in his flesh. . .] 7 [ ] and 

the smiths and the smelters and those enlisted to be [. . .] for their divisions [. . .] 
in the line until their return. Blank There are to be two thousand cubits between 
the ca[mps and the place of «the hand», and no] 8 nakedness shall be seen in its 
surroundings. And when they go out to free the battle [to humiliate the enemy, 
there shall be] among them (some) allotted {...} by drawing lots, from each 
tribe, according to their enlisted men, for each day’s task. 9 That day, all the 
tribes shall go out of the camps to the house of me[eting. . .] towards them shall 
go the [pri]ests, the levites, and all the chiefs of the camps. Blank And they shall 
pass there in front of [...] 10 in thousands, in hundreds, in fifties and in tens. 


Il6 LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 4QM" 4- 10 

And everyone who is not [pure from his «spring»[ that night, shall not go with 
them to battle, because the angels of holiness are together with their rows [. . .] 
11 [In the advanjce of the line designated for battle on that day, to pass to [...] 
to the battle. They shall set up three lines, one line behind another, and shall 
put a gap between the lines [...] 12 [They shall march] to the battle in turns. 
These are the infantry-men; next to them the men [of the cavalry, who shall 
stay between the li]nes. If they lay an ambush for one line, three lines wil] be 
ambushed [at a distance, and they will not ri[se...] 13 [...] the battle. And the 
trumpets of alarm [...] they will hear them, and the men of [the infantry will 
set their hand on their sword to bri]ng if down on the guilty badly wounded. 
Afterwards, the ambush will rise from its position, and it, too, will form up in 
lines [. . .] 14 The meeting: on the right and on the left, be[hind and in front, the 
fo]ur directions. . .] in the battle of extermination. And all the lines which have 
approached for battle with the en[emy ... ] together. The first line will [go 
out to battle,] and the second will rem[ain ...] in its position. When the first 
have carried out their part, they will withdraw and the[y will rise up . . .] 16 The 
sec[ond: ...] organizing itself for the battle. The second line will carry out its 
part and will withdraw and will refmain in its position.] 77 The th[ird ...] the 
levites and the m[en of the rujle. The priests will blow the trumpets every time 
[...] 1 8 A belt [of intertwined byssus, violet, purple and crimson, with many- 
hued patterns, craftwork, and upon their heads (they will wear) tur]bans. [They 
shall not bring them into the sanctuary, be]cause these are the clo[thes of w ar.] 

1 g According to all this rule [...] the chiefs of the camps [...] 20 [...] all [...] 
they will carry it out to exterminate [. . .] 

Frag. 4 1 a [,..fro]m twenty years old and upwards [...] 

3 [. . .] in accordance with these precepts [. . .] 4 [. . .] the enemy, to [. . .] the horn 
of wick[edness. . .] 

Frags. 5-6 (= tQM xii, 1) 1 [For there is a multitude of holy ones in heaven, 

and] a host of angels in your hol[y] dwelling [to praise] your name. And the 
chosen ones of the holy people . . . 

Frag. 7 (= iqm xiii, 8-9) 1 [.. . for times eterjnal. [In all the edicts of your glory 

there has been a memorial of your clemency in our midst, in aid of the rem- 
nant,] 2 [the survivors of your covenant,] and in order to number [the deeds of 
your truth, and the justice of your wonderful might...] 

Frags. 8- 10 col. 1 (= iqm xiv, 4- 18) / [his name in joyful] chorus. [. . .] Blank [.. .] 

2 [They] shall begin to speak and say: «Blessed be the Go[d of Israel, the one 
who] keeps mercy for his covenant and pledges of deliverance for the people. 
He has called those who are tottering] 3 [to] prodigious exploits. He has gath- 


4 QM fl 10-11 


THE WAR SCROLL 


11 ? 


ered an assembly of na[tionsJ for destruction with no [remnant. In judgment 
he has lifted up the meeting heart, [he has opened the mouth] 4 of the dumb 
with God’s marvels. The hands of the frail he has trained in war. The knees 
that shake he gives strength to stand upright. And he girds [the kidneys] 5 of 
those with [broken] backs. [Among the poor in spirit] is the authority over the 
hard heart. For the perfect ones of the path all the wicked nations shall be de- 
stroyed. [Their] heroes 6 will not remain standing. Only we, the rem[nant of 
your people.] Blessed be your name, God of mercies, you have caused your 
favours to fall upon us during the empire of Beli[al.] 7 [In all the mysteries of 
his enmity, he has not separated us from your covenant. [But his spirits of 
destruction] you have excluded from us when the men [of his empire] were 
scheming. 8 [You have protected the soul of] your redeemed ones. And now, 
you have raised [the fallen with your strength,] but those who arose, you cut 
down [to humiliate them.| 9 [For their heroes there is no] saviour, there is no 
refuge for their swift ones. To their most es[teemed you return scorn. All their 
useless] w [existence you have turned into] nothing. We, your people, will 
praise your name for the deeds of your truth; for your mighty deeds we will 
extol 11 [your splendour at every mom]ent and at the times indicated by your 
eternal edicts, [at the onset of day] and at night at the fall [of evening] 12 [and 
at dawn. For great is] the plan of your glory, and your marvellous mysteries on 
hi[gh;[ in order to raise [from the dust for yourself and subdue] 13 [gods. Rise 
up, ri]se up. Oh God of gods, and be exalted with power, King of kin[gs!...] 
you have placed over 14 [. . .] they scatter before you, the sons of darkness, and 
your great light [... god]s and men 1 5 [...like a hre] which lights up the places 
of darkness and of ruin; in the places of the ruins of Sheol will bu[rn ...] the 
rebels 16 [...] in all the times appointed for ever. Blank [...] 17 [All the hy]mns 
of battle will they recite there, and afterwards they shall return to the ca[mp 
. . .] there, on the order [. . .] 

Frags. 8-10 col. 11 7 ...[...] 8 against the Kittim [. . .] 9 the infantrymen will set 

[their hand to finish off the badly wounded of the Kittim ...] 10 the fight 
against the Kittim [...] 11 the dead of the crucible to fall according to [the 
mystejries of God, the priests shall blow the trumpets of recall ...[...] 12 the 
fight against the Kittim. In the first row [...] 13 The priest designated (?) for 
battle shall approach and place himself in front [of the first row ...] 14 will 
strengthen their hands with marvellous feats. He will start speaking and say: 
[...] 15 vengeance, to devour among gods and men, for [...] not [...] 16 flesh, 
except dust. And now [. . .] 1 7 and will {firej/consume/ as far as Sheol. And the 
foundation of wickedness[...] 

Frag. 11 col. 1 8 [...] has done terrible things marvellously [...] 9 [... in the 

stre]ngth of his power the just exult and the holy ones rejoice [...] in justice 


Il8 LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 4QM" 11 I — II 

10 [. . . ] he established Israel from eternity; his faithfulness and the mysteries of 
his prudence in [ . . . ] courage ??[...] and the counsel of the poor for an eternal 
congregation. [ . . . ] the perfect 12 [ . . . et]ernal; a throne of strength in the congre- 
gation of the gods above none of the kings of the East shall sit, and their nobles 
not [. . .] silence (?) 13 [. . .] my glory [is incomparable] and besides me no-one is 
exalted. And he does not come to me, for I reside in [...], in the heavens, and 
there is no 14 [. . .] ... Iam counted among the gods and my dwelling is in the 
holy congregation; [. . .my de]sire is not according to the flesh [and] and all that 
is precious to me is in glory 15 [. . .] holy [pl]ace. Who has been considered de- 
spicable on my account? And who is comparable to me in my glory? Who, like 
the sailors, will come back to tell? 16 [...] Who [...] sorrows like me? And who 
[...] anguish who resembles me? There is no-one. He has been taught, but 
there is no comparable teaching. 1 7 [...] And who will attack me when I open 
[my mouth]? And who can endure the flow of my lips? And who will confront 
me and retain comparison with my judgment? 18 [. . .] For I am counted among 
the gods, and my glory is with the sons of the king. To me, pure gold, and to 
me, the gold of Ophir ig [. . .] Blank [. . .] Blank [. . .] 20 the just in the God of [. . .] 
in the holy dwelling, sound [...] 21 [...] proclaim in the meditation of joy [...] 
in eternal happiness; and there is no ... [. . .] 22 [. . . J to establish the horn of . . . 
[...] 23 [...] to make known his power with strength [...] 24 [...] ... [...] 

Frag. 11 col. 11 (= iqm xvi, 3- 14; xvii, 10- 14) 1 [with all this rule on this day, 

when they a]re positioned opposite the camp of the Kittim. Afterwards, the 
priest will blow] 2 [for them the memorial trumpets, and the gates of ba]ttle 
shall o[pen. The infantrymen shall go out and take up positions in columns] 
3 [between the lines. The priests will blow for them the ca]ll of forma[tion, and 
the columns shall deploy at the sound of the trumpets] 4 [until each man is 
stationed in his position. The prjiests shall blow [for them a second call for the 
atta]ck. When they are at the side] 5 [of the Kittim line, at] throwing [distance, 
each man will take up in his hand his weapons of [war. The six priests shall 
blow the trumpets of] 6 [the slain with a s]hrill and staccato [note] to direct the 
battle. And the leviftes and all the throng with ram’s horns shall blow the battle 
call] 7 with a deafening noise. And when the sound goes out, they shall set their 
ha[nd to finish off the severely wounded of the Kittim. And all the throng will 
stop the sound of the call . . .] 8 [and] will continue the battle against the Kittim. 
Blank [. . . When Belial girds himself to assist] 9 the sons of darkness, and there 
start to fall the dead of the infantry [in accordance with God's mysteries, and 
all those appointed for battle are tested by them, the priests] w shall blow in 
order to make the other line of reserves go out to the fig[ht and they shall take 
up position between the lines. And for those involved in the fight,] 11 they shall 
blow the withdrawal. The High Priest will approach and ta[ke up position in 
front of the line, and will strengthen their hearts with the power of God] 12 and 


4QM 3 13- 16 


THE WAR SCROLL 


119 


their hands in their fight. [And starting to speak he will say: «. . .] the heart of 
his people, you have tested them in the crucible, [. . .your dead,] 13 for from of 
old you heard in the myste[ries of God . . .] be in the thick of things and do not 
fear when ... [...] 14 [...] he is faithful, and his redeeming help [...] 15 [...the 
so]ns of truth, to turn aside the heart which melts and strengthen the he[art. . .] 
16 [...the fig]ht this day. The God of Israel will humiliate [...] 77 [...] without 
it resisting. For God [it is the kingd]om, and for his people, salvatfion ...] 
18 [. . . of ] little time for Belial, and covenant of God of peace for Israel, for all 
the appointed times [...] 79 After these words the priests shall blow for them 
to form a second battle against the Kitftim. And when each man is stationed] 
20 in his position, the priests shall blow a second call, the signal to approach. 
When they reach [the Kittim line, at throwing] 21 distance, each man will take 
his weapons of war in his hand and the priests shall blow the trum[pets of the 
slain...] 22 [... The levites and all] the throng with ram’s horns shall blow a 
blast [...] 23 [... to fi]nish off the severely wounded guilty. The sound of [...] 
24l- .]•■■[•■•] 

Frag. 13 7 [. . . with] the gods ... [ . . .] 2 [. . .] the least amongst you will pursue a 

thousand [...] 3 [... eter]nal. [After these wor]ds, [the priests] shall blow [the 
call for formation, and the columns shall deploy] 4 [at the sound of the 
trum]pets. When they take up position in their battalions, each one in [his posi- 
tion, the priests shall blow a second call] 5 [for the attack. And when they are 
at the side] of the Kittim line, at throwing distance, [each man] will set his hand 
[on his weapons of war. The priests shall blow for the continuation] 6 [of the 
fight, with the trum]pets of the slain, with a shrill and staccato note. And the 
levites and all [the throng with ram’s horns shall blow the battle call. And the 
rows] 7 [shall fig]ht one behind the other, without a space between them, be- 
cause [...] All the people will lift up a united voice, saying: [...] 8 [...] ... [...] 

Frag. 15 7 [. . .] without [. . .] 2 .. . and your praises [.. .] 3 And we, behold we take 

up position to approach [. . .] 4 [. . .] Blank [. . .] 5 [.. .] he will begin speaking and 
say to you: «Be strong and courageous [...] 6 [... for the hand of] God is 
stretched over all the nations. No [...] 7 [.. to the God Most] High, kingship, 
and to his people, salvation. [...]£[...] their impurity; the gods shall approach 
upon you [...] 9 [...] to throw all their corpses [...] 10 [...] and all the spirits of 
their lot [ . . . ] 11 [ . . . ] eternal together with [ ... ] 12 fight [...] 

Frag. 16 7 [...]...[...] 2 [...] and among the whole congregation [. . .] 3 [...] his 

holy people, a kingdom of prie[sts...] 4 [.. .] all Israel will gat[her] in Jerusalem 
[. . . ] 5 [...] they shall exalt the wonders of [...] 


120 


LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 


4QM*~' 


4QWar Scroll 4 (4Q492 [4QM 4 ]) 

Frag. 1 (= 1QM xix, 1-13) / for the heroes. For [the Lord is holy and the King 

of glory is with us. The host of his spirits is with our infantry and cavalry like 
clouds] 2 to cover the la[nd, like torrential rain which pours down justice on 
everything that grows. Get up, hero, take your prisoners, oh] j glorious one, 
cofllect your spoil, wonder-worker! Place your hand on the neck of your ene- 
mies and your foot on the piles of the fallen! Strike the nations,] 4 your foes, 
and may your sword [consume fl]esh! [Fill your land with glory and your inher- 
itance with blessing: a herd of flocks in your fields, silver,] 5 and gold in your 
palaces! Blank Rejoice, Zion, passionately! [Exult, all the cities of Judah! Open] 
6 the gates for ever so that the wealth of the nations can go in to you! Their 
kings shall wait on you, [all your oppressors lie prone in front of you, and the 
dust of] 7 your feet shall they lick. Blank Daughters of my people, shout with 
jubilant voice! Deck yourselves [with splendid finery! Rule over the govern- 
ment of . . .] 8 your camps, and Israel for an eternal kingdom. Blank Afterwards, 
they shall gather in the camp on this night [to rest until the morning.] 9 [And 
in the] morning they shall go out to the place of the line where there fell the 
heroes of the Kit[tim and the ho]rde [of Assyria and the army of all the peo- 
ples] 10 [gathered together. If] a large number of the wounded died without 
burial, (it is) because they fell there by God’s sword. [And the High Priest] 
11 [and his second, and the priests,] and the levites, [... of war and al]l the 
chiefs of the lines, [and their enlisted men ,. 12 gathered in their posi- 
tions, over [the dead of the Kittim. And they shall praise] there the God of 
Israel [saying: ...] /.? [...] to the God Most High [...]...[...] 

4QWar Scroll' (4Q493 [4QM‘]) 

1 the war. And the priests, sons of Aaron, shall station themselves in front of 
the lines 2 and blow the memorial trumpets. And afterwards, they shall open 
the gatfes] to the soldiers j of the infantry. The priests shall blow the battle 
trumpets [to strike] the lines 4 of the nations. The priests shall go out from 
among the severely wounded and station themselves [on one side] and on the 
other of [...] 5 on the side of the catapult and the ballista, and they shall not 
desecrate the oil of their priesthood [with the blood | of the severely wounded, 
6 nor shall they approach any of the lines of the soldiers of the infantry. They 
shall blow a shrill note so that the men 7 of war sally out to approach between 
the lines of the trumpets of [the slain.] And they shall begin B to stretch out the 
hand for battle. When their part is accomplished, they shall blow for them the 
trumpets of withdrawal 9 so that they enter the gates; and the second line shall 
go out. In accordance with this rule the le[vites] shall blow w for them during 
their part: in their sallies, they shall blow the trumpets [of recall] for them. 


THE WAR SCROLL 


121 


4 Q m j F 

u and when they complete (them), the trumpets [of alarm,] and on their with- 
drawal, they shall blow [for them the trumpets] 12 of assembly. According to 
[this ordinance shall they blow for a[ll the lijnes. Blank [...] 13 [...] over the 
trumpets of the Sabbaths [...] 14 [... over the] perpetual [sacrifice] and the 
holocaust is written [...] 


4QWar Scroll" 1 (4Q494 [4QM' y ]) 

Frag. 1 (= iqm 11, 1-3) 1 [the chiefs of] the tribes [...] 2 And the priests and the 

levites and the chiefs of [. . .] 3 the priests; and the same for the levites. And the 
divisions [...They shall arrange the chiefs of the priests behind the] 4 High 
Priest and his second, twelve chiefs [to serve in perpetuity before God. And the 
twenty-six chiefs of the divisions] 5 shall serve in their divisions, [and after 
them the chiefs of the levites, to serve always, twelve, one per tribe.] 6 [And 
after]wards, the chiefs [of their divisions shall each serve in their place...] 

4QWar Scroll 1, (4Q495 [4QM < ’]) 

Frag. 1 (= iqm x, 9- 10) 1 [And who (is) like your people,] Israel, [whom you 

chose from among all the peoples of the earth, a people of] 2 [holy ones of] the 
covenant, le[arned in the law...] 

Frag. 2 (= iqm xiii, 9- 12) 1 [You,] God, have crea]ted us for you, [eternal peo- 

ple, and you have made us fall into the lot of light in accordance with your 
truth. From of old, the Prince of light] 2 you appointed to assist us, [and in 
. . .and all the spirits of truth are under his dominion.] 3 You created [Belial for 
the pit, angel of enmity; his domain is darkness, his counsel is for evil and 
wickedness. All the spirits of his lot,] 4 angels of destruction walk in the laws 
of darkness...] 


4QWar Scroll (4Q496 [4papQvt / ]) 

Col. 1 frag. 3 (= iqm 1, 4-9) 3 [And in his time, he will go out] with great [rage] 

to wage war against [the kings of the North, and his anger w ill exterminate] 
4 [and cut off the horn of Is]rael. There will follow a time of [salvation for the 
people of God and a period of rule for all the men of his lot,] 5 [and of everlast- 
ing destruction for all the l]ot of Belial. There will be [great] pa[nic among the 
sons of Japhet, Ashur will fall,] 6 [and there will be no help for him;] the rule 
[of the Kittim] will come to an end, [wickedness having been defeated, with no 
remnant remaining,] 7 [and there will be no escape for] /all/ the sons of dark- 
ness. And the sons of [justice shall shine in all the edges of the earth, they shall 
go on illuminating,] 8 [up to the end of a|ll the periods of darknfess; and in the 


122 


LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 4 QM / I — III 


time of God, his exalted greatness will shine for all the eternal times,] g [for 
peace and blessing,] glory and jo[y, and long days for all the sons of light. And 
on the day on which the Kittim fall, there will be a fight. . .] 

Col. 1 frags. 2 + 1 (= iqm 1, 1 1 - 17) 2 [The sons of light and the lot of darkness 

shall battle together for God’s might, between the roar of a huge multitude 
and the shout of] gods 3 [and of men, on the day of the calamity. It will be a 
time of suffering for a]ll the people redeemed by God. Of a]ll their sufferings, 
4 [none will be like this, from its haste (?) until eternal redemption is fulfilled. 
And on the day of] their war 5 [against the Kittim, they shall go out to destruc- 
tion. In the war, the sons of light shall be the strongest during three lots, in 
order to strike down wickedness; and in th]ree (others), [the army of Belial] w ill 
gird themselves 6 [in order to force the lot of ... to retreat. The infantry battal- 
ions shall melt the heart, but God’s might will strengthen the heart of the sons 
of [light.] 7 [And in the seventh lot, God’s great hand will subdue Belial, and 
all the angels of] his dominion and al[l the men] 8 [of his lot. . . . the holy ones, 
he will shine out to assist the ...] truth, for the destruction of g [the sons of 
darkness ...] ... [...] 

Col. 11 frag. 7 (iqm 11, 5-6) 1 [to prepare the pleasant incense for [God’s] ap- 

proval, [to atone for all his congregation and in order to grow fat] 2 [in perpetu- 
ity before him at the table of] his glory. [They shall arrange all these] 3 [during 
the appointed time of the year of] release. During the thirty-[three years] 

4 [remaining of the war,] the famo[us] men [called...] 

Col. 11 frags. 6-5 (= iqm 11, q - 12) 1 [... During the thirty-five years of service, 

the war will be prepared during six] years; 2 [and all the congregation together 
will prepare it. And the war of the divisions (will take place) during the remain- 
ing twe]nty-nine years. 3 [During the first year, they shall wage war] against 
Aram-Naharaim; during the second, 4 [against the sons of Lud; during the 
third they shall wage war against the remnant of the sons of Aram,] against Uz 

5 [and Hul, Togal and Mesha, who are beyond the Euphrates; during the 
fourth and the] fifth, 6 [they shall wage war against the sons of Arpachsad; 
during the sixth and seventh they shall wage war] against all 

Col. in frag. 13 (= iqm 11, 13-14) 1 [... during the ninth they shall wa]ge war 

against the sons of Ishmael and Ke[tura;] 2 [and during the following [ten 
years] the war will be divided [against all the sons of Ham,] 3 [according to 
their clans, in their dwellings; and during the [following] ten [years] 4 [the war 
will be divided up against a]ll the sons of Japhet, in their dwellings.] 

Col. in frag. 18 (= iqm 11, ? — ill, 2) 2 [...] which [...] 3 [...] they shall write [...] 


THE WAR SCROLL 


123 


4 QM / '^ 

4 [...] Blank [...]5 [...the batjtle formations, and the [rallying] trumpfets of the 
formations...] 6 [...] and the trumpefts of alarm of the slain,... 7 [...] the evil 
[...]£[...] Blank [...] they shall write: «Ral[lied by God»....] 

Col. iv frag. 12 (= iqm hi, 6-7) ; [«Withdrawal of mercy from those who ha]te 

God». [...] 2 [And on the trumpets of] battle [formations they shall write:] 

3 [. . . And] on the trumpets for [rallying] 4 [the infantrymen when the gates of] 
battle [open so they can go out] 

Col. iv frag. 11 (= iqm hi, 9-11) 1 [And on the trumpets of pursuit they shall 

write:] «God [has struck all the sons of darkness, he shall not cause his wrath 
to return, until they are exterminated)).] 2 [And when they retreat from battle 
against the en]emy to ret[urn to the line, they shall write on the trumpets] 3 [of 
retreat: «May God re-assemble». And on the tru]mpets [of the path of return 
from battle with the enemy, to go back to the congregation of] 4 [Jerusalem, 
they shall write: «Exultations of God in a peaceful] return* [. . .] 

Col. iv frag. 10 (= iqm in, 13-15) 1 [Rule of the banners of all] the congregation 

in order of companies. 3 [On the large] banner /of the chief/ which goes at the 
head of [all the people they shall write:] 4 [«God’s people*, and the name of 
Israel] and of Aaron /and the [name] of the prince./ [Above the banner of the 
camp chiefs of] 5 three tribes [they shall write: . . .] 

Col. v frag. 16 (= iqm in, ? — iv, 2) 2 [...] the trumfpets. . .] 3 [. . .] ...[...] 4 [And 

on the banner of Merari] they shall write: «God’s offering* [and the name of 
the prince of Merari and the names of the commanders of] 5 [his thousands. 
And on] the banner of the thousand [they shall write: «God’s Fury unleashed 
against Belial and against all the men of] 6 [his lot so that no] remnant [(is left)]* 
and the |name of the commander of the thousand . . .] 

C Texts connected with the War Scroll 
4QWar ScrolF (4Q285 [4QM^ ?]) 

Frags. 1-2 (= 11Q14) ;[...] before Israel [...] 2 [...] for eternal centuries. [And 

blessed (be) . . .] 3 [And blessed be all his holy angels. May ] the Most High God 
[bless] you, [may he show you his face,] 4 [and for you may he open his] good 
[treasure] which is in the heavens, [to cause to fall upon your lands rains of] 
5 [blessing, dew and] frost, late and early rains in their season, to give [you fruit, 
the harvests of] 6 [wheat, of wine and of] oil in plenty. And for [you] the land 
will yield [superb fruits. And you shall eat them] 7 [and be replete. In your 
land] there will be no miscarriages or [illness; drought and blight] 8 will not be 


124 


LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT IIQ14 . 4Q47I 


seen in your harvests; there will be no disease [or stumbling blocks in your 
congregation, and evil will vanish] 9 from the land. There will be no pestilence 
[in your land.] For God is with [you and the holy angels are in the midst of 
your Community. And his] 10 holy [name] is invoked over [you ...];;[...] and 
within you [...] interior 

Frag. 4 1 [...] 2 [...] the Prince of the Congregation and all Is[rael ...] 3 [...] the 

Kittim [...] 4 [...] upon ...[...] 5 [...] the Kittim. Blank [...] 6 [... the Pri]nce of 
the Congregation as far as the sea [...] 7 [...] in front of Israel at that time [...] 
8 [. . .] (he) will station himself opposite them and take up position against them 
[. . .] 9 [. . .] they shall return to dry land at the time of [. . .] 10 [. . .] they shall lead 
him [. . .] 

Frag. 5 1 [.. . as | the Prophet Isaiah [said] Isa 10:34-. «[The most massive of the] 

2 [forest] shall be cut [with iron and Lebanon, with its magnificence,] will fall. 
A shoot will emerge from the stump of Jesse [. . .] 3 [. . .] the bud of David will 
go into battle with [. . .] 4 [...] and the Prince of the Congregation will kill him, 
the bu[d of David ...]5 [.. .] and with wounds. And a priest will command [. . .] 
6 [...] the destruction of the Kittim [...] 

liQBlessings (uQi4[iiQBer]) 

?[...] and they shall bless in the name [of the God of] 2 Israel. And they shall 
start speaking [and say: ...] Israel. May they be blessed 3 in the name of the 
Most High God [. . .] and blessed be your holy Name 4 for everlasting centuries. 
Blank 6 May the God Most High bless you, may he show you his face, and for 
you open 7 his good treasure which is in the heavens, to make it come down 
upon your lands: Blank 8 rains of blessing, dew and frost, early and late rains in 
their season, to give you the fruits, 9 the produce of wheat, of wine and of oil 
in plenty. And for you the land will produce superb fruits. 10 And you shall eat 
them and be replete. In your land there will be no miscarriages u or sickness: 
drought and blight will not be seen in your harvests; 12 (there will be neither] 
stealing of children (?) nor obstacles in your congregation, and evil will vanish 
from [the land.] 12 [the sword will not pass] through your land. For God is with 
you and the [holy] angels 13 [are to be found] in your Community. And his holy 
Name is invoked over you. 

4QWar Scroll* (4Q471) 

Frag. 1 ;[...] of all that [. . .] 2 [. . .] each one from his brother; and from the sons 

of [...] 3 [...] they shall always be with him and [...] 4 a man from each tribe 
5 [...] and from the levites 6 two [...] and they sh[all serve ...] always, each 


4QM471 ■ 5 2 9 


THE WAR SCROLL 


125 


7 [. . .] so that they will be instructed in the regulations. . .] 8 [. . .] in their divi- 
sions [. . .] 9 [. . .] 

Frag. 2 7 [...] for the time when you commanded them not to 2 [...] and you 

have been disloyal to his covenant 3 [. . . and you] said: «Let us fight our battles, 
for he saves us» 4 [... your ch]ampions shall be subdued and they shall not 
know that he scorns 5 [.. .] be men for war and you shall be numbered 6 . 

Blank You shall ask for a just judgment and the work of 7 [. . .] you shall extol. 
Blank And he will choose [. . .] the shout of <?[...] you shall return [. . .] sweet 

Frag. 4 1 2 [. . .] to keep the pledges of your covenant [. . .] 3 [. . .] all 

their armies, slow to anger[. . .] 4 [. . .] and to discourage their hearts from every 
[. . .] 5 [. . .sljaves of darkness, for their judgment [. . .] 6 [. . .] in the wickedness 
of their lots [. . .] 7 [. . .] and to choose evil, and to [. . .] 8 [...] hates God, and he 
has established [...] 9 [...] all the good which [...] 10 [...] the frenzy of his re- 
venge [. . .] 

Frag. 5 7 [...] (to) God and to [...] 2 [...] for ever. And he has placed us [...] 

3 [. . . may he] judge his people with justice and [. . .] 4 [. . .] in all his precepts 
[. . .] 5 [. . .] for us, in our perversion [. . .] 

4QWords of Michael (4Q529) 

7 Words of the book which Michael spoke to the angels of God [.. .] 2 He said: 
‘I found there troops of fire [...] 3 [...] nine mountains: two to the Eas[t ...] 

4 [and two to the] South. There I saw the angel Gabriel [...] 5 ... and I ex- 
plained to him his vision’. And he said to me: [...] 6 It is written in my book 
that the Great One, the Lord Eternal, [...] 7 the sons of Ham to the sons of 
Shem. And now, the Great One, the Lord Eternal [...] 8 when keshabin from 
azdara (?) drip [...] 9 See, a city will be built to the name of the Great [Lord 
Eternal . . .] 10 all that is wicked shall be done before the Great One, Lofrd Eter- 
nal ...] 11 but the Great One, Lord Eternal, will remember his creature [...] 
12 [to the Great] One, Lord Eternal; to him the rewards and to him [. . .] 13 in 
distant lands there will be a man [...] 14 is he. And he will say to him: ‘Look, 
this [...] 15 to me the silver and the gold [...] ... [...] 1 6 [...] justice [...] 


126 


LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 4QSa I I-23 


2 The Rule of the Congregation 
lQRule of the Congregation (iQ28a [tQSa]) 

Col. 1 1 And this is the rule of the congregation of Israel in the final days, when 

they gather [in community to wa]lk 2 in accordance with the regulation of the 
sons of Zadok, the priests, and the men of the covenant who have turn[ed away 
from the pa]th 3 of the people. These are the men of his counsel who have kept 
the covenant in the midst of wickedness to atone [for the e]arth. 4 When they 
come, they shall assemble all those who come, including children and women, 
and they shall read into their ea[rs] 5 all the regulations of the covenant, and 
shall instruct them in all its precepts, so that they do not stray in their [errors.] 
6 Blank And this is the rule for all the armies of the congregation, for all native 
Israelites. From his y[outh] 7 [they shall edu]cate him in the book of hagy, and 
according to his age, instruct him in the precepts of the covenant, and he wi[ll 
receive] 8 [instruction in its regulations; during ten years he will be counted 
among the boys. At the age of twenty y[ears, he will transfer] 9 [to] those en- 
rolled to enter the lot amongst his family and join the holy community. He 
shall not [approach] 10 a woman to know her through carnal intercourse until 
he is fully twenty years old, when he knows [good and] n evil. Then she shall 
be received to give witness against him (about) the precepts of the law and to 
take his place in the proclamation of the precepts. 12 And on his completion. . . 
Blank At the age of twenty-five years, he shall enter to take his place among the 
«foundations» of the holy 13 congregation to perform the service of the congre- 
gation. And at thirty years (of age) he shall approach to arbitrate in disputes 
14 and judgments, and to take his place among the chiefs of the thousand of 
Israel, the commanders of a hundred, commanders of fifty, 1 5 [commanders] 
of ten, the judges and the officials and their tribes with all their families, [ac- 
cording to the decision of the sons of 16 [Aa]ron, the priests, and of all the 
chiefs of the clans of the congregation, as the lot for him comes out, to take his 
place in the duties, 77 to go out and to come in before the congregation. And 
in accordance with his intelligence and the perfection of his behaviour, he shall 
gird his loins to remain steadfast, doing 18 the allotted duty among his brothers. 
Depending on whether (he has) much or a little, one will be more or less hon- 
oured than his fellow. 79 When the years of a man increase, they shall assign 
him a task in the service of the congregation matching his strength. No man 
who is a simpleton 20 shall enter the lot to hold office in the congregation of 
Israel for dispute or judgment, or to perform a task of the congregation, 21 or 
to go out to war to subdue the nations; merely, his family shall inscribe him in 
the army register, 22 and he will do his service in the forced labour to the extent 
of his ability. The sons of Levi shall each stay in his post, 23 under the author- 
ity of the sons of Aaron, to make all the congregation come in and go out, each 


lQSa i 23-1121 


THE RULE OF THE CONGREGATION 


127 


one in his rank, under the direction of the chiefs 24 of the clans of the congre- 
gation, as commanders, judges /and officials/, according to the number of all 
their armies, under the authority of the sons of Zadok, the priests, 25 [and of 
all] the chiefs of the clans of the congregation. Blank And if there is a convoca- 
tion of all the assembly for a judgment, or for the community council, or for 
a convocation of war, they shall sanctify themselves during three days, so that 
every one who comes 27 is pre[pared for the coujncil. These are the men who 
are to be summoned to the community council from ten. . . Blank : all 2Sthe wi[se 
men] of the congregation, the intelligent and those learned in perfect behaviour 
and the men of valour, together with 29 [the chiefs of the tri]bes and all the 
judges, the officials, the chiefs of thousands, the chiefs of [hundreds,] 

Col. 11 1 of fifties and of tens, and the levites, (each one) in the mid[st of his 

division of service. These 2 are the famous men, those summoned to the as- 
sembly, those gathered for the community council in Israel 3 under the author- 
ity of the sons of Zadok, the priests. No man, defiled by any of the impurities 
4 of a man, shall enter the assembly of these; and everyone who is defiled by 
them should not be 5 established in his office amongst the congregation. And 
everyone who is defiled in his flesh, paralysed in his feet or 6 in his hands, 
lame, blind, deaf, dumb or defiled in his flesh with a blemish 7 visible to the 
eyes, or the tottering old man who cannot keep upright in the midst of the 
assembly, 8 these shall not enter to take their place among the congregation of 
famous men, for the angels 9 of holiness are among their congregation.] And 
if one of these has something to say to the holy council, 10 they shall investigate 
it in private, but the man shall not enter in the midst of [the congregation,] 
because he is defiled, u This is the assembly of famous men, [those summoned 
to] the gathering of the community council, when [God] begets 12 the Messiah 
with them. [The] chief [priest] of the all the congregation of Israel shall enter, 
and all 13 [his brothers, the sons] of Aaron, the priests [summoned] to the as- 
sembly, the famous men, and they shall sit 14 befo[re him, each one] according 
to his dignity. After, [the Me]ssiah of Israel shall ent[er] and before him shall 
sit the chiefs 13 [of the clans of Israel, each] one according to his dignity, ac- 
cording to their [positions] in their camps and in their marches. And all 16 the 
chiefs of the clfans of the congregation with the wise [men and the learned] 
shall sit before them, each one according i 7 to his dignity. And [when] they 
gather at the table of community [or to drink] the new wine, and the table of 
18 community is prepared [and] the new wine [is mixed] for drinking, [no-one 
should stretch out] his hand to the first-fruit of the bread ig and of the [new 
wine] before the priest, for [he is the one who bljesses the first-fruit of bread 
20 and of the new wine [and stretches out] his hand towards the bread before 
them. Afterwards, the Messiah of Israel shall stretch out his hand 21 towards 
the bread. [And after, he shall] bless all the congregation of the community, 


128 


LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 4QSa II 21 -22 


each [one according to] his dignity. And in accordance with this regulation they 
shall act 22 at each me[al, when] at least ten m[en are gathered. Blank 


2 Q 24 


DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW JERUSALEM 


129 


3 Description of the New Jerusalem 
2QNew Jerusalem (2Q4 [2QNJ ar]) 

Frag. 1 [And he led me to the interior of the city and measured each] 1 [block, 
length and width: fifty-one rods by] fifty-one [in a square,] 2 [three hundred 
and fifty-seven cubits on each si]de. And a peristyle arou[nd] 3 [the block, the 
portico of the street: three rods, twenty-one cubits.] Also he showed me all the 
measurements 4 [of the blocks. Between one block and another there is the 
street, six rods wide: cubits,] forty-two. 

Frag. 3 7 [...] one [...] 2 [...] and he measured up to the sapphire door [...] 

3 [...] which is before [...] 4 [...] the wall [...] 

Frag. 4 1 their flesh [. . .] 2 as a pleasant offering [. . .] 3 and they shall bring into 

the temple [. . .] 4 eight sheahs of finest fl[our . . .] 5 and they shall wave the bread 
[...] [...] 6 to the East upon the alt[ar ...] 7 lined up upon the ta[ble ...] 8 two 
rows of loafves ...] 9 the bread. And they shall take the bread [...] 10 to the 
West. And they shall be shar[ed . . .] 77 And I looked until [...] 12 the list (?) [...] 
13 the elders among them and fourteen prifests . ..] 14 the priests. Blank The two 
loaves which [. . .] 13 I stood until one of the two loaves was given [. . .] 16 with 
him. Blank I was watching until it was given to a[ll . . .] 18 [. . .] of the ram to each 
person [...] 79 [...] until the moment when they sat down [..J20 [...] in all [...] 
27 [•••] ... [...] 

Frag. 8 1 [...]...[...] 2 [. . .] ten. The fou[rth] row [. . .] 3 [. . .] the walls of whi[te] 

stone [...] 4 [...] the others, the outer side, twenty [...] 5 [...] and they shall 
make atonement with it upon [it ...] 6 [...] and yet it will not be ended. Each 
day [...] 7 [...] the courtyard. And he showed me [...] another outside [...] 
8 [. . .] one hundred and ten [. . .] 

4QNew Jerusalem* (4Q554 [4QNj* ar]) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 9 [...] ... 10 [...] and all those buildings 11 [...from the] East [cor- 

ner] which is to the North 12 [...] thirty-five stadia; and he secured 13 [... the 
door of] Simeon; and from this door up to the central door 14 [... and he se- 
cured this door to what they call door 1 5 [. . .] South thirty-five stadia 16 [. . . and 
from] this door he measured up to the corner 77 [... and fr]om this corner to 
the West 18 [...] they call the door of Joseph 79 [... sta]dia, twenty-four. And 
he secured 20 [. . . and from] this [do]or he measured up to the door 21 [... the 
do]or of Reuben and [from] this [do]or 22 [...] and from this corner he mea- 
sured up to 


130 


LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 


4 Q 554 


Frag. 1 col. u 7 and from the door 8 of the centre [twenty-four] stadia. 

[...] this [door] they ca[ll] the door of Naphtali. And he measured from this 
9 door up to the door which [...:] twenty-four stadia. And he measured this 
door: they call it 10 door of Asher. And he mefasured from this do]or up to the 
corner which is to the East: n twenty-four stadia. Blank 12 And he led me to the 
interior of the city and mefasured each bl]ock, length and breadth: ; ; fifty-one 
rods by fifty-one, in a square, [all around] three hundred and fifty-seven cubits 
14 on each side. And (there was) a peristyle around the block, the portico of the 
street: 15 three rods, twenty-one cubits. Also he showed me all the measure- 
ments of all the blocks; between one block and another 16 there is the street: 
width, six rods, forty-two cubits; and the main streets which run 17 from East 
to West: the width of two of these streets is of [ten rods;] cubits: 18 seventy; 
and he measured the third, which passes to the [left] of the temple: ig eighteen 
rods in width, [one hundred and twenty-six cubits.] And the width 20 of the 
streets that run from South [to North: two of them are] nine rods 21 and four 
cubits each street, [sixty-seven] cubits. And he measured the width of [the 
middle one, which is the cen]tre 22 of the city: [thirteen] rods [and a cubit, 
ninety-two cubits.] And all the streets and the city [were paved with white 
stone] 

Frag. 1 col. ill ij and the wifdth of . . .] its dimensions are: cubits, [. . . Ele mea- 
sured the width of each threshold:] 14 rods, [two; cubits, fourteen; from the 
lintel, [one cubit... Ele measured over each threshold] 15 its jambs, and mea- 
sured inside the threshold: its length [is thirteen cubits and its width ten cu- 
bits. [...] 16 And he led me to the vestibule. There was another threshold and 
another door to the side of the inner wall, on the right side, 17 with the dimen- 
sions of the outer door: four cubits in width and seven cubits in height, with 
two rooms. In [front] 18 of this door, the entrance threshold, of one rod in 
width, seven cubits. The length of the entrance: two rods, cubits, ig fourteen; 
and the height: two rods, fourteen cubits. And the door corresponding to this 
door, the one which opens to the block, has 20 the dimensions of the outer 
door. To the left of this entry he showed me a stairwell which goes ro[und and 
up:] its len[gth] 21 and its width are the same size: two rods by two, fourteen 
cubits. The do[ors which are opposite the other doors are] 22 the same sizes. 
And the column [within the space,] upon which the staircase goes round and 
u[p ...] 

Frag. 2 col. 1 14 [. . .] two 15 [. . .] and rods 16 [. . .] the measurement of 17 [. . .] the 

city 

Frag. 2 col. 11 13 [. . .] and its foundations, [width:] two rods; [cubits,] 14 fourteen; 

and its height: seven rods, forty-nine cubits. And all 15 the buildings in it are 


5 Q 555 


DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW JERUSALEM 


131 

of sapphire and of rubies, and the windows (?) (are) of gold, and (have) one 
thousand 16 [four hundred] and thirty-two towers. Their length and their width 
are the same size: iy [...] and their height, ten rods, 18 [seventy cubits...] 
fourteen 19 [...] two 20 [. ..] ... cubits 21 [...] two, to the door 22 [. . .] ... three, 
and the towers project 

Frag. 2 col. in 14 ...[...] 15 after him, and the kingdoms which [. . .] 16 Kittim 
(?) after him, all at the end of all [. . .] iy many others and the chiefs with them. 
[...] 18 with them Adorn and Moab and the sons of Ammon [...] 19 of Babel, 
all its land which shall not be fre[ed ...] 20 and they shall do evil to your de- 
scendants until the moment that [ . . . ] 21 with all the people [. . .] the kings [. . .] 
22 and the peoples shall d[o] with them [...] 

4QNew Jerusalem* (4Q555 I4QNJ* ar]) 

Frag. 1 /[...] And the staircase which [climbs up at its side] is four cubits wide, 

and goes round 2 [and upwards to a height of two rods, up to the roof.] Blank 
3 [And he brought me into the block and showed me the houses there; from one 
porch to another,] fifteen; eight from the side up to the corner, 4 [and from the 
corner up to the other porch.] Length of the houses: three rods; cubits, twenty- 
one; and their width: 5 [two rods, fourteen cubits. And all the rooms the same.] 
Their height is two rods, fourteen cubits. Their door is in the middle; 6 [it is 
two rods, fourteen cubits, in width. And he measured the width of the middle 
of the houses and of their interior,] four cubits; length and height, one rod, 
seven cubits 7 [... The site is nineteen cubits] in length and twelve cubits in 
width. The house 8 [has twenty-two beds, and there are eleven lattice windows 
above the beds.] At their side is the outer gutter. 9 [And he has measured . . . 
from the window: height, two cubits; width, ... cubits, and its thickness is the 
width of the wall. Height of] its inner part: cubits 10 [... and of the other ... 
cubits ...] two rods; cubits, fourteen 11 [...] to the South ...12 [...] and the roof 
which is over them 


5QNew Jerusalem (5Q15 [5QNJ ar]) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 / [around,] three hundred and fifty-seven cubits on each side. And 

a peristyle around the block, the portico of the street: three rods, twenty-one 
cubits. 2 Also he showed me all the measurements of all the blocks. Between 
one block and another is the street, six rods in width, forty-two cubits. 3 And 
the main streets which run from East to West; width the streets: of two of them 
are of ten rods, seventy cubits; and he measured the third, the one which passes 
to the l[eft] of the temple: eighteen rods in width, [one hundred and twenty-six 
cubits. And the width of the streets which run from South 5 [to North:] two of 


132 


LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 


4Q15 


them are nine rods and four cubits each one, sixty-seven cubits; the one in the 
mid[dle, which is in the cen]tre of the city, he measured its width: thirteen rods 
and a cubit, ninety-two cubits. All the streets of the city are paved with white 
stone 7 [.. .] alabaster and onyx. Blank 8 [And he measured the four hundred] 
and eighty [posterns:] the wi[dth of] the posterns is two rods, [fourteen cu- 
bits. . .] g In each door there were stone jambs; the width of the jafmbs] is [one] 
rod, [seven cubits.] w [He showed me the dimensions of] the twelve... The 
width of their doors of three rods, [twenty-one cubits.] u [Each door has two 
jambs;] width of the jambs: one and a half rods, ten and a half cubits ... /a [On 
the side of each door were two to]wers, one on the right and the other on the 
left. Their height and their width [are the same size: five rods by five,] 13 
thirty-three cubits. The staircase which skirts the inner door, to the right of the 
towers, goes up to the height of the to[wers and is five cubits in width. The 
towers] 14 [and the staircases are five rods by five, and five cubits, forty cubits 
on each side of the door [...] 75 And he showed me the dimensions of the 
porches of the blocks; their width is two rods, fourteen cubits; and the wi[dth 
of ...] their dimensions are ... cubits. 16 [He measured above each] threshold 
its jambs, and measured inside the threshold: its length is thirteen cubits and 
its width ten cubits. 18 And he led me inside the vestibule. There was there 
another threshold and another door to the side of the inner wall; on the right 
side, with the dimensions of the outer 1 g door: four cubits in width and seven 
cubits in height, with two rooms. In front of this door, the entrance threshold, 
of one rod in width, 

Col. 11 ? seven cubits. The length of the entrance: two rods, fourteen cubits, and 

the height: two rods, fourteen cubits. And the door 2 corresponding to this 
door, the one which opens to the block, has the dimensions of the outer door. 
To the left of this entry he showed me a stairwell 3 which goes round and up: 
its length and its width are the same size: two rods by two, fourteen cubits. The 
do[ors which are opposite] 4 the other doors are the same sizes. And the pillar 
within the space, upon which the staircase goes round and up, its width and its 
len[gth are six by six cubits] 5 squared. And the staircase which goes up at its 
side is four cubits in width, and goes round and up to a height of two rods, up 
to [the roof.] 6 And he brought me [to the interior of] the block and showed me 
the houses there, fifteen from one porch to another; eight from one side up to 
the corner, 7 and from the corner up to the other porch. Length of the houses: 
three rods; twenty-one cubits; and their width: 8 two rods, fourteen cubits. And 
all the rooms the same. Their height is two rods, fourteen cubits. Their door 
g is in the middle; it is two rods, fourteen cubits, in width. [And he measured 
the width of the middle] of the houses and of their interior [...] 70 four [cubits;] 
length and height, one rod, seven cubits [...] The site is nineteen cubits in 
length 77 and twelve cubits in width. The house has twenty-two beds, and there 


11Qi8 1-12 


DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW JERUSALEM 


133 


are eleven lattice windows above [the beds.] 12 At their side is the outer gutter. 
[And he measured . . .] from the window: height, two cubits; [width, . . . cubits,] 
and its thickness is the width of the wall. [Height of its inner] part: 13 [...] cu- 
bits [and of the other . . . cubits.] And he measured the edges of the platforms: 
nineteen [cubits in length] and twelve cubits in width. 14 [. . .] and their height 
[...] they open above [...] two rods, [fourteen] 15 cubits; [their width is] three 
cubits and their length ten [cubits ..] one and a half cubits, and their height 
within [...] 

Frag. 2 ?[...] windows [...] 2 [...] all the houses which are in the inside [...] 

3 [...] each door, and their thresholds are [...] wide 4 [...] of the columns, 
twelve cubits [ . . . ] 5 [ . . . ] from one column to another [ . . . ] 

1 lQNew Jerusalem (11Q18 [11QNJ ar]) 

Frags. 1 + 2 + 31 1 [...]...[...] the throne [...] 2 [...] ... [...] and he is placed 

[...Jj [...] ... [...] the temple, and from the blood [...] 4 [...] ... [se]ven rods 
[. . .] 5 [...] by forty [...] 6 [...] from the temfple...] 

Frags. 3 11 + 4 + 5 + 6 1 ...[...].. . like all which [. . . fro]m before the al[tar . . .] 
they were taken [...] 2 the throne [...] ... levites ... [. . .] ... with ... [.. .] ... se- 
ven [...] 3 from him ... [...] it will be for them [...] ... for him [...] until the 
sun goes down [...].# the hand [...] from [the] festivals [...] oil and wine [...] 
offerings [..J5 and over ... [. . .] before him [. . . tw]o bulls [. . .] 6 the temple [. . . 
for a plea]sant o[dour . . . ] ... [ . . . ] 

Frags. 7 + 81 / [. . . al]l Israel [. . .] all the men who [. . .] 2 [. . .] Blank And as soon 

Israel [...] they were appointed over them [...] 3 [...] the Passover sacrifices 
[...] until the sun goes down [...] 4 until the sun goes down and all [...] to- 
gether. Blank [. . .] 5 [. . .] their peace-offerings [. . .] seven [. . .] 6 [. . .] ... [. . .] 

Frags. 9 ?[...] the months of Israel [. . .] 2 [...] ... and in the night [...] 3 [...] ... 

it will be called [.. .] 4 [.. .] its flesh which [.. .] 5 [.. .] they will be eaten with it 
and from [...] 6 they will be eaten and dr[unk...] 7 [...] ... [...] 

Frags. 10+111 ?[...] the sun [. . .] and from 2 [. . .] the judge from all [. . .] 3 [. . .] 

which four [. . .] 4 [. . .] over all seed [. . .] 5 all year [. . .] 6 [. . .] ... [. . .] 

Frags. 1 1 11 + 12 / over them and [. . .] over the four horns of the altar, 2 and of 

the peace-offering [...] from it, all the fat 3 of their sacrifices [. . .] the two kid- 
neys 4 and from the knees [. . .] its cakes soaked [. . .] 5 all its multitude [. . . the 
al]tar for an odour 6 from all [. . .] [. . .] in the first place 7 [for I]srael 


134 


LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT UQl8 13-21 


Frag. 13 1 [. . . ev]ery seventh day before God, a memorial . . .] and their thank- 

offering 2 [...] outside of the temple, to the right of the West, [and it shall be 
divided . . .] and they will be accepted. 3 [And I watched until (the bread ?) was 
di] vided among the eighty-four priests [ . . .] ja [. . . J from everything the division 
of the tables filled itself [. . .] 4 [.. the eldest who are among th]em, and fourteen 
prie[sts ...] 5 [priests ... Two (loaves) of brea]d [upon which] was the incense 
[...] 6 [I keep watching until one of the two loaves] was given to the [high] 
priest [... with him.] 7 [And the other was given to the second who was 
stan]ding apart [...] 

Frag. 14 1 the grape when it leaves the palm [...] 2 from the radiance in them, 

and the fifth] crown [.. .] 3 interior of the cover, and the sixth crown [. . .] 4 sev- 
enth [crown], according to the radiance and the [...] 5 [And] the High Priest 
was clothed [. . .] 6 ... [. . .] 

Frag. 15 1 [...] loosed yet for them, which is [...] 2 [...] and all who have fin- 

ished his seven [...] 3 [...] his brothers entered their place, four hundred [...] 
4 [...] Blank And he said to me: to the twenty six [...]5 [...] the holy of holies 
[. . .] 6 [. . . they] entered [. . .] 

Frag. 16 1 [...] the doors which were in front of the temple [...] 2 [... on] the 

seventh day. And on the first day of the m[onth . . .] 3 [. . .] is holy. The temple 
and the great glory [...] 4 [...] for ever. Blank 5 [...] He started to read to me 
from a bo[ok ...] 6 [...] he showed me a book [...] 7 [...] ... [...] 

Frag. 17 1 seven cups and bowls to wash [...] 2 [to] me, and higher seven cal- 

drons, stoves over the ea[rth...] 3 [and all] of them (are) thirty two thousand 
and nine hundred [...] 4 [...] Blank [...] j [...] He said to me: See [...] 6 [...] to 
his house the joy and to [. . .] 7 [. . .] ... [. . .] 

Frag. 18 1 seven by seven. And he sho[wed me . . .] 2 three rods; and the height 

of the doors [. . .] 3 to all the twelve door[s. . .] 4 two [rods,] and its breath is the 
width of the wa[ll . . .] 5 the first hundred rods [. . .] 

Frag. 19 + 20 1 [.. .] around the upper room [.. .] and the two doors 2 [. . .] cubits, 

seven columns [... and the wi]dth of the upper room 3 [... their length] and 
their [width] are six by six cubits [... and] one; the width of 4 [...] and the 
building built upon it [. . .] And likewise 5 [he showed me . . .] and all this build- 
ing [...] the stair 6 [...] rods [...] 

Frag. 21 1 [. . .] in its four feet. And stretch the bull [. . .] 2 [. . . Wa]sh its feet and 

its inwards and salt all of them [ . . . ] 3 [ . . . ] put them on the fire, and the loaves 


iiqi8 21-24 


DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW JERUSALEM 


135 


of sifted fine flour [...a fojurth of a seah, and bring (it) all up to the altar 
[. . .] 5 [...a fojurth of a seah and a drink offering to the interior [...] 6 [. ..] and 
the flesh is mixed together [...] 7 [...] odour. Blank [...] <?[...] beaten (?) near 
[...] 

Frag. 22 /[...] from these and the mixtures (?) which 2 [. . .] separated and of the 

tithes 3 [...] separated and prepared Blank 5 [...] all the West side. 6 [. . .] 
the wall 7 [...] ebony <?[...] in the right 

Frag. 23 1 [... and] its four sides (?) were high: [...] cubits, [...] 2 [... and the 

chan]nel (?) near the wall which surrounds the [...] 3 [ Jits width is two [cu- 

bits] and its height two cubits [...] 4 [...] is beautiful and all is of pure gold [.. .] 
5 [...] Blank [. . .] 6 of columns turning from one door to [another door ...J 7 [...] 
from one door to another in the city-wall [...]£[...] in his hand [. . .] 

Frag. 24 1 [...] living waters 2 [...] this wall is of pure gold 3 [...] water from 

4 [. . .] Blank s [■ ■ ■] all their stones 6 overlay with gold 7 [. . .] ... 


136 


LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 


4Q174 


4 Other Texts 

4QFlorilegium (4Q174 [4QFlor]) 

Frags. 1-3 col. 1 2Sam 7:10 1 [«And] an enemy [will trouble him no mo]re, [nor 
will] the son of iniquity [afflict him again] as at the beginning. From the day on 
which 2 [I established judges] over my people, Israel*. This (refers to) the house 
which [they will establish] for [him] in the last days, as is written in the book 
of 3 [Moses: Exod 15:17-18 «A temple of the Lord] will you establish with your 
hands, yhwii shall reign for ever and ever*. This (refers to) the house into 
which shall never enter 4 [...] either the Ammonite, or the Moabite, or the 
Bastard, or the foreigner, or the proselyte, never, because there [he will reveal] 
to the holy ones; 5 eternal [glory] will appear over it for ever; foreigners shall 
not again lay it waste as they laid waste, at the beginning, 6 the temfple of 
Is]rael for its sins. And he commanded to build for himself a temple of man, 
to offer him in it, 7 before him, the works of the law. And as for what he said 
to David: iSam 7:11 «I shall obtain for you rest from all your enemies*: (it refers 
to this,) that he will obtain for them rest from all 8 the sons of Belial, those who 
make them fall, to destr[oy them for their s]ins, when they come with the plans 
of Belial to make the s[ons of] 9 light fall, and to plot against them wicked plans 
so that they are trapped by Belial in their guilty error. Blank 10 And 2Sam 7:12-14 
«yhwi-i declares] to you that he will build you a house. I will raise up your seed 
after you and establish the throne of his kingdom 11 [for ev]er. I will be a father 
to him and he will be a son to me.» This (refers to the) «branch of David*, who 
will arise with the Interpreter of the law who 12 [will rise up] in Zi[on in] the 
last days, as it is written: Amos 9:11 «I will raise up the hut of David which has 
fallen*, This (refers to) «the hut of 13 David which has fallen*, who will arise to 
save Israel. Blank 14 Midrash of «Blessed the man who does not walk in the 
counsel of the wicked*. The interpretation of this sa[ying: they are those who 
turn] aside from the path [of the wicked,] 15 as it is written in the book of Isa- 
iah, the prophet, for the last days: Isa 8:11 «And it happened that with a strong 
[hand he turned me aside from walking on the path of] 16 this people*. And this 
(refers to) those about whom it is written in the book of Ezekiel, the prophet, 
that Ez 44:10 «[they should] not [defile themselves any more with all] 17 their 
filth*. This (refers to) the sons of Zadok and to the men of his council, those 
who seek jus[tice] eagerly, who will come after them to the council of the com- 
munity. 18 Ps 2:1 [«Why do] the nations [become agitated] and the peoples plo[t] 
nonsense? [The kings of the earth [ag]ree [and the ru]lers conspire together 
against yhwh and against 19 [his anointed one*. Interpretation of the saying: 
[the kings of the na]tions [become agitated and conspire against] the elect of 
Israel in the last days. 


4Q175 


OTHER TEXTS 


137 


Frags. 1-3 col. 11 1 It is the time of trial which cofmes ...] Judah to complete 

[. . .] 2 Belial, and a remnant will remain [. . .] for the lot, and they shall put into 
practice all the law [. . .] 3 Moses; it is [. . .] as is written in the book of Daniel, 
the prophet: Dan 12:20 «The wicked [act wickedly. . .] 4a and the just [. . .shall be 
whijtened and refined and a people knowing God will remain strong [. . .] 4 ... 
[...] after [...] which is for them [ ] 5- [...] in their descent [...] 

Frag. 4 ;[■■•] those who devour the offspring of 2 [...fujrious against them in 

his zeal 3 [...] This (refers) to the time when Belial will open 4 [...] for the 
house of Judah difficulties to bear resentment 5 [...] and he will seek with all 
his might to scatter them 6 [ . . . ] he will bring them in to be / [ ... to J u]dah and 
to Israel [...] 

4QTestimonia (4Q175 [4QTest]) 

; And **** spoke to Moses saying: Dt 5:28-214 «You have heard the sound of the 
words 2 of this people, what they said to you: all they have said is right. 3 If 
(only) it were given to me (that) they had this heart to fear me and keep all 4 my 
precepts all the days, so that it might go well with them and their sons for 
ever!» 5 Dt 18:18-19 «I would raise up for them a prophet from among their 
brothers, like you, and place my words 6 in his mouth, and he would tell them 
all that I command them. And it will happen that the man 7 who does not listen 
to my words, that the prophet will speak in my name, 1 8 shall require a reckon- 
ing from him.» Blank 9 And he uttered his poem and said: Num 24:15-17 «Oracle 
of Balaam, son of Beor, and oracle of the man 10 of penetrating eye, oracle of 
him who listens to the words of God and knows the knowledge of the Most 
High, of one who 11 sees the vision of Shaddai, who falls and opens the eye. I 
see him, but not now, 12 I espy him, but not close up. A star has departed from 
Jacob, /and/ a sceptre /has arisen/ from Israel. He shall crush 13 the temples 
of Moab, and cut to pieces all the sons of Sheth.» Blank 14 And about Levi he 
says: Dt 33:8-11 «Give to Levi your Thummim and your Urim, to your pious man, 
whom 15 you tested at Massah, and with whom you quarrelled about the waters 
of Meribah, /he who/ said to his father {. . .} 16 {. . .} and to his mother ‘I have 
not known you’, and did not acknowledge his brothers, and his son did not 
17 know. For he observed your word and kept your covenant. /They have 
made/ your judgments /shine/ for Jacob, 18 our law for Israel, they have placed 
incense before your face and a holocaust upon your altar. 19 Bless, ****, his 
courage and accept with pleasure the work of his hand! Crush /the loins/ of 
his adversaries, and those who hate him, 20 may they not rise!» Blank 21 Blank At 
the moment when Joshua finished praising and giving thanks with his psalms, 
22 he said Jos 6:26 «Cursed be the man who rebuilds this city! Upon his first- 
born 33 will he found it, and upon his benjamin will he erect its gates!» And 


138 LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 4Q246 . 552 

now /an / accursed /man/, one of Belial, 24 has arisen to be a fowler’s trap for 
his people and ruin for all his neighbours. 25 [. . .] will arise, to be the two in- 
struments of violence. And they will rebuild 26 [this city and ere]ct for it a 
rampart and towers, to make it into a fortress of wickedness 27 [a great evil] in 
Israel, and a horror in Ephraim and Judah. 28 [. . .And they wi]ll commit a pro- 
fanation in the land and a great blasphemy among the sons of 29 [.. . And they 
will shed blo]od like water upon the ramparts of the daughter of Sion and in 
the precincts of 30 Jerusalem. 

4QAramaic Apocalypse (4Q246) 

Col. 1 /[...] settled upon him and he fell before the throne 2 [. . .] eternal king. 

You are angry and your years 3 [...] they will see you, and all shall come for 
ever. *[...] great, oppression will come upon the earth 5 [. . .] and great slaugh- 
ter in the city 6 [...] king of Assyria and of Egypt 7 [...] and he will be great 
over the earth 8 [. . .] they will do, and all will serve 9 [. . .] great will he be called 
and he will be designated by his name. 

Col. 11 1 He will be called son of God, and they will call him son of the Most 

High. Like the sparks 2 of a vision, so will their kingdom be; they will rule 
several years over 3 the earth and crush everything; a people will crush another 
people, and a city another city. 4 Blank Until the people of God arises and 
makes everyone rest from the sword. 5 His kingdom will be an eternal king- 
dom, and all his paths in truth and uprightness], 6 The earth (will be) in truth 
and all will make peace. The sword will cease in the earth, 7 and all the cities 
will pay him homage. He is a great God among the gods (?). 8 He will make war 
with him; he will place the peoples in his hand and cast away everyone before 
him. His kingdom will be an eternal kingdom, and all the abysses 

4QFour Kingdoms" (4Q552) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 /[...] Which 2 [...] of 3 [...] ... 4 [...]5 [...] the light of the angels 

who were 6 [. . .] he told them what would happen. Blank All 7 [. . .] he has the 
strength of the seas. Blank This 8 [. . .] Blank And he said to me: Oh King, since 
Blank thus 9 [...] how was everything made? They arose 10 [...] He spoke to 
them and explained to them according to the interpretation 11 [...] and their 
lords will be destroyed for them. 

Frag. 1 col. 11 1 Dawn rose and the four trees [...] 2 A tree rose up and they 

turned away from it. And he said [to me: . . .Of what] 3 species is it? And I said: 
How will I see and understand this? [And I saw] 4 a tree of fragrances. [...] 
5 And I asked: What is your name? And he answered me: Babel. [And I said to 


4Q553 • HQ13 


OTHER TEXTS 


139 


him:] 6 You are the one who rules over Persia. And [I saw another tree] 7 Blank 
[He who was be]low us swore by [. . .] and said 8 that he was different (?). And 

1 asked him: What is your na[me? And he said to me . . .] 9 And I said to him: 
You are the one who [rules over . . . and over] 10 the powers of the sea, and over 
the market [. . . And I saw] 11 a third tree, and I said to him: [What is your name 
And he said to me ...] 12 Your vision [...] 

Frag. 1 col. ill /[...] destroyed. And I said to him: He is the one who [. . .] from 

2 [...] ... [...] And I saw [...] 3-8 [. . .] 9 [. . .] they will rejoice 10 [...] the vision 
11 [...] ... the word 12 [...] which will escape 

Frag. 2 9 [...] the lord [...] w [...] God Most High not [...] 11 [...] which there 

is above them, and •■■[■■•]«[...] the lord of all, he who establishes judges [. . .] 

4QFour Kingdoms* (4Q553) 

Frag. 6 col. 1 2 [...]... my hand 3 [. . .] for this I will go 4 [. . .] And he said to me: 

in the kingdom 5 [. . .] ... to rebel, and when there is (?) 6 [. . .] ... 

Frag. 6 col. 11 2 [. . .] to him. And the trees rose up 3 and turned away [from him 

. . .] Blank And I said: How will I see and understand 4 this? And I saw [. . . And 
I asked: What is] your name? And he answered me: Babel. Blank And I said to 
him: You 5 are [the one who rules over Persia. And I saw] another tree. And I 
asked him and said to him: What 6 is your name? [And he said to me. . .] 

Frag. 8 col. 1 1 [. . .] all joy 2 [. . .] from Moses 3 [. . .] in the place where 4 [. . .] ... 

so that it is called 5 [. . . ] with the name of 

Frag. 8 col. 11 / the markets (?) and over [...] 2 the power of the strength [...] 

3 their knowledge [. . .] 4 to me three [. . .] 

1 tQMelchizedek (11Q13 [tiQMelch]) 

Col. 11 1 [. . .] your God ... [. . .] 2 [. . .] And as for what he said: Lev 25:13 «In this 

year of jubilee, [you shall return, each one, to his respective property)), as is 
written: Dt 15:2 «This is] 3 the manner (of effecting) the [release: every creditor 
shall release what he lent [to his neighbour. He shall not coerce his neighbour 
or his brother when] the release for God [has been proclaimed])). 4 [Its 
interpretation for the last days refers to the captives, about whom he said: ha 
61:1 «To proclaim liberty to the captives.)) And he will make 5 their rebels pris- 
oners [...] and of the inheritance of Melchizedek, for [...] and they are the 
inheritance of Melchi]zedek, who 6 will make them return . He will proclaim 


140 


LITERATURE WITH ESCHATOLOGICAL CONTENT 


11Q13 


liberty for them, to free them from [the debt] of all their iniquities. And this 
will [happen] 7 in the first week of the jubilee which follows the ni[ne] jubilees. 
And the day [of atonem]ent is the end of the tenth jubilee 8 in which atonement 
will be made for all the sons of [God] and for the men of the lot of Melchize- 
dek. [And on the heights] he will decla[re in their] favour according to their 
lots; for g it is the time of the «year of grace» for Melchizedek, to exa[lt in the 
tri]al the holy ones of God through the rule of judgment, as is written 10 about 
him in the songs of David, who said: ft 82:1 «Elohim will stand up in the 
assemfbly of God,] in the midst of the gods he judges». And about him he said: 
Ps 7:8-9 «Above it 11 return to the heights, God will judge the peoples)). As for 
what he sa[id: ft 52:2 «How long will yo]u judge unjustly and show partiality to 
the wicked? Selah .» 12 Its interpretation concerns Belial and the spirits of his 
lot, who were rebels [all of them] turning aside from the commandments of 
God [to commit evil.] 13 But, Melchizedek will carry out the vengeance of 
God’s judges [on this day, and they shall be freed from the hands] of Belial and 
from the hands of all the spirits of his lot.] 14 To his aid (shall come) all «the 
gods of [justice)); he] is the one [who will prevail on this day over] all the sons 
of God, and he will pre[side over] this [assembly.] 13 This is the day of [peace 
about which God] spoke [of old through the words of Isa]iah the prophet, who 
said: Isa 52:7 «How beautiful 16 upon the mountains are the feet of the messen- 
ger who announces peace, of the messfenger of good who announces salvation,] 
saying to Zion: ‘your God [reigns.»] 17 Its interpretation: The mountains are 
the profphets ...] 18 And the messenger is [the anojinted of the spirit about 
whom Dan[iel] spoke [... and the messenger of] 19 good who announces 
salv[ation is the one about whom it is written that [he will send him Isa 61:2-3 « t0 
comfofrt the afflicted, to watch over the afflicted ones of Zion».] 20 «To 
comfo[rt the afflicted)), its interpretation:] to instruct them in all the ages of the 
worl[d...] 21 in truth. [...] 22 [...] it has been turned away from Belial and it 
[...] 23 [...] in the judgments of God, as is written about him: Isa 52:7 «Saying 
to Zion: ‘your God rules’)). [«Zi]on» is 24 [the congregation of all the sons of 
justice, those] who establish the covenant, those who avoid walking [on the 
pa]th of the people. «Your God» is 25 [... Melchizedek, who will fr]ee [them] 
from the hand of Belial. And as for what he said: Lev 23:9 «You shall blow the 
hor[n in every] land». 

Col. ill 1 [Its interpretation ...] 2 and you know [...] 3 God [...] 4 and many [. . .] 
5 [...] ... [...] Melchizedek [...] 6 the law for them [...] the hand [...] and he 
will announce [...] 7 they shall devour Belial with fire [. . .] Belial, and they shall 
rebel [. . .] 8 the desires of their hearts [. . .] ... [. . .] 9 the ramparts of Judah [. . .] 
the ramparts of Jerusalem...] 10-20 (minute traces.) 


Exegetical Literature 


H 2 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


The exegetical activity of the Community emerges in one way or another in all 
the writings preserved. Exegesis forms the foundation of the halakhic texts. 
Interpretation of particular biblical texts peppers the development of the Rules, 
both in the legislative sections and in the more theological sections. As a matter 
of course, the biblical text permeates all the ritual texts, and the language of the 
verse compositions is so steeped in the idiom of the bible that they resemble a 
patchwork quilt in which biblical sap and personal expression are woven to- 
gether inextricably. 

This chapter comprises a set of compositions of very different types, all of 
them, though, illustrations of the exegetical efforts of the Community. The 
Targum of Job and the tiny fragments of the Targum of Leviticus show us how 
biblical interpretation permeates the Aramaic translation of biblical texts. The 
Temple Scroll is put forward as a new Deuteronomy, as a sixth book of the To- 
rah. In it, sections from various biblical books are blended with others hitherto 
unknown and the whole is put forward as the actual word (in the first person) 
of God. 

Perhaps the most typical texts of Qumran exegesis are the pesharim , a term 
used to denote compositions in which the word pesher (‘interpretation’) occurs 
very often. In essence, this exegesis involves revealing the true meaning of the 
biblical text, relating it to the actual circumstances of the Community in the 
last days. In the pesharim, the passages from the prophets or from the psalms 
quoted ealier are commented on, verse by verse. In the other compositions 
included here, which could be called thematic pesharim, texts derived from vari- 
ous biblical books and collected for a specific purpose, are interpreted. 

Of course, a number of the compositions in the chapter ‘Para-biblical narra- 
tives’, could just as well have been included in this chapter, since they narrate, 
explain, expand on or alter the biblical text which sustains the life of the Com- 
munity. The boundary between interpretation, the result of exegesis and mere 
paraphrase of the biblical text or incorporation of duplicate traditions, is a mov- 
able border where there are no certainties. 


4Q156-157 


THE TARGUMS 


143 


1 The Targums 
A Targum of Leviticus 
4QTargum of Leviticus (4Q156 [4QtgLev]) 

Frag. 1 (= Lev 16 : 12- 15) / [. . . And he shall take an incense-burner full of] coals 

[of fire from the surface of the altar which is before ] 2 [yhwh and he shall fill] 
his two fists with infcense (?). . .] 3 [and shall place them within] the veil. . . And 
he shall place [the incense on top of the fire] 4 [before yhwh, and] the cloud 
shall cover [. . .] 5 [above the testimony, and] he will not die. [. . .] And he shall 
take some of the [blood of the bullock] 6 [and he shall sprinkle with his finger 
ov]er the mercy-seat. And in front of the mercy-seat, towards the East, 7 [he 
shall sprinkle] the blood [seven times] with his finger. . . And he shall slaughter 

Frag. 2 (= Lev 16 : 18-21) 1 [... for] him... He shall take [blood from the bull- 

ock and blood from the he-goat] 2 [and shall put it on] the horns of the altar, 
ar[ound . . . And he shall sprinkle upon him the blood] 3 [with his finger sev]en 
[times] and he shall cleanse it and make it holy [from the im]purities [of the 
sons of] 4 [Israel. . .] When [he has finished aton]ing for the holy house, [for] the 
tent of meeting and [for] 5 [the altar, he shall bring near] the he-goat. . . Aaron 
shall lay his two [hands upon] 6 [the head of the] live [he]-goat, . . . And he shall 
confess over it all [...] 7 [...al]l his sin[s...] 

b Targum of Job 

4QTargum of Job (4Q157 [4QtgJob]) 

Frag. 1 col. i (= Job 3:5-?) 2 [. . .] a cloud [should spread] over him 3 [. . . may 

it not join the d]ays of the year 4-5 [ . . . ] ... 

Frag. 1 col. ii (= Job 4 : 16-5 : 4) 1 ...[...] 2 Can a man before God [be just?. . .] 

3 and to his angels [he ascribes madness. . .] 4 which [have their foundations] in 
dust [ . . . ] 5 and without number [. . . ] they die, and not from wisdom. [. . .] 7 will 
you consider? Blank Perhaps he does not kill the stupid [...] 8 But I have seen 
a wicked person ...[...] g ... [...] 

tiQTargum of Job (11Q10 [nQtgJob]) 

Col. 1 (=Job 17 : 14- 18 : 4) / [... and my mother and my sister to the mag]got. 

And what is it, then, that I [. . .] 2 [. . .] Perhaps [they shall go down] with me to 
Sheol? [...] 3 [...in the dust] shall [we] lie down? Blank 4 Bildad the Shu[hite 


144 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


11Q10 II — VII 


answer[ed. . .] 5 [. . .] will you finish the word? [. . .] 6 [. . .] we resemble animals? 
[ . . . ] 7 [ . . . ] Perhaps on your account [ . . . ] 8 [ . . . the rock ] from its position? [ . . . ] 

Col. 11 ( =Job 19 : 11- 19) 1 Against me his wrath [has flared] up and he regards 

[me ...] 2 His thieves arrive and flatten [... My brothers from me] 3 have re- 
coiled, and those who know me [. . . the guests] 4 of my house. My maidservant, 
like an alien [. . .] 5 I call my servant and he does not answer [. . .] 6 I have hum- 
bled my spirit in front of my wife [...] 7 The wicked afflict me [...] 5 every man 
who [...] 

Col. in ( =Job 19 : 29-20 : 6) /[...] evil .Blank [...] 2 [...] Blank [...] 3 [...and he 

repjlied: Behold my heart [. . .] 4 [. . .] I will hear my shame, but the spirit [. . .] 
5 [. . .Do you not] know that from eternity, from [.. .] 6 [...] Because the exulta- 
tion of the wicked [...] 7 [...] passes swiftly. [...] 8 [... and] his face [reaches] 
the clouds [. . .] 

Col. iv (=Jfob 21 : 2- 10) 1 [. . .] to me [. . .] my knowing, you mock. [. . .] 3 surely, 

therefore, [my spirit] does not get imfpatient . . .] 4 place your hands over [your 
mouth! . . .] 5 amazement seizes me. How is it that [the wicked. . .] 6 and increase 
their riches? Their offspring [...] 7 in front of their eyes. Their houses [...] 
sGod upon them. [...] 9 their pregnant (cow) gives birth [and does not abort. . .] 

Col. v ( =Job 21 : 20-27) *[■■■] his eyes [.. .] their downfall and about [...] 2 [. ..] 

interest for God in their house [ . . . ] [ . . . ] 3 [ . . . ] the number of his months cut 
short? Is God [. . .] 4 [. . .] him, who judges those most elevated? His flanks [. . .] 

5 [...] the marrow of his bones. Another dies [with bitterness] in his soul [...] 

6 [. . .] without eating; together on [the dust they lie . . .] 7 [. . .] on top of them. 
Behold, I know [your thoughts . ..] 8 [...] you have plotted [against] me. [...] 

Col. vi (=Job 22 : 3-9) 1 [.. .] to God 2 [. . .] your path 3 [. ..] will he enter with 

you? 4 [ . . . ] there is no 5 [ . . . ] your brothers for nothing 6 [ . . . ] to the thirsty not 

7 [...] bread. And you said 8 [...] his face 9 [...] of emptiness. 

Col. vii (=Job 22 : 16-22) 1 that they died [...] 2 They said to G[od. . .] 3 to our 

God [...] 4 But the counsel of the wicked [...] 5 and they laughed and [...] 
6 How is it that [. . .] not [. . .] 7 Look [...]# Receive [. . .] 

Col. vii a (=Job 23 : 1-8) 1 [...] Job answered and sai[d ] 2 [...] because of my 

speech which [...] 3 [...] my [groa]ning. Indeed, I would know and I would find 
him 4 [...] the place of his dwelling. I would speak before [him ...] 5 [...] I 
would fill my [mouth] with reproof, and I would know [. . .] 6 [. . .] and I would 
understand what he would say to me. [...] 7 [... would he] act unjustly with 
me? Indeed, until [...] 8 [...] for truth and how [...] 9 [...] If forwafrd...] 


11Q10 VIII-XIV 


THE TARGUMS 


H5 


Col. VIII 1= Job 24 : 12- 17) 1 From their cities [...] 2 he groans: «God in 

front of him to the fire [...] 4 in its footpaths [...[5 and to the poor; and in the 
night [. . .] 6 the darkness, saying [. . .] 7 and he will sin. [...]<? in evil [. . .] 9 for 
them [. . .] 

Col. ix (=Job 24 : 24-26 : 2) ;[...] they have folded, they draw themselves to- 

gether like the cynodon 2 [...] Who, then, will give me an answer and [...] 

3 [•••] Blank Bildad answered [...] 4 [...] God has dominion and magnificence; 
he does [. . .] 5- [...] in his height. Is there confidence for [...] 6 or upon whom 
does [.. .] not rise 7 [••■] God, and how will he be just [...] 8 [..,] pure and the 
stars [...] not 9 [...] human being, this worm [...] w [...] and he said «Can you, 
perhaps, [...]? 

Col. x (=Job 26 : 10-27 : 4) *[...] to the edge of darkness; 2 [. . .] he sieves them 

and they are alarmed about 3 [. . .] the sea, and with his understanding he killed 

4 [■ ■ ■] he makes it shine; his hand pierced the fleeing serpent. 5 [. . .] their paths. 
And it is only an echo that we hear. 6 [. . .] he will understand*. Blank 7 [...] Blank 
£[...] and said: «May God live [. . .] 9 [. . .] to my soul, which while [. . .] 10 [. . .] 
in my nostril, they shall not say [. . .] 

Col. XI (=Job 27 : 11-20) 1 [...] in God’s hand and the work of 2 [...] all you 

have seen it. Why 3 [...] the wicked man 4 [...] they take in front of him. If 

5 [• • •] the sword, they shall open (their) mouth, but it will not be satisfied 6 [. . .] 
and their widows [. . .] no 7 [. . .] coins, and increases like clay 8 [. . .] an honest 
man will share out the wealth g [...] like a hut to [...] lies down and is not 
seized 11 [. . .] like water the evils 

Col. xii {=Job 28 : 4- 13) / foot [. . .] j sapphires [. . .] 4 not [. . .] 5 the snake enters 

[...] 9 man [...] 

Col. xiii ( =Job 28 : 20-28) 1 the place of wisdom? [. . .] 2 it hides from the birds 

of the sky [. . .] 3 «By hearsay we know your reputation* [. . .] 4 in it, since he [. . .] 

5 the ends of the earth [...1 6 When he made the wind [...] 7 by one measure. 
When he made [ . . . ] 8 light clouds. Meanwhile [ . . . ] 9 And he said to the sons [of 
man . . . ] 10 and to depart from [ . . . ] 

Col. xiv (= Job 29 : 7 - 16) 1 in the mornings, at the gates of the city, in the 

square [. . .] 2 Youths, on seeing me, hide, and wise [men. . .] 3 Great men refrain 
from speaking and place the palm [. . .] 4 The leaders concealed their voice; [. . .] 
stuck to the palate. 5 He who heard me, praised me; he who saw me [...,] 

6 because I freed the poor man from [...] 7 whom no-one helps. The blessing 
of the lost one [...] sin the widow’s mouth there was a prayer for me [...] 9 I 


146 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


11Q10 XV-XXI 


wore and put on like a tunic [. . .] w [.. .] and feet for the lame [. . .] 11 [. ..] I did 
not know [. . .] 

Col. xv (=Job 29 : 24-30 : 4) 1 [. ..] I smiled on them, and they did not believe 

[. . .] 2 [. . .] I chose my path and was a chief f. . .] 3 [. . .] at the head of his army, 
and like a man who [. . .] the sad ones 4 [. . .] They made fun of my lads younger 
than me [...]5 [■■ •] whose fathers [I would have disdained] to set with the dogs 
of my flock [...] 6 [...] I did not like them and under their pressure [...] 7 [•■■] 
with hunger they go cropping the green of the desert [...] 8 [...] evil, which 
they ate [...] 9 [...] brooms as their bread [...] 

Col. xvi (= Job 30 : 13-20) 1 [...] they come for my ruination, and there is no 

saviour 2 [.. .] for them. In the intensity of my boil they come 3 [...] I am bent 
double [beneath] the evil; it contorts me 4 [. . .] like the wind my goods and my 
dignity, and like a cloud 5 [. . .] my salvation. Now it irritates me 6 [. . .] days of 
agony consume me 7 [...] my bones are inflamed and my tendons [...] 8 [...] 
with violence he seizes me by the garment 9 [. . .] they surround me and make 
me go down to the dust 10 [...] to you [...] 

Col. xvii (= Job 30 : 25-31 : 1) 1 [...they] boiled [me] and not 4 [...] I walked 

5 [. . .] I shouted 6 [. . .] for the ostriches 7 [. . .] of 

Col. xviii (=jfob 31 : 8- 16) ; He will eat [...] 2 my heart for a woman [...] 3 She 

will grind [. . .] anger 4 and is a sin [. . .] which up to 5 Abaddon shall consume 
[...] If I was impatient 6 in the judgment of my servant [...] what will I do 
7 when arises [...] Behold She made me [...] oneself. If 9 1 denied [...] I ceased 
to be consumed 

Col. xix (=jfob 31 : 26-32) 1 it shone, and at the moon [...] my heart, 2 and my 

hand kissed my mouth [...] I would have lied 3 to the God of on high [...] I 
rejoiced 4 in his misfortune [...] 5 my cursed, and he heard [...] in my anger 

6 and took [.. .] 7 my palate sin by asking [...] the men 8 of my house: who [.. .] 
9 (did) not [...] 

Col. xx (=jfob 31 : 40-32 : 3) 1 in place of wheat [...] 2 of the pine. Completed 

are [...] 3 Those [...] from answering [...] ./Job was just [...]5 Blank 6 Mean- 
while he grew angry [...] 7 of the clan of Rome [...] 8 and also against [...] 
9 words [...] 

Col. xxi (=Job 32 : 10- 17) 1 my words, I as well. Well then, I waited [...] 2 you 

finished, while you sought the end of [. . .] 3 and there was not from you for Job 
[. . .] 4 to his words. Perhaps you shall say [. . .] 5 for this we condemn God and 


11Q10 XXII-XXVI 


THE TARGUMS 


147 


not a man [. . .] 6 words, and he does not answer him at all [. . .] 7 and they are 
silent, while I wait from them [. . .] 8 they rise and say nothing more [. . .] 9 I, 
too, shall set out my words [...] 

Col. xxii (=jfob 33 : 6- 16) /[...] Well then, my terror will not startle you [...] 

2 [...] heavy. Surely you spoke in my hearing and the voice [...] j [...] I am 
pure and there is no sin in me, I am blameless [...] 4 [...] If he finds sins, he 
takes me [. . .] 5 [. . .] he places my feet in the stocks and fastens me all up [. . .] 
6 [...] because God is greater than man [...] 7 [...] you will utter arrogant 
words, because in all your actions [...] 8 [...] God knows how to speak in one 
way or another [. . .] g [. . .] in dreams, in the depths of the night [. . .] 10 [. . .] who 
is sleeping in his bed [...] 11 [...] ... [...] 

Col. xxiii (= Job 33 : 24-32) / and he will say: «Free from destruction [...] 

2 from the fire which smothers him [...] with 3 youth, and he returns to the 
days of his youth [...] and he will listen to him 4 and will see his face when 
healing him [?...] and according to the work 5 of his hands he will reward him. 
And he will say [...] but 6 he has not rewarded me according to my path. He 
has preserved [. . .] 7 will see in the light. Behold [. . .] S[on]ce, twice, three times 
[to the] man for [...] g living (beings). Pay attention to this [...] I will speak. 
10 [If] you have words [...] 

Col. xxiv (= Job 34 : 6- 17) 1 of sin. Who [. . .] sin? And associates 2 with evildo- 

ers [...] wicked men. For he says «A man 3 will not change [...] after God». 
4 Now, men of [. . .] Far be from God deceit 5 and doing evil [. . .] of man, he 
rewards him 6 [. . .] Will God, perhaps really 7 lie now, and the Lord [. . .] him, 
who made the earth 8 and founded the world? [. . .] takes his breath away from 
him, g and he will die [. . .] they shall lie down 10 [...] my words. In deceit, per- 
haps ? 

Col. xxv (=Job 34 : 24-34) '[••■] t0 the powerful without end, and put others 

[...] 2 [...] he knows their deeds and hurls them into the place [...] 3 [...] his 
path and have not kept to any of his ways [. . .] 4 [. . .] of the poor and listens to 
the lament of the oppressed [...] 5 [...] hides his face, who will answer him 
about a people [...] 6 [...] the evil man rules. They make [...] stumble 7 [...] I 
hoped in him, in him alone [...]#[■■■] I did not persist, since [...] 9 [...] you 
choose and not I [. . .] 10 [. . .] words, and man [. . .] 

Col. xxvi (=Job 35 : 6- 14) /to you. 

And when you increase your misdeeds, what do you [do to him? 

If you are jus]t, what 2 do you give him, 
or what does he gain from your hand? 


148 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


11Q10 XXVI-XXVIII 


Your sin (affects) [a man like you], 

3 your justice, a son of man. 

Due to the great number [of oppressors] 

they moan and shout 4 in front of many; 

but they do not [sa]y: Where is] God, 5 who made us 

and has given us [. . .] for our planting 6 during the night; 

who has differentiated us from the ani[mals of the earth] 

and has made us more intelligent than the birds? 

7 They shout there, but he does not [answer 
because of the arro]gance 8 of the evil men. 

For God [does not listen to deceit 

and the Lord to] inanity 9 pays [no] attention. 

If you say [...] io[...] ...[...] 

Col. xxvii (= Job 36 : 7 - 16) 1 to the kings who sit [on their thrones 

and] their friends are exalted with security. 

2 And even those with whom they are fettered [with chains,] 
tied up by the ropes of wretched people; 

3 he shows them their deeds 

and their [mis]deeds, for they have elevated themselves. 

He opens 4 their ears for them, so they can learn, 

[and to them he sa]ys: 

«If they are converted from their sins, 

5 if they listen and sub[mit, 
they shall end their days] in well-being, 
and their years 6 in honour and delights. 

[But if they do not lis]ten, they shall fall to the sword, 

7 and will die without [knowledge] 

[. . .] their heart in anger 8 upon them 

[...] their city [perishes] because of those who destroy. 

9 He will save the poor [. . .] 
their ears [. . .] 10 [. . .] ... [. . .] 

Col. xxviii (=Job 36 : 23-33) ' you accomplished injustice. 

Remem]ber that their deeds are great, 

2 men have seen them. 

All men regard them 

and the sons of man 3 look at them from afar. 

God is great and his days are 4 a multitude 

[-we do not] know [them] -, 

and the number of his years infinite. 

For 5 [he counts the] clouds 


11Q10 XXIX-XXX 


THE TARGUMS 


149 


and commands the squalls of rain; 

and their clouds precipitate 6 [drops of water] 

[upon] a numerous people. 

Indeed, who unfolds 7 the clouds [with great din], 
who covers and uncovers [light] 

£[...] covered; 

for with them he will judge the na[tions] 

9 [. . .] at his command [...] 10 [...] fold over them [. . .] 

Col. xxix (=jfob 37 : 10- 19) 1 over the surface of the water. 

With them also he causes the clouds to gleam, 
and discharges 2 fire from the cloud. 

And he says: «They should hear it!», 
and they move to their tasks; 

he places them to the fore of everything that he created on the surface of the 
world, 

whether to smite, 4 or to crush, 

or for hunger and hardship, 

or when there is an argument 5 over it. 

Hear this, Job, and get up; 
consider God’s wonders. 

6 Do you know what God stations above them, 
and (how) he makes the light of his cloud shine? 

7 Do you know (how) to clothe his cloud with wonfders]? 

Since your garment 8 [. . .] 

because he has absolute knowledge. 

[Perhaps with him you inflate] the storm clouds 
9 [. . . like a] hard [mir]ror. 

He knows [. . .] 

Col. xxx (=Job 38 : 3- 13) 1 Gird up your lo[ins,] then, like a man 

[and I will question [you]. 

Give me an answer. 

2 Where were you when I made the earth? 

Tell me, if you know so much, 
j Who marked olf its measurements? -if you know it- 
or who wielded the measuring tape? 

Or 4 upon what are its foundations sunk? 

Or who placed its cornerstone 

when there shone 5 together the stars of the morning, 
and all God’s angels cheered in chorus ? 

6 Did you secure the sea with doors 


15 ° 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


1 1Q10 XXXI-XXXII 


when it battled to leave the bosom of the abyss? 

7 When did you wear clouds [as vei]ls 
and mists as baby clothes? 

Was it you who set 8 the sea 

its b[orders and law, bolts and gates?] 

Did you tell it, this far only, 

9 and, you shall not go beyond [...] of your waves? 

In your days did you command io [...] 
the edges of the earth [. . .] 

Col. xxxi ( =Job 38 : 23-43) 1 which [I reserve for the] time of danger, 

for the day of war and battle? 

[...] 2 from where does it come? 

Do you blow in front of him over the earth? 

Who has imposed 3 a time for rain 
and a path for the light clouds, 
to make it precipitate on the land 4 of the desert, 
where there are no men; 
to drench thorns and thickets 
5 and cause shoots of grass to grow? 

Has the rain a father? 

Or who 6 bore the clouds of dew? 

From whose belly does frost come? 
and the clo[ak of the sky,] 7 who [bore it?] 

Like a stone, water is covered with it 
and the face of the abyss 
(?[...] of the Pleiades, 
or you [open] the fence of Orion [. . .] 

9 [. . .] you undo the Evening Star (?) with his sons? 

[. . .] 7 o[. . .] the clouds [. . .] 

Col. xxxii (=Job 39 : 1 - 1 1) 1 the chamois, 

or birth-pangs of [. . .] 
their months are 2 concluded; 
or do you know the moment of their delivery? 

They give birth to their sons and cast them out. 
j Do you cause their young to leave? 

They rear their sons and make them leave; 
they go away and do not go back 4 to them. 

Who set the wild ass at liberty 
and untied the bonds of the onager? 
j I have given the desert as a house 


11 Q 10 XXXII 1 -XXXIV 


THE TARGUMS 


151 


and salty soil as a dwelling; 

6 and he derides the bustle of the big city 

and to the shouts of the muleteer pays no 7 attention. 

He chooses for himself the mountains for pasture, 
searching out every green patch. 

8 Will the buffalo be prepared to serve you, 
or will he spend the night in g your stable? 

Will you harness [the buffalo with] its rope 
[and will he till] in the valley 10 behind you [. . .]? 

Will you trust in him [because his strength] is massive? 

Col. xxxiii (=jfob 39 : 20-29) /[...] 

Do you make him leap with strength 
[...] 2 in his snorting, fright and fear. 

He paws in the valley and canters and revels 
3 and hurls himself violently, defying the sword. 

He scoffs at fear and does not 4 waver 
or retreat in front of the sword. 

Over him the quiver is raised, 

5 the tip of a spear and a whetted blade. 

At the blast of the trumpet he says ‘Aha!’ 
and from 6 afar smells battle, 

and exults at the clash of weapons and the shouts of war. 

7 Is yours the skill with which the falcon flies 
and stretches 8 his wings to the winds? 

Or does the eagle soar at your commands 
g and the vulture hang his nest high up? 

In the rock he lives and nests 

[...]«[...]...[...] 

Col. xxxiv (= Job 40 : 5-11) 1 [...] end. Blank [...] 2 God replied to Job 

/from [out of the wind (?)/] and the cloud and told him: 

Gird up your loins, 3 then, like a man, 
and I will question you. Give me an answer. 

Do you presume even 4 to annul judgment 
or condemn me, for you to leave pardoned? 

Or 5 do you perhaps have an arm like God, 
or thunder with a voice like his? 

Abandon, then, greatness and haughtiness of spirit 
and dress in splendour, in glory and in honour. 

7 Remove, then, the intensity of your anger. 

Look at every proud person and knock him down; 


152 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


1 1Q10 XXXV-XXXVI 


and every 8 haughtiness of spirit, destroy it. 

And wipe out the wicked beneath them. 

Bury them g in the dust. Blank 
Together, cover their faces] with ash. 
io [...] there is 

Col. xxxv (=Job 40 : 23-31) 1 [... even though] 2 the Jordan [should overflow] 

its bank, 

he trusted that he will receive it [. . .] 

3 Who will control him when he lifts his gaze 
or who will make his muzzle bleed with a claw? 

Will you fish 4 the crocodile with a hook 
or will you thread his tongue with a rope? 

Will you put 5 a ring in his nostril 
and pierce his jaw with needle? 

Will he speak 6 kindly to you, 

or will he speak to you entreating you? 

Will he draw up 7 an agreement with you, 
or will you take him on as a perpetual slave? 

Will you play 8 with him like a bird, 
or tie him on a leash for your daughters? 
and [. . .] g ov[er him. . .] 

and they shall share him out in the land [of the Canaanites (?)] 
jo [. . .] of fish [. . .] 

Col. xxxvi (=Job 41 : 7-17) /[...]... [...] 

2 [One] sticks to the other 
and the wind does not penetrate between them. 

Each one 3 clasped to its neighbour 
and they are not separated. 

His sneeze ignites 4 the fire between his eyes 

like the glow of dawn; 

from his cheeks 5 torches emerge, 

they leap like tongues of fire; 

from his nostrils comes a smoke cloud, 

6 flaming torch and an incense burner; 
his breath spews coals, 
and sparks 7 leap from his cheeks. 

In his neck is lodged his brawn 
and in front of him 8 runs power. 

The folds of his flesh are dense, 
cast within him like iron; 


11 Q 10 XXXVII-XXXVIII 


THE TARGUMS 


153 


and his heart [ . . . ] like a stone [. . .] 

Col. xxxvii (= Job 41 : 25-42 : 6 ) 1 [...] 

2 and he is the king of all reptiles. Blank 

3 Job answered and said in front of God: 

I know that you 4 can do everything, 
and that nothing powerful or wise 
cannot be achieved by you. 

5 I will speak once and I will not insist; 
twice, to that 6 I will add nothing. 

Listen, then, and I will speak to you; 

I will question you 7 and you shall answer me. 

I knew you only from hearsay, 

and now my eyes 8 have seen you; 

for this I will be annihilated and destroyed, 

and I will turn into dust g and ash. Blank 

Col. xxxviii (=Job 42 : 9- 12) 1 [...] and he did [...] 2 God; 

and God heard Job’s voice 
and forgave 3 his sins on his account. 

And God turned /to Job/ in his mercy 

4 and doubled all his possessions for him. 

And there came to 5 Job all his friends and all his brothers and all his acquaint- 
ances and ate 6 bread with him in his house, and comforted him for all the evil 
that 7 God had brought upon him. And each one gave him a ewe 8 and each one 
a gold ring, g And God blessed Job in the end, because he had [...] 


154 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


11 Q 19 II-V 


2 The Temple Scroll 
liQTemple Scroll" (11Q19 [hqT*]) 

Col. 11 1 [fo]r what [I sha]ll do [to you will be dreadful.] 2 [Behold, I evict before 

you] the Afmorites, Canaanites,] 3 [Hittites, Girgash]ites, Perfizzites, Hivites 
and] 4 [Jebusites. Bew]are of making a covenant [with the occupants of the 
country] 5 amongst whom you are going to come, so that they will not be a [trap 
in your midst. Instead] 6 you shall overturn their al[tars, wreck their stelae] 
/ fell their [consecrated trees and burn] the effigies of their go[ds.] 8 You shall 
not fancy the silver or the gold which [. . .] 9 you shall |not] take it from him; 
you shall not [bring an abhorrence into your home] 10 [and become] anathema 
like it; loathe [it and hate it] 11 [because] it is anathema. Do not bow down in 
front of [another god, for yhwh has the name Jealous,] 12 he is a resentful 
God. Avoid making [a covenant with the occupants of the land,] 13 [they 
whore] after their gods and make sacrifices to [their gods, lest they entice you 
] 14 [and you eat (part) of their sacrifices and] ac[cept their daughters for your 
sons;] is [their daughters will whore after their gods] and wi[ll make your sons 
whore after] 

Col. hi / [...] which in [...] 2 [...] woven violet and purple [...] j [,..al]l your 
enemies of [the vicinity . . . ] 4 [ . . . a hou]se in which to set my name a[ll] 5 [ . . . ] 
in it silver and gold from a[ll countries. . .] 6 [. . .] and you shall not desecrate it, 
for if from [...] 7 [... bron]ze and iron and hewn stones in order to bui[ld...] 

8 [...] I made all its vessels of pure gold [. . .] 9 [... the] cover which is on top of 
it, of pure gold [...] 10 [... the altar] of fragrant incense and the table [...] 
11 [...] you shall not remove from the temple. Its salvers [...] 12 [...] and its 
urns will be of pure gold; and its burners [.. .] 13 [. . .] with which fire is inserted 
inside, and the candelabrum and all [. ..] 14 [...] Blank The whole altar for holo- 
causts [.. .] 13 [. . .of] pure [bron]ze and the grille which is on top [. . .] 16 [.. .] of 
bronze [.. .] in order to see [...] 17 [...] of bronfze...] ... [. . .] 18 [.. .] ... [. . .] 

Col. iv 1 [...] eigfht...] 2 [... those] jutting out towards the [...] 3 [...] of the 
house, fofur...] wide 4 [...] and a tiled pavement between the [...] 5 [... 
be]tween the sixth; a tiled pavement [...] 6 [...] ... Blank [...] 7 the width [...] 
and the height of [...] 8 [. . .cu]bits, and you shall go into the entrance hall [. . .] 

9 [...] ten cubits, and the wall [...] 10 [...] and sixty cubits high [...] 11 [...] 

twelve cubits and [...] 12 [...] twenty-one cubits [...] 13 [...] ... twenty cubits 
square [...] 14 [...]... Blank [...] 15 [...] from its half [...] 16-17 [•••] [■■•] 


Col. v 1 [...] which are connected [...] 2 [...] cubits [...] 3 [...] the thickness 


nQig v-xi 


THE TEMPLE SCROLL 


155 


three [...] 4 according to the size of [...]5 [...]. ..for twenty-eight [...] 

6 . and also its ceiling [...] 7 [...] cubits the total height [...] S [...]... and 

four gates [. . .] [. . .] 9 [. . .] the gate twelve [. . .] 10 [. . .] cubits and all the eaves 
[. . .] 11 [... lo]wer, and all encased [. . .] 12 Blank [. . .] 13 . and made a por- 

tico [...] 14 [...] in all [...] 

Col. vi 1 2 [...] upon [...] 3 [...] ... twen[ty-e]ight cubits [...] 4 [...] 

for[ty] cubits and the celling . . .] 5 [. . .] ten cubits the total height of the eaves, 
and the wind[ows ...] 6 [...] ... doors of the loft for the four [...] /[... twe]lve 
cubits, and its heigh t ele[ ven . . . ] 8 [ . . . ] its doors [ . . . ] lower and all [...] 9 [...].. . 

Col. vii 1 [...] the planks [...] 2 [...] ... [...] 3 [...] the planks of wo[od...] 4 [...] 
one cubit and ten [...] j [...] eighty plafnks...] 6 [...] on top of all... [...] 7 [...] 
... hundred ... ... five cu[bits] in total [...] 9 [...] ... its height, and 

the cover which is on top [...] 10 [...] ... its width, and two cherubim [...] 
11 [...] .. on the other side, stretching out (their) wings [...] 12 [...] ... on top of 
the ark; and their faces, one [...] 13 [...] Blank And you shall make a gold veil 
[...] 14-15 [...]... 

Col. viii /[...] ... [...] 2 [...] opposite the ark [...] 3 [...] ... seven [...] 4 [...] 
Blank [. . .] 5 [...] its width, and a cubit [...] 6 [...] ... and you shall make [...] 

7 [...] ... [...] 8 [...] ... two [...] 9 [...] ... on top of the two rows [...] 10 [...] 
this incense over the bread as a reminder [. . .] 11 [. . .abjove the altar of incense 
on removing it [...] 12 [...] the bread, you shall place frankincense on it; [...] 
not 13 [. . .eter]nal for their generations. This bread willbe[...] /,*[...] they shall 
come [...] 

Col. ix 1 [...]... 2 [...] their ... and its flowers 3 [...] on its two sides 4 [...] and 
on one side, three 5 [...] and its hilt 6-7 [...] ... #[...] three 9 [...] all the shaft 
w [...] ... three u [...] and its snuffers, all of it of two talents 12 [. . .] they shall 
light all the lamps and place it 13 [. . .] and the priests, sons of [. . .] shall prepare 
14 [...] eternal law [for their generations. 

Col. x i-j (Traces of letters at the ends of lines) £[...] the gate [...]... 9 [...].. . 
above the gate 10 [...] ... [...] you shall wear a scarlet cloth n [...] and on top 
of that, columns 12 [. . .] ... a cloth of red purple, and the capitals 13 [. . .] 14 and 
scarl[et. . .] 13-18 (Traces of letters at the beginnings of lines) 

Col. xi 1-8 (Traces of letters at the ends of lines) 9 [...]... on the sabbaths and 
at the beginnings of 10 [...]... on the feast of the unleavened (bread) and on the 
day when the sheaf of ears is waved 11 [...] the first-fruits for the offering of 


156 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


1 1Q1Q XI-XV 


wheat 12 [. . .] ... and on the feast of new oil and on the six days ;j [. . .] on the 
feas]t of tents and on the assembly of 14 [. . .] ... 15-16 (Traces of letters at the 
beginnings of lines) 

Col. xii 1-7 (Unreadable) £[...] ... its dimensions will be 9 [...] ... on one face, 
and a cubit 10 [...] ... all of it built 11 of stofnes ...] ... You shall make all 
12 [...] ... 13 its hor[ns] and its cor[ners...] You shall make it 14-16 (Traces of 
letters) 

Col. xiii 1 so that [. ..] 2 ten cufbits . ..] 3 you shall make and the doors [...] 
5 one [. . .] 6 covered [. . .] 7 to it a door like [. . .] Blank [. . .] 9 And the oblation [. . .] 
10 the blood for the people [...] ... [...] 11 without blemish [...a ten]th of 

12 finest flour mixed [...] /and its libation of wine of a quar[ter ...]/ 13 for 
YHWH [...] ... 14 of the burnt [offering] which is for him [. . .] 15 like the morn- 
ing offering] [...] ... 16 not [...] 17 The sa[bbaths] you shall offer two [...] 

Col. xiv 1 [...] a [...] 2 [and an offering of finest flour mix[ed...] 3 ha]lf a hiti 
[...]*[•• •] with a third of a [hin . . .] 5 [. . .] a tenth [. . .] 6 [. . .] for a lamb [. . .] 

7 [fragrance] which appeases yhwh. At the beginnings . . .] 8 the months of the 
year [. . .] 9 The first of the month [. . .] 10 of the year. [You shall do] no menial 
work [...] 11 Only it will be offered to atone [...] 12 a ram, yearling] lambs 

13 ...[...].. . 14 of half a hin [...] for libation [...] 15 tenths of finest flour for the 
mixed offering [...] 16 a thi[rd of] a hin for the ram [...] 17 [...] offering [...] 
18 [. . .] a [. . .] the lambs and for the he-goat [. . .] 

Col. xv 1 each day [...] 2 seven yearling (lambs) and a he-go[at. . .] 3 according 
to this regulation [. . For the consecration a ram for each day] /and baskets of 
bread for all the ram[s of the consecration and a basket/ 4 for each [ram]. You 
shall share out all the sheep and the baskets over the seven [days of the conse- 
cration, one for each] 5 day, according to [their divisions. You shall offer to 
yhwh the right leg,] 6 holocaust of the ram, and [the fat which covers its en- 
trails,] the two 7 kidneys and the fat which is on them, [the fat which is on] 

8 the loins and the [whole] tail, cut off at the coccyx, and the lobe of the liver, 

9 and its offering and its libation, according to the regulation. You shall take 
up a cake of unleavened bread from the] basket and a cake 10 of oiled bread and 
a wafer, [and you shall place it all on top of the fat] 11 with the leg of the wave- 
offering, the right leg. Those who are offering [shall wave] 12 the rams and the 
baskets of bread, a wave-offering [before yhwh; it is a holocaust,] 13 fire-sacri- 
fice of fragrance which appeases yhwh. [You shall burn everything on the 
altar, on top of] 14 the holocaust, in order to consecrate their souls (for) the 
se[ven days of the consecration.] 15 When the High Priest, [who has been con- 
secrated] 16 to don the vestments in succession to his fathers, stands [in order 


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to serve before yhwh,] he [will offer a bullock] 77 for all the people and another 
for the priests. He will first bring near 18 what is for the priests. The elders 
from among the priests shall lay [their hands] 

Col. xvi /[...] ... [...] 2 [...] they shall put the blood [...] 3 [...] right and they 
shall sprinkle [. . .] 4 [. . .] they shall be all his days [. . .] 5 [. . .] he will [not] defile, 
for he is holy [...] 6 [,..al]tar, and he will burn the [fat of the first bullock...] 
7 [all the fat] which there is upon the entrails and the [lobe of the liver and the 
two] 8 [ki]dneys and the fat there is upon them, and the [fat which is upon] 
9 the loins and its offering and its liba[tion according to the regulation.] 10 It is 
a holocaust, a fire-sacrifice of fragrance which appeases [yhwh.] u They shall 
burn [the flesh of the bullock] and its hide, with its offal, outside [the city] 
12 in a place set aside for the sin-offerings. There they shall bu[rn] it [from head 
to feet] 13 with all its entrails; they shall burn everything there, except its fat. 
It is a sin-offe[ring.] 14 He will take a second bullock, the one which is for the 
people, and with it atone [for all the peoplej 15 of the assembly with its blood 
and w ith its fat; as he did with the first bullock, [so will he do] 16 with the bull- 
ock of the assembly. With his fingers he will smear with blood the horns of the 
[altar] 77 and he will sprinkle [all] its blood over the four corners of the rim of 
the altar 18 and he will burn in the altar [its fat] its offering and its libation. It 
is a sin-offering for the assembly. 

Col. xvii 7 [...] the priests, and they shall place [...] 2 [...] they shall rejoice 
because atonement has been made for them [...] j [.. .] and this day will be for 
them [...] 4 [...] in all their villages and they will rejoice [. . .] 5- [...] Blank [...] 
6 The fourteenth day of the first month, [at twilight,] 7 [they will celebrate the 
Passover of yhwh;] they will perform sacrifice prior to the evening offering 
and they will sacrifice [...]£ Those twenty years old and over shall celebrate it, 
and they shall consume it at night 9 in the courtyards of the sanctuary. Then 
they shall stand up and each one will go to [his tent.] w Blank The fifteenth day 
of this month there w ill be a ho[ly] assembly. In it you shall do no menial work. 
It is the feast of leaven, over seven days, 72 for yhwh. Throughout these seven 
days you shall offer, each day, 13 a holocaust to yhwh: two young bulls, a ram, 
seven yearling lambs 14 without blemish and a he-goat for the sin-offering, 
together with its offerings and libations, 75 according to the regulation for 
young bulls, rams, lambs and the goat. The seventh day 16 [there will be a sol- 
emn assembly] for yhwh. On it you shall do no menial work. 

Col. xvin 7 [. . .] ... [. . .] 2 [. . .] for this ram [. . .] 3 this day and [. . .] 4 [a he-]goat 
for sin-offering [. . .] 5 [its offering and its libation] according to the regulation: 
a tenth of finest flour 6 [and] wine for the libation: a quarter of a hin. 7 [It will 
atone] for all the sins of the people of the assembly 8 [and they will be forgiven 


158 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


11 Q 19 XVIIII-XX 


them. For all their generations] this will be an eternal regulation for them 9 [in 
all their villages.] Afterwards, they shall offer the single ram, only once, 10 [. . .] 
the of day the sheaf- waving. Blank You shall count off 11 seven complete sab- 
baths from the day on which you fetch the sheaf 12 [from the wave-offering,] 
you shall count off until the day following the seventh sabbath, you shall count 
off 13 [fifty] days, and you shall fetch a new offering to yhwh from your vil- 
lages: 14 new leavened [bread] of finest flour, first-fruits for yhwh, wheaten 
bread, 75 tweflve cakes;] each cake will be of [two] tenths of finest flour. 
16 [The heads of] the clans of the tribes of Israel [will carry them] and offer 

Col. xix 1 [...] ... [...] 2 [...] the holocaust [...] 3 [...] twelve [...] 4 [...] their 
offerings and [their liba]tions according to the regulation and they shall lift [. . .] 
5 [. . .] from the first-fruits, [they shall be for] the priests and they shall eat them 
in the 6 [inner courtyard, new offering, bread of the first-fruits. And after- 
wards [. ..] 7 [. . .] a fresh loaf of tendrils of barley and corncobs. [This day] will 
be 8 [ete]rnal [precept] for their generations. They shall [do] no menial work. 
9 It is [the feast] of weeks and the feast of the first-fruits for eternal memorial. 
70 Blank 11 From the day on which you carried to yhwh the new offering, 12 the 
bread of the first-fruits, you shall count off seven weeks, seven full weeks; 

13 you shall count off fifty days until the day following the seventh sabbath, 

14 and [you shall carry] new wine for the libation: four hin for all the tribes of 
Israel, 75 [...] a th[ird] of a hin for each tribe. That day 16 all the heads of a 
thousand of Israel shall offer [to yhwh with the wine twelve rams] 

Col. xx 7 [. . .] and the libation and they shall offer [. . .] 2 [. . .] fourteen yearling 
[lambs] [...] 3 [...] the holocaust; they shall make them [...] 4 [and their fat] 
they shall burn upon the altar [...] 5 [the fat surrounding the entrails] and all 
the fat there is upon the entrfails,] 6 [ and the lobe of the liver] over the kid- 
neys, will be removed together with the fat [which is on top of them] 7 [and 
that which there is over the loins and] the tail, cut at the coccyx. And they shall 
bu[rn] 8 [everything upon the altar,] with their offerings and libations. It is a 
fire-sacrifice of fragrance which appeases 9 [yhwh.] They shall offer every 
offering with which a libation is offered according to [the prescription.] 10 [And 
from all] the offering with which incense is offered or if it is a dry offering, 
they shall collect 11 [the part of the mem]orial, and they shall burn it on the 
altar; the remains of it they shall eat in the 12 [inner] courtyard. The priest will 
eat it with unleavened bread. They shall eat no yeast. They shall eat it on this 
day 13 [and upon it] the sun [shall not set.] And on all your offerings you shall 
put salt and the salt shall not cease 14 [upon them.] Blank They shall pick out for 
yhwh as (a) levy 75 [from] the ram and from the lambs the right leg, the breast, 
the 7 6 [jawbones, the stomach] and the shoulder blade up to the bone of the 
upper foreleg. They shall wave them: a wave-offering 


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159 


Col. xxi 1 [. . .] a ram and a lamb; and for each 2 clan [. . .] one for all the clfans 
of the t we | Ive tribes 3 of Israel. And they shall eat [...] before yhwh, 4 the 
priests shall drink there first and the levfites 5 [. . .] first the chiefs of battalion 
[. . .] 6 [. . .] and after them all the people, from the oldest to the smallest, 7 shall 
go and drink new wine. [They shall not] eat any grape, sour fruit of the vine, 
[until] 8 [on] this day they atone for the new wine. The children of Israel shall 
rejoice in yhwh’s presence, 9 Eternal [law] for their generations in all their 
villages. They shall rejoice on [this day] w [at going] to pour out a libation of 
juice, a new wine, over the altar of yhwh, year by year, u Blank 12 From this 
day you shall count off seven times seven weeks. 13 There will be forty-nine 
days from the seven full weeks up to the day after 14 the seventh sabbath. You 
shall count off fifty days and you shall offer new oil from the villages 15 [of the 
clans of the sons of Is]rael: each one of the clans: half a hirr, refined new oil, 
16 [. . .] virgin oil, over the altar, holocaust of the first-fruits before yhwh. 

Col. xxii ;[...] they shall burn this oil in the lamps [...] 2 the heads of thousand 
with the pri[nces...] 3 [...] fourteen [yearling lambs] and their offerings and 
libations [. . .] 4 [. . .] the sons of Levi shall slaughter [. . .] 5 The priests, sons of 
Aaron, [shall] sprinkle with its blood [the altar on all its sides] 6 [...] and they 
shall burn its fat over the altar of holofcausts] 7 [and their offerings] and liba- 
tions they shall burn over the fat [... fire-sacrifice of fragrance] 8 which ap- 
peases yhwh. Blank They shall take some [...] 9 the right leg and the breasts of 
the wave-offering; and as the choicest part [.. .] 10 and for the priests the jaw- 
bones and the stomach, it shall be his share in accordance with the prescription 
[...] 11 the upper foreleg. Then they shall take it out to the children of Israel. 
And the children of Israel shall give the priests 12 a ram and a lamb; to the 
levites a ram and a lamb and to each 13 clan a ram and a lamb. And they shall 
eat it throughout this day in the outer courtyard 14 in front of yhwh. Eternal 
precepts for their generations, year after year. Afterwards 15 they shall eat and 
they shall anoint themselves with the new oil and with the olives, because on 
this day they shall atone 16 [for all the] virgin [o]il of the land in front of yhwh, 
once a year. And they shall rejoice 

Col. xxiii 1 [...]...[...] 2 [...] which [...] 3 [...] holocaust for yh[wh] *[...] two 
he-goats [. . .] 5- and his offering and libation according to [the prescription . . .] 
6 [. . .] a bullock, a ram, a la[mb. . .] 7 [. . .] each one of the tribes of the twelve 
sons of Jacob [. . .] 8 [. . .] over the altar after the perfpetual] holocaust [. . .] 9 [. . .] 

. . . The High Priest will offer the [holocaust of the levites] to first, and after it, 
he will burn the holocaust of the tribe of Judah. [When he is about] 11 to burn 
it, he shall first slaughter the he-goat in front of it; he shall take 12 its blood to 
the altar in a sprinkling bowl, and he will anoint with blood, with his fingers, 
the four horns of the altar 13 of holocaust and the four corners of the rim of the 


i6o 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


1 1 Q 19 XXI 1 I-XXVI 


altar; he shall pour out its blood over the base 14 of the rim of the altar on every 
side and shall burn its fat in the altar; the fat which covers 13 the intestines and 
what is over the entrails. The lobe of the liver with the kidneys 16 he shall re- 
move and the fat which is over them and which is over the loins; and he will 
burn 1/ everything upon the altar with its offering and its libation. It is a fire- 
sacrifice, of fragrance which appeases yhwh. 

Col. xxiv 1 [. . .] the head [. . .] 2 [. . .] and it [ ] j [ ] the breast with [. . .] 4 [. . .] 

the paws, and they shall [burn...] 5 [... offering of its oil and libation of [its 
wine...] 6 [...] the flesh for fragrance [...] 7 [... for each] bullock and for each 
ram and for [. . .] 8 and its cuts will be separated and its offering and its libation 
on top of it. [Eternal] precepts 9 for your generations before YHWH. Blank 10 In 
continuation of this holocaust he will offer the holocaust of the only tribe of 
Judah. In the same way that 11 he offered the holocaust of the levites, so will 
he do with the holocaust of the sons of Judah after the levites. 12 Blank On the 
second day he will offer first the holocaust of Benjamin, and after it 13 he will 
offer the holocaust of the sons of Joseph together with Ephraim and Manasseh. 
On the third day he will offer 14 the holocaust of Reuben, only, and the holo- 
caust of Simeon, only. On the fourth day 15 he will offer the holocaust of Issa- 
char only, and the holocaust of Zebulon, only. On the fifth day 16 he will offer 
the holocaust of Gad, only, and the holocaust of Asher, only. On the sixth day 

Col. xxv 1 [...] he will offer [...] 2 [...] Blank 3 [For you the first day of the 
month will be] a great sabbath, a memorial of the blast of trumpets, a [holy] 
assem[bly], 4 [You shall make a holocaust of fire of fragrance which appeases] 
yhwh, and you shall off[er a bullock,] 5 a ram, seven [perfect] yearling [la]mbs] 
and a he 6 [-goat for the sin-offering, and] their offerings and libations accord- 
ing to the prece[pt,] 7 [as well as] the perpetual [holocaust and the monthly 
[holo]caust. Afterwards [you shall offer] 8 this [holocaust ] in the third part of 
the day. Eternal precepts for your generations [in all your villages.] 9 You shall 
rejoice on this day. On it you shall do no menial work. This day 10 will be for 
you a great sabbath. Blank The tenth of this month 11 is the day of the atone- 
ment. On it you shall afflict your souls, because anyone who does not 12 do 
penance on this same day will be expelled from his people. On it you shall offer 
a holocaust 13 for yhwh: a bullock, a ram, seven yearling lambs {. . .} and a he- 
14 goat for the sin-offering. Besides the sin-offering of the day of atonement 
and its offerings and libations 13 according to the prescription for the bullock, 
the ram, the lambs, the he-goat and the sin-offering of the day of atonement, 
you shall offer 16 two rams for the holocaust. One the High Priest will offer for 
himself and for the house of his father. 


Col. xxvi 


1-2 [...] ... [...] 3 [...] The High Priest [will cast lots] 4 [concerning 


11Q19 XXVI-XXIX 


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161 

the two he-goats:] one will fall by lot [to yhwh, the other to Azazel;] 5 [and] he 
will slaughter the he-goat which [has fallen by lot to yhwh and will take] 6 its 
blood in the golden sprinkling bowl which he has in his hand and will treat [its 
blood as he treated the blood] 7 of the bullock which was for himself, and with 
it he will atone for all the people of the assembly. Its fat and the offering of 

8 its libation he will burn on the altar of holocausts; but its flesh, its hide and 
its entrails 9 they shall burn together with his bullock. It is the sin-offering for 
the assembly 10 and they shall be forgiven. He will wash his hands and his feet 
from the blood of the sin-offering and will go to the u live he-goat and will 
confess over its head all the sins of the children of Israel with all their guilt 
together with all their sins; he shall place them upon the head of the he-goat 
and will send it 13 to Azazel, to the desert, from the hand of man indicated. 
And the he-goat w ill take with itself all the sins 

Col. xxvii 1 [...]...[...] 2 for /all/ the children of Israel, and they shall be for- 
given [...] 3 Afterwards he will offer the bullock, the ram and [the lambs ac- 
cording to the] ordinance, 4 upon the altar of holocaust, and the holocaust for 
the children of Israel will be accepted. Eternal precepts 5 for their generations. 
Once a year this day will function as a memorial for them, 6 and on it they shall 
do no menial work, because it is a great Sabbath. Every man 7 who does any 
menial work on it, or does not do penance will be cut off from the midst 8 of 
your people. It is a great Sabbath. You shall hold a holy assembly on this day 

9 and you will sanctify it as a memorial in all your villages and you shall do no 
jo menial work. Blank The fifteenth day of this month 

Col. xxvin j [...] ... [...] 2 the altar. It is a fire-sacrifice, [fragrance which ap- 
peases yhwh. Blank On the] 3 second [day:] twelve bullocks, [two rams, four- 
teen lambs] 4 and a he-goat [for the sin-offering, and their offerings and liba- 
tions] 5 according to the ordinance for the bullocks, the rams, the lambs and the 
he-goat. It is a fire-sacrifice, 6 fragrance which appeases yhwh. Blank On the 
third day, 7 eleven bullocks, two rams, fourteen lambs 8 and a he-goat, for the 
sin-offering and their offerings and libations according to the ordinance for the 
bullocks 9 the rams, the lambs and the he-goat. Blank On the fourth day, 10 ten 
bullocks, two rams, fourteen sheep and a he-goat for the sin-offering, and its 
offerings and libations for the bullocks 

Col. xxix 1 and its libations [. . .] 2 These are [. . .] 3 for your holocausts and your 
libations [...]. In the house 4 above which I shall make my name reside [they 
shall offer] the holocausts, [each day what corresponds to] that day according 
to the ruling of this precept, 5 continually, from the children of Israel, besides 
their freewill offerings. All that they offer me, 6 all their libations and all the 
presents which they bring me for acceptance, 7 1 shall accept them. They shall 


162 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


1 lQig XXIX-XXXIII 


be for me a people and I will be for them for ever and I shall establish them 
8 for ever and always. I shall sanctify my temple with my glory, for I shall make 
my glory reside 9 over it until the day of creation, when I shall create my tem- 
ple, establishing it for myself for ever, in accordance with the covenant which 
I made with Jacob at Bethel. 

Col. xxx 1 [...] and I will sanctify [...] 2 3 [...] to make, and you 

shall [make. . .] 4 [. . .] for the stairways [. . .] in the house which you shall build 
[. . .] 5 [. . .] ... [. . .you shall] make a spiral staircase to the North of the Sanctu- 
ary: a square building 6 of twenty cubits from corner to corner, its four corners 
matching, located 7 seven cubits away from the wall of the Sanctuary, North- 
east of it. Its wall you shall make four cubits in width #[...] like the Sanctuary; 
its interior will be twelve cubits from corner to corner, 9 It will have a square 
pillar within it, in the centre, of four cubits 10 in width on each side [...] 
around which the steps will go up. 

Col. xxxi 1 [...]... 2 [...] the gate 3 [...]... 4 [.. .] the second priest 5 

... 6 In the loft of this builfding you shall make a do]or opening to the roof of 
the Sanctuary and a passageway made 7 in this door to the opening [of the roof 
of the] Sanctuary, by which one can enter the loft of the Sanctuary. 8 You shall 
cover all this building of the spiral staircase with gold: its walls, its gates, its 
roof both inside 9 and out, its pillar and its steps, and you shall do everything 
according to what I have told you. 10 You shall make a square building for the 
laver, to the South-east; all its sides will be twenty-one 11 cubits, at fifty cubits 
distance from the altar; the width of the wall will be three cubits and the height 
12 twenty cubits [...] You shall make gates for it to the East, North 13 and 
West; the width of the gates w ill be four cubits and their height seven. 

Col. xxxii /[•••] three cubits [.. .] 2-5 [.. .] ... [...] 6 [.. .] their faults to atone for 
the people and when they go up 7 [...].. . and in order to burn 8 the holofcaust] 
7 upon the altar 8 [. . .] the wall g of this building [. . .] and in the centre of them 
[...] of a cubit in width and its height 10 from the ground will be four cubits, 
covered over in gold, on which they shall place n their clothes with which they 
will go up on top of the house of [...] 12 when they enter to minister in the 
Holy. You shall make a channel all round the laver within the building. The 
channel 13 runs [from the building] of the laver to a shaft, goes down and disap- 
pears in the middle of the earth so that 14 the water flows and runs through it 
and is lost in the middle of the earth and no - 13 one should touch it because it 
is mixed with the blood of the holocaust. 

Col. xxxiii ;[...] they shall enter [. . .] 2 and at the moment when [...] 3 [. . .] ... 
and [...] 4 [. ..] above them and they shall deposit [. . [...] ... the laver build- 


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163 


ing and [ . . .] 6 [those who en]ter them and those who go out from them to [. . .] 
7 they shall sanctify my people with the sacred vestments which [. . .] 8 Blank To 
the East of the laver building you shall make a building with the same measure- 
ments as the lafver] building. 9 The distance between its walls will be seven 
cubits and its constructions and its ceilings will be like those of the laver build- 
ing. 10 It will have two gates: to the North and to the South, one facing the 
other, with the same measurements as the gates of the 1 1 laver building. In this 
whole building, in all its walls on the inside there will be blocked windows; 
12 their width will be two cubits by two and their height four cubits, 13 with 
doors, niches for the paraphernalia of the altar, for the ewers, the jars, the 
tongs, 14 the little silver vessels in which they place the innards and 13 paws 
upon the altar. Blank When they finish burning 

Col. xxxiv 1 [...] in a bron[ze] plate [...] 2 [...] and between column and 
colfumn. . .] 3 [. . .] which there is between the columns ... between 

the whe[els.. .]5 [...] ... and they shall close the wheels [...] 6 [.. .and they shall 
tie] the heads of the bullocks to the rings. 7 Afterwards they shall slaughter 
them and collect [the blood] in basins 8 and pour it over the base of the altar on 
all sides. Blank And they shall open 9 the wheels and tear off the hides of the 
bullocks from their flesh and they shall chop it 10 into pieces and they shall salt 
the pieces with salt. They shall wash 11 the innards and paws, they shall salt 
them with salt and they shall burn them in 12 the fire which there is on the 
altar: bullock by bullock and its pieces with it and its offering of finest flour on 
top of it, ij and the wine of its libation with it. The priests, sons of Aaron, 
shall burn everything 14 upon the altar. It is a fire-sacrifice of fragrance which 
appeases yhwh. Blank is You shall make chains which go down from the ceiling 
of the twelve columns 

Col. xxxv 1 [. . .the Ho]ly of Hoflies. . .] 2 [. . .] every man who is not [. . .] j [. . .] 
every man who is not [. . .] holy 4 [. . .] ... and every [. . .] who is s not a priest 
will be put to death and every one who [. . ,pri]est who enters 6 [. . .] ... without 
putting on the [sacred vestments with which] he was 7 consecrated, these, too, 
shall be put to death. They shall not proffane the Tem]ple of his God, incur- 
ring 8 a sin punishable by death. They shall sanctify what surrounds the altar, 
the sanctuary, the laver 9 and the porch. It is sacred for ever and always. Blank 
10 To the West of the Sanctuary you shall build a circular place, a porch with 
columns. The columns 11 for the sin-offering and for the sacrifice for faults, 
separated from one another, for the sin-offering of the priests and for the he- 
goats, 12 for the sin-offerings of the people and for the sacrifices for faults. No- 
one shall proceed from one to the other, 13 for their sites will be separated from 
one another, so that 14 the priests do not sin unintentionally with any of the 
sin-offering of the people or with the sacrifices for faults, incurring 13 an ac- 
countable sin. Blank He will offer the birds upon the altar, the turtle-doves 


164 


EXEGET 1 CAL LITERATURE 1 IQ19 XXXVI-XXXVIII 


Col. xxxvi 1 [...] ... [...] 2 [...] the gates and [...] cubits [...] j [...] from the 
corner [. . .] 4 [up to the angjle of the gate, [one hundred and twenty cubits;] the 
width of the gate will be forty 5 [cubits]. Each one of the sides [will have these 
measurements.] The thick[ness of the wa]ll will be seven cubits, 6 [and its 
heigh]t forty-five cubits, up to the ceiling of the roof. [The width of the rooms 
will be] 7 twenty-six cubits from corner to corner. Gates for entry 8 and exit: 
width of the gate: fourteen cubits; its height, g twenty-eight cubits from the 
threshold to the lintel. Height 10 of the ceiling right from the lintel: fourteen 
cubits. The beam of the ceiling will be of 11 cedar overlaid with pure gold; and 
its gates will be covered with quality gold. 12 Blank From the angle of the gate 
up to the second corner of the courtyard there will be 13 one hundred and 
twenty cubits. Thus shall be the measurements of all these gates which give 
14 onto the inner courtyard. The gates shall open inwards, towards the inside 
of the courtyard 

Col. xxxvii 1 [...] ... [...] 2 [...] new from the gardens, for all the [...] j [...] 
between... [...] 4 [...] inside of the edge of the altar which [. ..]j the peace- 
sacrifices of the children of Israel . . . and to [ . . . ] 6 [ . . . ] the corners of the inner 
porch made. ..[...] 7 and kitfchens] joined to [. . .of the] gates, on the two sides 
of the gate. 8 In the [inner] courtyard you shall make rooms for the priests, and 
tables 9 in front of the rooms; in the inner courtyard, joined to the wall of the 
outer courtyard, 10 places made for the priests, for their sacrifices and for the 
first-fruits and the tithes, ; 1 and for their peace-sacrifices which they will offer. 
There shall be no mingling of the peace 1 2 sacrifices of the children of Israel 
with the sacrifices of the priests. 13 In the four corners of the courtyard you 
shall make for them a place for the cauldrons 14 where they shall cook their 
sacrifices and the sin-offerings 

Col. xxxviii 1 [...] they shall eat [...] 2 [...]...[...] 3 [...] they shall eat and 
drink [. . .] 4 and they shall eat [. . .] the grain, the wine and the oil [.. J5 [...] the 
children of Israel and on the day of the first-fruits [. . .] 6 they shall eat together 
in the Western gate [. . .] 7 [. . .] the grapes and pomegranates [. . .] all the wood 
which enters [...]§[...] the offering of the oblations over which there is incense 
[. . .] the offering for jealousy. 9 And on the right of this gate [ ■-■] 10 ... there 
they shall eat the products ... [...] u Blank 12 You shall make a second court- 
yard surrounding the inner courtyard, one hundred cubits in width 13 and four 
hundred and eighty cubits in length on the East side. The same will be the 
width and length of all 14 its sides, on the South, West and North. The width 
of the wall will be four cubits and its height 15 twenty-eight cubits. There will 
be rooms made in the walls on the outside and between one room and another 
there will be three 


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165 

Col. xxxix /[...]...[...] 2 ... the ceiling of the roof [...] 3 ... [. . .] and its doors 
covered with gold 4 ... [...] this courtyard [...] 5 ...[...] the fourth generation. 
A son of 6 Israel [. . .] in order to prostrate herself in front of all the assembly 
of the sons of 7 Israel ... [. . .] No woman shall enter it nor any boy until the day 
Son which [. . .] by himself to yhwh give half a shekel, eternal law g for memo- 
rial in their villages. The shekel will be of twenty geras. 10 When [. . .] for me; 
afterwards shall come those of u twenty [years and over. . .] The na[mes of the] 
gates of this courtyard will correspond to the namfes] 12 of the children of 
Israel: Simeon, Levi and Judah to the East; Reuben, Joseph and Benjamin to 
the South; 13 Issachar, Zebulon and Gad to the West; Dan, Naphtali and Asher 
to the North. Between one gate and another 14 the measurement is from the 
North-east corner up to the gate of Simeon ninety-nine cubits; the gate, 
is twenty-eight cubits; from this gate {of Simeon} up to the gate of Levi, 
ninety-nine 16 cubits; the gate, twenty-eight cubits; from the gate of Levi up 
to the gate of Judah, 

Col. XL 1 [...] to wear the gar[ments. . .] 2 [...] in order to serve [...] 3 [...] the 
children of Israel and they shall not [die. . .] 4 [. . .] this court[vard] ... [...J^ [...] 
You shall make a third courtyard [. . .] 6 [. . . ] to their daughters and to foreign- 
ers, who were bo[rn...] 7 [... the wid]th around the central courtyard will be 
six[ hundred cubits (?)] 8 by a length of about one thousand six [hundred] cu- 
bits from one corner to the other, on each side, according to these measure- 
ments. q To the East, to the South, to the West and to the North the thickness 
of the wall will be seven cubits and its height 10 forty-nine cubits; and it will 
have recesses, made between the gates, on the outside, at the base of the foun- 
dation 11 up to its cornice. In the wall there will be three gates to the East, three 
to the South, three 12 to the West and three to the North. The width of the 
gates will be fifty cubits and their height seventy 13 cubits. The [measurement] 
between gate and gate will be three hundred and sixty cubits. From the corner 
up to 14 the gate of Simeon there will be three hundred and sixty cubits; from 
the gate of Simeon up to the gate of Levi, 13 the same measurement; from the 
gate of Levi up to the gate of Judah, the same measurement; three [hundred] 
and sixty 

Col. xli 1 [...] ... [...] 2 [...From the corner] 3 up to the ga[te of Issachar, is 
three hundred and sixty] cubits; 5 from the gate of Zabfulon up the gate of 
Gad,] three hundred and sixty 6 cubits; from the [gate of Gad up to the North 
corner,] three hundred and 7 sixty cubits. Blank From this corner up to 8 the 
gate of Dan, three hundred and sixty cubits, and the same from the gate of 
Dan up to 9 the gate of Naphtali, three hundred and sixty cubits. From the 
gate of Naphtali 10 up to the gate of Asher, three hundred and sixty cubits; 
from the gate of n Asher up to the Eastern corner, three hundred and sixty 


i66 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


11Q19 XLI-XLIII 


cubits. 1 2 The gates shall protrude from the wall of the courtyard outwards 
seven cubits 13 and will penetrate inwards out of the wall of the courtyard 
thirty-six cubits. 14 The width of openings of gateways will be fourteen cubits 
and their height 15 twenty-eight cubits up to the lintel. The rafters will be 
16 formed of cedar and covered in gold. Their doors will be overlaid 77 with 
pure gold. On the inside, between one gate and another, you shall make store- 
rooms 

Col. xlii 1 [Its length will be] twenty cubits. The wall will be two cubits thick; 
2 [its height will be fourteen cubits] up to the beams, and its opening 3 three 
cubits wide. [So shall you do] with all the store-rooms, their rooms 4 and their 
por[ches. . . The wijdth will be ten cubits. Between one gate 5 and another [you 
shall make eighteen storerooms and their 6 eighteen rooms. Blank 7 You shall 
make a stairwell to the side of the walls of the gates in the middle of the 8 porch 
(with steps) which spiral upwards within the second and third porch 9 and the 
roof. The store-rooms and their rooms and their porches will be constructed 
like those below. 10 The second and third floors will be of the same measure- 
ments as those below. Above the third roof 11 you shall make columns, fur- 
nished with beams from column to column, 7 2 a place for the huts, eight cubits 
in height. 13 Year after year, on the festival of the huts, they shall make huts 
there for the elders 14 of the congregation, for the princes, for the heads of 
families, for the children of Israel, 75 for the chiefs of a thousand and the chiefs 
of a hundred, who shall go up 16 and live there until the holocaust of the festi- 
val is offered which [corresponds] ; 7 to the festival of huts, year after year. 
Between one gate and another there will be 

Col. xliii 7 [. . .] ... [. . .] 2 [. . .] on the sabbaths and on the days [. . .] 3 [. . .] and 
on the days of the first-fruits of grain, of mu[st and of oil] 4 [and on the feast 
of the offering of] wood. It will be eaten on these days and will not remain 
5 [from one year] for the next. They shall eat it in this way: 6 the grain they 
shall eat from the feast of the first-fruits of the grain of wheat 7 up to the fol- 
lowing year, up to the day of the festival of first-fruits; the wine, from the day 
8 of the feast of new wine up to the day of the feast of new wine of the follow- 
ing year; 9 and the oil, from the day of its feast up to the following year, 70 up 
to the feast of the day of the offering of new oil on the altar. Everything which 
is surplus from their feasts will be holy, it will be burned on the fire, it shall not 
be eaten 12 because it is holy. Those who live at a distance of three days from 
the temple 13 shall carry all that they can carry; if they are unable 14 to convey 
it they shall sell it for money and shall bring the money and with it they shall 
buy grain, 75 wine, oil, cattle and sheep, and they shall eat it during the days of 
the festivals. They 16 shall not eat this on work-days for their own sustenance 
because it is holy; 77 it will be eaten on the holy days and will not be eaten on 
the work-days. 


11 Q 1 Q XLIV-XLV) 


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167 


Col. XLIV 7 [...] the inhabitants [...] 2 [...] which there is within the city, up to 
the Ea[st ...] j [. . .] You shall share out the [. . . From the gate of] 4 [Simeon] up 
to the gate of Judah, they shall be for the priest[s] 5 all the right side of the gate 
of Levi and its left side you shall allot to the sons of Aaron, your brother: 6 one 
hundred and eight stores and their rooms and their huts 7 which are on top of 
the roof. To the sons of Judah, from the gate of Judah up to 8 the corner: fifty- 
four stores and their rooms and the hut 9 which there is above them. To the 
sons of Simeon, from the gate of Simeon up to the 10 second corner: its store- 
rooms, its rooms and its huts. To the sons of Reuben, 1 1 from the corner which 
is next to the sons of Judah up to the gate of Reuben: 12 fifty-two store-rooms, 
their rooms and their huts. From the gate of 13 Reuben up to the gate of Jo- 
seph, to the sons of Joseph, to Ephraim and Manasseh. 14 From the gate of 
Joseph up to the gate of Benjamin, to the sons of Kohath, from the Levites. 
75 From the gate of Benjamin up to the western corner to the sons of Benja- 
min. From this corner 16 up to the gate of Issachar, to the sons of Issachar. 
From the gate 

Col. xlv 1 [...]...[...] 2 seventy [. . .] 3 When [...] the second shall enter to the 
left [. . .] 4 the first shall go out on the right and one shall not intermingle with 
the other, nor with their utenfsils. . .] 5 the priestly course in its place, and they 
shall camp. He who goes in and he who goes out on the eighth day shall purify 
the 6 store-rooms, one after another, [at] the moment when the first goes out; 
and there shall be no 7 mingling there. Blank Anyone who has had a nocturnal 
emission shall not enter 8 the temple at all until three days have passed. He 
shall wash his clothes and shall bathe 9 on the first day and on the third day he 
shall wash his clothes /and bathe/ at sunset. Afterwards 10 he shall enter the 
temple. But they shall not enter my temple which their soiled impurity to defile 
it. 77 Anyone who lies with his wife and has an ejaculation, for three days shall 
not enter 12 anywhere in the city of the temple in which I shall install my name. 
Blank No blind person 13 shall enter it throughout his whole life; he shall not 
defile the city in the centre of which I dwell 14 because I, yhwh, dwell in the 
midst of the children of Israel for ever and always. 75 Everyone who purifies 
himself from his gonorrhoea shall count off seven days up to his purification. 
On day 16 seven he shall wash his clothes and immerse his body completely in 
running water. Afterwards he shall enter the city 1 7 of the temple. Anyone who 
is impure through contact with a corpse shall not enter it until he purifies him- 
self. Every leper 18 and infected person shall not enter it until he purifies him- 
self; when he purifies himself and offers the 

Col. xlvi 7 [...] ... [...] There shall not fly [any] 2 unclean bird over my 
tem[ple. . .] . . . the roofs and the gates [which lead] 3 to the outer courtyard, and 
every [...] to be in the middle of my temple for ev[er] 4 and for all the centu- 


i68 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


11 Q 19 XLVI — XLVIII 


ries, for [I dwell] among them. 5 Blank You shall make a platform around the 
outer courtyard, on the outside, 6 fourteen cubits in width, corresponding to 
the openings of all the gates; 7 and for it you shall make twelve steps so that the 
children of Israel can climb up them 8 in order to enter my temple. Blank 9 You 
shall make a trench around the temple, one hundred cubits in width, which 
10 separates the Holy temple from the city so that they do not suddenly enter 
u my temple and defile it. They shall make my temple holy and respect it, 
12 for I dwell among them. Blank 13 You shall make latrines for them outside the 
city, where they are obliged to go, 1 4 outside, to the North-east of the city: 
houses with beams and wells within them 15 into which excrement shall drop; 
they shall /not/ be visible from a total distance 16 from the city of three thou- 
sand cubits. Blank You shall make 1 7 three zones, to the East of the city, sepa- 
rate from each other, where 18 lepers, those who suffer gonorrhoea and men 
who have an emission of semen. 

Col. xlvii / [. . .] ... [. . .] 2 up[wards] and not downwards [. . .] 3 your cities will 
be pure and [. . .] for ever. The city 4 which I will sanctify, installing my name 
and my temple [within it] shall be holy and shall be clean 5 from all types of 
impurity which could defile it. Everything that there is in it shall be 6 pure and 
everything that goes into it shall be pure: wine, oil, all food 7 and all drink shall 
be pure. All the hides of pure animal which they sacrifice 8 in their cities they 
shall not bring into it. In their cities they shall make 9 with these (hides) uten- 
sils for all their needs, but they shall not bring them into the city of my temple. 

10 Their purity shall be like that of their flesh. You shall not defile the city 

11 within which I shall install my name and my temple. With the skins (of the 
animals) which they sacrifice 12 in the temple, with these very same they shall 
bring into the city of my temple their wine, their oil and all 13 their food. They 
shall not defile my temple with the skins of the sacrifices 14 of their abomina- 
tions which they sacrifice in their land. You shall not purify any city 75 among 
your cities like my city. In accordance with the purity of their flesh, so shall the 
skins be pure. 76 What you sacrifice in my temple is pure for my temple; what 
you sacrifice in your cities is pure 1 7 for your cities. All the victuals of the tem- 
ple you shall bring in the skins of the temple and you shall not defile 18 my 
temple and my city with the skins of your abominations, because I reside 
within it. 

Col. xlviii 1 [...] ... [...] 2 [...] Blank [...] 3 [Of your] winged [insects] you can 
eat: the locust and its species, the bald locust and its species, the cricket 4 and 
its species, the grasshopper and its species. These you can eat from among 
winged insects: those which crawl on four paws, which 5 have the hind legs 
wider than the forelegs in order to leap over the ground with them and to fly 
with their wings. 6 You cannot eat any carcass of bird or beast; sell it to for- 


11 Q 19 XLVIII-L 


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169 


eigners, but do not eat anything 7 repulsive because you are a holy people for 
yhwh your God. Blank You are sons 8 for yhwh your God. You shall not gash 
yourselves or shave yourselves between your eyes g for a dead person, nor shall 
you make gashes in your flesh for someone deceased, nor shall you daub your- 
selves with tattoos because you are a holy people for yhwh your God. Blank 
You shall not defile 11 your land. Blank Do not do as the gentiles do: 12 they 
bury their dead all over the place, they even bury them in the middle of their 
houses; instead 13 you shall keep places apart within your land where you shall 
bury your dead. Among your 14 cities you shall establish a place in which to 
bury. In every city you shall make places for those contaminated 13 with lep- 
rosy, infection and scabies so that they do not enter your cities and defile them; 
and also for those who have gonorrhoea 16 and for women when they are in 
their unclean menstruation and after giving birth, so that they do not defile in 
their midst 17 with their unclean menstruation. The leper who has chronic 
leprosy or scabies and the priest has declared him unclean 

Col. xlix 1 2 to those [. . .] 3 with cedar wood, with hyssop 

and with [...] 4 your cities with the plague of leprosy and infect them. Blank 
S When a man dies in your cities, every house in which someone dies shall be 
unclean 6 over seven days; everything there is in the house and everything 
which goes into the house shall be unclean 7 over seven days; all food over 
which water is spilt shall be unclean; every drink 8 shall be unclean; the clay 
pots shall be unclean and everything there is in them shall be unclean for every 
pure man. g The open vessels shall be unclean with all the drink there is them 
shall be impure for every Israelite. 10 Blank 11 The day on which they remove 
the dead person from the house, they shall cleanse it of every 12 stain of oil, 
wine, dampness from water; they shall rub its floor, its walls and its doors; 
13 w ith water they shall wash its hinges, its jambs its thresholds and its lintels. 
The day on which 14 the dead person is brought from it, they shall cleanse the 
house and all the utensils; the mills, the mortar, ij all the utensils of wood, iron 
and bronze and all the utensils which can be cleaned. 16 They shall wash the 
clothes, the sacks and the skins. Every man who has been in the house shall 
bathe in water and wash his clothes the first day; 18 the third day they shall 
sprinkle over them the waters of purification, they shall bathe and wash their 
clothes ig and the utensils there had been in the house. Blank On the seventh 
day 20 they shall sprinkle a second time, they shall bathe and wash their clothes 
and their utensils and, in the evening, they shall stay purified 21 from the dead 
person so that they can approach all the pure things and the men who were not 
contaminated by 

Col. L 2 because the water of the purification ...] on mingling 

with a dead person [ . . .] 3 shall become impure. In no way . . . until they sprinkle 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


11Q19 L — LI 


170 

for the second time 4 on the seventh day and are pure in the evening, at sunset. 
Blank Every 5 man who in an open held should touch the bone of a dead person 
or a stabbed person 6 or a corpse or the blood of a dead person or a burial shall 
purify himself in compliance with the ruling of this statute, 7 and if he does 
not purify himself according to the statute of this law he will be impure, 8 his 
impureness will still persist in him and everyone who touches him shall wash 
his clothes, bathe and will become pure 9 by the evening. Blank 10 When a 
woman is pregant and her son dies in her womb, all the days which n he is 
dead within her she shall be impure like a grave. Every house which she enters 
72 with all its utensils shall stay unclean for seven days; everyone who touches 
her shall stay impure up to the evening; and if 13 he enters the house with her 
he will stay impure for seven days; he shall wash his clothes 14 and bathe on the 
first day; the third day he shall sprinkle, wash his clothes and shall bathe; 1 5 on 
the seventh day he shall sprinkle a second time, he shall wash his clothes, bathe 
16 and he will become pure by sunset. Blank All the utensils, the clothes, the 
skins and all 77 the objects of goatskin you shall deal with according to the stat- 
ute of this law. All the vases 7# of clay you shall break because they are unclean; 
they cannot become clean again, 79 ever. Blank 20 Everything which creeps along 
the ground will be unclean: the mouse, the rat, the lizard and its species, the 
salamander, 27 the lizard, the chameleon and the wall lizard. Everyone who 
touches them after they are dead 

Col. Li 7 [what issujes from them [. . . will] be unclean 2 [for you nor] will you be 
contaminated by them. [Everyone who touches them when] they are dead will 
be impure 3 till the evening; he shall wash his clothes, bathe [and at sun]set he 
will be pure. 4 Whoever carries their bones or their corpse, the skin or the flesh 
or the claws, shall wash 5 his clothes and bathe in water at sunset, afterwards 
he will be pure. Forewarn 6 the children of Israel of every uncleanness. Blank 
They are not to be defiled by those things which 7 I tell you on this mountain. 
They are not to defile themselves. Blank Because I, yhwh, reside 8 among the 
children of Israel. You shall sanctify them and they shall be holy. They shall 
not make 9 their souls odious with anything that I have separated from them as 
unclean and they shall be 10 holy. Blank 77 In all your cities you shall install 
judges and magistrates who judge the people 72 with correct judgment, not 
show partiality in judgment, and accept no bribe, and not 13 pervert justice, 
because a bribe perverts justice, corrupts the words of the just person, blinds 
14 the eyes of the wise, commits a serious offence and defiles the House with 
the wickedness 75 of sin. Pursue justice exclusively so that you can live and 
enter and take possession 16 of the land which I give you so as an inheritance 
for ever. 77 The one who takes bribes and perverts just judgment shall be 
killed, and you shall have no qualms 18 'm executing him. Blank ig You shall not 
behave in your land as the nations behave; in any place at all 20 they sacrifice, 


1 1Q1Q LII-LIII 


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171 


plant asheroth, set up stelae 21 place hewn stones in order to bow down in front 
of them and build for themselves 

Col. lii 1 . you shall not [plant. . .] 2 [. . .] You shall not set up for yourself 

stela [which I loathe] 3 [nor] in all your land make for yourself carved stones in 
order to bow down in front of them. You shall not 4 sacrifice to me a cow or a 
sheep which has any serious blemish because it is anathema 5 to me. You shall 
not sacrifice to me any cow, sheep or she-goat which is pregnant; it is anathema 
to me. 6 You shall not sacrifice to me a cow or sheep and its young on the same 
day and you shall not slaughter the mother 7 with its young. Blank Every first- 
born male born to your cattle and sheep 8 you shall consecrate to me. You shall 
not work with the firstborn of your cow, or shear the firstborn 9 of your sheep. 
You shall eat it in front of me, year after year, in the place which I shall choose. 
If there should be w any blemish in it: lame or blind or any other serious blem- 
ish do not sacrifice it to me. 11 You shall eat it in your cities, whether one is 
pure or impure, like the gazelle or the deer. Only the blood are you not to eat, 
12 you shall pour it out on the ground like water and cover it with dust. You 
shall not put a muzzle on the ox which threshes. 13 You shall not work with an 
ox and an ass together. You shall not sacrifice any pure cow, sheep or he-goat 
14 in any of your cities which are less than three days’ walk from my temple, 
but instead 13 sacrifice them inside the temple, making them into a holocaust 
and peace offering; you shall eat it 16 and rejoice in front of me in the place 
where I shall choose to put my name. All 17 pure animals in which there is a 
blemish you shall eat in your cities, far from my temple 18 at a radius of thirty 
stadia. You shall not sacrifice near my temple because it is abominable flesh. 
1 9 Within my city, which I make holy by placing my name within it, you shall 
not eat the flesh of cow, sheep or she-goat 20 which has not come into my tem- 
ple; they shall sacrifice it there, 21 they shall pour out its blood over the base of 
the altar of holocausts and they shall burn its fat 

Col. l 1 1 1 ;[...]...[...] 2 [...] the desire of your soul for eating fl[esh] 3 you shall 
eat fl[esh; you shall slaughter] from your flocks and your cattle according to the 
blessing w hich I give you 4 and you shall eat them in your cities, both the clean 
and the unclean, like the gazelle 5 or the deer. But take care not to eat the 
blood; you shall pour it out on the ground like water and cover it 6 with dust 
because the blood is life. You shall not eat the life with the flesh so that 7 it may 
go well for you and your sons after you, for ever; and you shall do what is up- 
right and good 8 before me, yhwh, your God. Blank 9 Take only your holy 
things and all your votive offerings and go to the place over which I shall make 
10 my name dwell, and sacrifice there in front of me in accordance with what 
you consecrated or vowed with your mouth. 11 If you make a vow, do not delay 
in fulfilling it, because I shall certainly demand it from your hand 12 and it shall 


172 


EXEGF.TICAL LITERATURE 


HQig LIII-LV 


become a sin to you; but if you refrain and you do not make a vow you shall not 
have a sin. 13 What your lips have uttered you have to carry out exactly as you 
promised with your mouth, you have to do 14 as you promised. Blank A man 
who makes a vow to me or promises 13 under oath, binding himself with a 
formal pledge shall not break his word; he shall act in accordance with all that 
issued from his mouth. 16 Blank A woman who makes me a vow or binds herself 
with a formal pledge 17 in the house of her father, with an oath, in her youth, 
and her father hears the vow or 18 the formal pledge with which she bound 
herself and her father says nothing about it, 19 all her vows will remain in force 
and all the pledges with which she bound herself will stay in force. Blank But 
if 20 her father forbids her on the day when he heard her, all her vows and all 
her pledges 21 with which she bound herself formally will not remain in force; 
and I shall pardon her because he forbade her. 

Col. Liv 1 [...] ... [...] 2 his sin [...Every vow] or every oath [to do penance] 
3 her husband may sanction [it] or her husband may revoke it the day he hears 
it; and I shall pardon her. 4 Blank Every vow of a widow or a divorcee, every- 
thing by which she binds herself formally 5 will hold good; likewise everything 
which issues from her mouth. Blank All the things which I 6 order you today, 
take care to carry them out; you shall add nothing to them 7 nor remove any- 
thing from them. Blank 8 If among you there arises a prophet or an interpreter 
of dreams and gives you a sign or 9 a marvel, and the sign or marvel occurs 
about which he spoke to you saying: 10 ‘Let us go and serve other gods whom 
you do not know’, do not n listen to the word of that prophet or of that inter- 
preter of dreams because 12 I am putting you to the test, in order to know 
whether you love yhwh 13 the God of your fathers, with all your heart and all 
your soul. 14 You shall follow yhwh your God, serve him and revere him; you 
shall listen to his voice 15 and attach yourselves to him. And this prophet or 
interpreter of dreams shall be put to death because he proclaimed rebellion 
16 against yhwh, your God, who brought you out from the land of Egypt and 
saved you 17 from slavery, in order to make you stray from the path on which 
he ordered you to walk. Thus shall you eradicate 18 the evil in your midst. Blank 
19 If your brother, the son of your father or the son of your mother, or your 
son or your daughter 20 or the woman who lies in your embrace or your 
soulmate provokes you in secret saying: ‘Let us go and let us serve other gods 
whom you do not know’ 

Col. lv ?[...] Blank [...] 2 II in one [of your cities which] I give you so that you 
res[ide there] you hear 3 it said that there have arisen among you men, sons of 
Be]lial, and have drawn away all the inhabitants of 4 their city saying: ‘Let us 
go and let us serve other gods whom you do not know’, 5 you shall inquire, 
search and question closely; if the matter is absolutely certain 6 and this atrocity 


UQ19 LV-LVII 


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173 


has been committed in Israel, you shall put to the sword all the inhabitants 7 of 
that city and destroy them; and everything there is in it, and 8 all their animals 
you shall put to the sword. You shall collect together all their spoils in the mid- 
dle g of the square and set fire to the city and all their spoils entirely for yhwh 
w your God; it shall stay in ruins for ever, it shall not be rebuilt again. There 
shall not adhere 11 to your hands anything of what has been assigned for de- 
struction. In this way I shall alter the intensity of my anger and shall have 
12 mercy on you, take pity on you and increase your numbers as I said to your 
fathers, 13 if you listen to my voice and keep all the precepts which I enjoin you 
14 today in order to do the right and the good before me, yhwh, your God. 
is Blank If there happens to be among you in one of the cities which 16 I gave 
you, a man or a woman who does evil before my eyes 17 breaking my covenant, 
and goes and serves other gods and bows down in front of them 18 or in front 
of the sun or in front of the moon or in front of all the legions of heaven, and 
they tell you it ig and you hear this thing, you shall investigate and question 
carefully and 20 if the matter is absolutely certain and this abomination has 
been committed in Israel, you shall expel 21 that man or that woman and you 
shall stone them with stones. 

Col. lv 1 1 [ 2 the word about you [ . . . ] they shall make known to you 

the sentence. 3 You shall act in accordance with the word 4 which they say to 
you from the book of the Law. They shall explain it to you accurately 5 from 
the place I shall select in which to install my name, and you shall take care to 
act 6 in accordance with everything they tell you. 7 You shall not deviate either 
to the right or to the left from the law which they explain to you. 8 Whoever 
does not listen and acts with effrontery in order not 9 to listen to the priest 
placed there to serve in my presence or the 10 judge, that man shall die. Thus 
you shall eliminate the evil from Israel and all 11 the people shall listen and fear 
and no-one will behave insolently in Israel any more. Blank 12 When you enter 
the land which I give you, and own it and live 13 in it and say to yourself: «I 
shall set a king over myself like all the peoples which surround me», 14 then 
you shall set over yourself a king /whom I shall choose./ From among your 
brothers you shall set over yourself a king; 75 you shall not set a foreign man 
who is not your brother over yourself. But he is not 16 to increase the cavalry 
or make the people go back to Egypt on account of war in order to 17 increase 
the cavalry, or the silver and gold. Blank I told you «You 18 shall not go back 
again on this path». He is not to have many wives or ig let his heart go astray 
after them. He is not to have much silver and gold; not much. 20 Blank When 
he sits upon the throne of his kingdom they shall write 21 for him this law ac- 
cording to the book which is in front of the priests. 

Col. lvii 1 This is the law [. . .] the priests. 2 On the day when they proclaim him 


174 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


IIQ19 LVII-LVIII 


king, the children of Israel [shall assemble?], from those 3 more than twenty 
years old up to those of sixty years, according to their banners. And he shall 
appoint {they shall appoint} 4 at their head chiefs of a thousand, chiefs of a 
hundred, chiefs of fifty 5 and chiefs of ten in all their cities. From them he shall 
select a thousand, a thousand 6 from each tribe, to be with him: twelve thou- 
sand men of war 7 who will not leave him on his own, so that he will not be 
seized by the hands of the nations. All those 8 selected, which he selects, shall 
be men of truth, venerating God, 9 enemies of bribery, skilled men in war; and 
they shall always be with him 10 day and night and they shall guard him from 
every act of sin 77 and from the foreign nations so that he does not fall into 
their hands. He will have twelve 12 princes of his people with him and twelve 
priests 13 and twelve levites who shall sit next to him for judgment 14 and for 
the law. He shall not divert his heart from them or do anything 75 in all his 
councils without relying on them. Blank He shall not take a wife from among all 
16 the daughters of the nations, but instead take for himself a wife from the his 
father’s house 77 from his father’s family. He shall take no other wife apart 
from her 18 because only she will be with him all the days of her life. If she 
dies, he shall take 79 for himself another from his father’s house, from his fam- 
ily. He shall not pervert justice, 20 or accept a bribe to pervert correct judg- 
ment. He shall not crave 21 the field, the vineyard, the wealth, the house or any 
valuable thing in Israel or purloin 

Col. LVIII 7 [...] ... [...] 2 [...] their men. Blank 3 If it happens that /the king/ 
hears that some nation or people is attempting to despoil Israel of all it owns, 
4 he shall send the chiefs of a thousand and the chiefs of a hundred, those sta- 
tioned in the cities 5 of Israel, and they shall send with him the tenth part of 
the people so that it can sally out with him to war against 6 their enemies. And 
they shall sally out with him. If a large number of people comes against the 
land of Israel they shall send 7 with him a fifth part of the men of war. And if 
it is a king with chariots and horses and many men, 8 they shall send with him 
a third part of the men of war. The other two-thirds shall defend 9 their cities 
and their border so that the troops do not enter their land. 10 If the war against 
him worsens, they shall send him half of the people, the men of war, 77 but 
those of the (other) half of the people shall not withdraw from their cities. Blank 
If they overcome 12 their enemies, defeat them and put them to the sword, they 
shall gathefr] their spoils and they shall give 13 to the king a tenth part of them; 
to the priests a thousandth part; to the levites a hundredth part 14 of the whole. 
And they shall divide the rest into two halves, between those who fought in 
battle and their brothers, 75 who had to remain in their cities. Blank And if he 
sallies out to war against 76 his enemies, a fifth part of the people shall sally out 
with him, the men of war, the mighty men of 77 valour. And they shall refrain 
from every impurity and every immodesty and from every sin and fault. 


11 Q 19 LVIII-LX 


THE TEMPLE SCROLL 


175 


18 They are not to sally forth until he has entered the presence of the High 
Priest and he has consulted for him the decision of the Urim ig and Tummin. 
On his orders he shall sally out and on his orders he shall (re-)enter, he and all 
the children of Israel who 20 are with him; he shall not sally out on the advice 
of his heart until he has consulted the decision of the Urim 21 and Thummim. 
He will have success in all his paths as long as he goes out in accord with the 
decision which 

Col. lix 2 they shall disband them over many lands and they shall 

be a horror, a byword and a gibe; they shall be with a heavy yoke 3 and lacking 
everything; there they shall worship gods made by the hand of man, of wood 
and stone, of silver 4 and of gold. In all this period their cities shall be a waste, 
a gibe and a ruin; 5 their enemies shall leave them razed. They themselves, in 
the lands of their enemies, shall sigh 6 and scream under the heavy yoke; they 
shall call and I shall not listen, they shall shout and I shall not reply to them, 

7 owing to their evil deeds; I will hide my face from them; they shall be fodder 

8 and prey and spoil, and no-one will save them owing to their sins - for they 
broke my covenant g and their soul loathed my law -until they feel guilty of all 
their faults. Then they shall come back 10 to me with all their heart and with 
all their soul, in agreement with all the words of this law u and they shall be 
saved from the hand of their enemies and redeemed from the power of those 
who hate them; they shall be brought 12 into the land of their fathers, redeemed 
and greater in number; and I will rejoice in them. 13 They shall be my people 
and I will be their God. Blank The king who 14 prostitutes his heart and his 
eyes, removing them from my commandments, will not find someone who will 
sit on the throne 13 of his fathers for ever, because over the centuries I shall 
prevent his line from governing again in Israel. 16 Blank But if he walks accord- 
ing to my precepts and keeps my commandments and does 1 7 what is upright 
and good before me, there will not be lacking one of his sons who sits on the 
throne of the kingdom 18 of Israel for ever. I shall be with him and free him 
from the hand of those who hate him and from the hand 1 g of those who seek 
his life in order to destroy it; I shall place in front of him all his enemies and 
he will govern them 20 as he pleases and they shall not govern him. I shall make 
him improve and not diminish, [I shall place him] at the head 21 and not at the 
tail, and he will extend his kingdom for many days, he and his sons after him. 

Col. lx 1 2 and all their wave-offerings and every firstborn [of their 

animals,] the males and every [. . .] 3 for their animals; and all their holy offer- 
ings which they consecrate to me along with all their 4 festal offerings; and a 
levy of tribute upon the birds, animals and fish, one per thousand 5 of all that 
they catch; and all that they dedicate to the Lord; and a levy on the booty and 
spoil. 6 Blank It shall be for the levites: a tenth of the grain, the new wine and 


176 


EXEGETICAL. LITERATURE 


11 Q 19 LX-LXI 


the oil which 7 they consecrate to me first; and the shoulder from those who 
perform the sacrifice; and the levy on the 8 booty and the spoil; and one percent 
of the bag of birds, animals and fish; 9 and of the pigeons and of the tithe of 
the honey, one fiftieth. One percent w of the pigeons will be for the priests. 
For he has chosen them from among all your tribes n so that they can be in my 
presence and serve and bless my name, he and all their sons for ever. 12 Blank 
When the levite who lives in any of the cities of all Israel comes 13 at his own 
wish to the place where I choose to install 14 my name, he will minister, like all 
his brother levites who are there in my presence. 13 They shall eat equal por- 
tions, not counting the sale of the patrimony. Blank 16 When you enter the land 
which I am going to give you, you shall not learn to emulate 17 the depravities 
of those peoples. Among you there should not be found anyone who makes his 
son or his daughter pass 18 through fire, anyone who practises divination, as- 
trologers, sorcerers, wizards, anyone who performs incantations, anyone who 
consults a spirit 19 or oracles or anyone who questions the dead; because all 
those who do these things are an abomination to me 20 and owing to these 
abominations I shall dispossess them before you. 21 You are to be perfect before 
yhwh your God. Blank When these nations which 

Col. lxi 1 [who says in my name what I have not ordered him] to say, or who 
[speaks in the name of o]ther go[ds] 2 that prophet shall be executed. Blank If 
you say in your heart ‘How shall we know the word 3 which yhwh has not 
spoken?’ If the prophet speaks in the name of yhwh and the word does not 
happen 4 and is not fulfilled, it is a word which I did not say; the prophet has 
spoken it presumptuously. Do not fear him. 5 Blank 6 A single witness may not 
stand up against a man for any fault or for any sin which he has committed; by 
the testimony of two 7 witnesses or by the testimony of three witnesses the 
matter shall be settled. If a false witness should stand up against a man to ac- 
cuse him 8 of wrongdoing, the two men between whom there is /litigation/ 
shall appear before me, before the priests and levites and before 9 the judges 
who will be there on those days. The judges shall investigate and if (it is a ques- 
tion) of a false witness who accused 10 his brother falsely, you shall deal with 
him as he intended to deal with his brother; thus shall you eradicate the evil 
from the midst of you. 11 The rest shall hear it and fear and not dare to do a 
similar thing again in your midst. 12 Your eye shall not take pity on him; life 
for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot. Blank When 
13 you go out to war against your enemies, and you see horses and chariots and 
a people more numerous than you, do not fear them 14 because I, he who made 
you come up from the land of Egypt, am with you. When you advance to bat- 
tle, 15 the priest shall come forward and he will speak to the people and the 
people shall say: ‘Listen, Israel, you are approaching’ 


11 Q 19 LXII-LXIV 


THE TEMPLE SCROLL 


177 


Col. lxii 1-2 ... [. . .] j to speak to the people and they shall say: ‘Who is a cow- 
ard and feeble of heart? He should go and return to 4 his house, lest he weaken 
the heart of his brother like his own heart’ Blank When the judges have finished 
5 speaking to the people, the military commanders at the head of the people 
shall be appointed. Blank When 6 you approach a city to fight against it, you 
shall offer it peace; if 7 it answers you with peace and opens up to you, all the 
people that are in it 8 shall pay you tribute and serve you; however, if it does 
not make peace with you and makes war, 9 you shall besiege it; I shall put it 
into your hands and you shall put its males to the sword. However, 10 the 
women, the children, the flocks and all that there is in the city, all its booty, 
you shall remove 11 for yourself and you shall consume the booty of your ene- 
mies whom I deliver to you. Thus shall you act 12 with all the cities quite far 
from you, which are not the cities of these peoples. 13 However, of the cities 
of the peoples which I grant to you as inheritance, you shall leave no-one alive, 
14 because you must dedicate them to extermination: the Hittites, the Amorites 
and the Canaanites, 13 the Hivites and the Jebusites and the Gergasites and the 
Perizzites, as I have commanded you, so that 16 they do not teach you to do all 
the abominations which they do for their gods. 

Col. L x 1 1 1 1 2 the heifer to a torrent of running water which has not 

been sown or tilled; and there they shall break the heifer’s neck. 3 Blank And the 
priests, sons of Levi, shall approach because I chose them to serve in my pres- 
ence and to bless my name, 4 and at their decision every dispute and every 
quarrel is settled. And all the elders of that city, the nearest to the stabbed 
person, 5 shall wash their hands over the head of the heifer whose neck was 
broken in the torrent, they shall begin to speak and shall say: ‘Our hands 6 have 
not spilled this blood and our eyes have not seen anything. Pardon your people 
Israel whom you redeemed, 7 O yhwh, and do not place innocent blood in the 
midst of your people Israel’, and the blood will be pardoned them. Thus shall 
you eradicate 8 the innocent blood from Israel, and you shall do the right and 
good thing before yhwh your God. 9 Blank 10 When you go out to war against 
your enemies and I place them in your hands and you make prisoners, 11 if 
among the prisoners you see a woman of beautiful appearance, you desire her 
and you wish to take her as a wife for yourself, 1 2 you shall bring her into your 
house, shave her head and cut her nails; you shall remove 13 the prisoner’s 
clothes from her and she will live in your house. A full month shall she weep 
for her father and her mother. 14 Then you shall enter her, marry her, and she 
will be your wife. She is not to touch pure foodstuffs, for 15 seven years, or eat 
the peace offering until seven years pass; afterwards she may eat 

Col. lxiv 1 2 If a man has a defiant or uncontrollable son who does not 

listen to his father’s voice or his mother’s voice, 3 and pays them no attention 


178 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


11 Q 19 LXIV-LXVI 


when they correct him, his father and his mother shall take him and they shall 
bring him out 4 to the elders of his city, to the gate of his locality; and they 
shall say to the elders of his city: ‘This son of ours is defiant 5 and uncontrolla- 
ble and does not listen to our voice; he is a glutton and a drunkard’. And all the 
men of the city shall stone him 6 and he will die. Thus shall you eradicate the 
evil from your midst, and all the children of Israel shall hear it and fear. Blank 
If 7 there were to be a spy against his people who betrays his people to a foreign 
nation or causes evil against his people, 8 you shall hang him from a tree and 
he will die. On the evidence of two witnesses and on the evidence of three wit- 
nesses 9 shall he be executed and they shall hang him on the tree. Blank If there 
were a man with a sin punishable by death and he escapes 10 amongst the na- 
tions and curses his people /and/ the children of Israel, he also you shall hang 
on the tree u and he will die. Their corpses shall not spend the night on the 
tree; instead you shall bury them that day because 12 they are cursed by God 
and man, those hanged on a tree; thus you shall not defile the land which I 

13 give you for inheritance. Blank If you see your brother’s ox or ewe or his ass 

14 astray, do not pretend to ignore them; make them go back to your brother. 
And if your brother is not near 13 you, or you do not know him, you shall take 
it into your house and it will stay with you until he looks for it. 

Col. lxv 1 ... [...] 2 If you find a bird’s [nest] in front of you on the path, in any 
tree or on the ground, 3 with chicks or eggs and the mother is sitting on the 
chicks or eggs, 4 you shall not take the mother with the brood; you shall release 
the mother 3 and take the brood for yourself so that it may go well for you and 
you lengthen your days. When you build a new house, 6 you shall make a para- 
pet on your roof; in this way you shall not cause blood to fall on your house if 
anyone falls 7 from it. Blank If a man takes a woman and marries her and hates 
her and covers her with insulting words Sand causes a bad reputation and says: 
‘I took this woman and on approaching her 9 I found her not be a virgin’, the 
young girl’s father or her mother shall take and bring out 10 the proof of the 
young girl’s virginity to the elders, at the gate. Blank The young girl’s father will 
say 11 to the elders ‘I have given my daughter to this man /as a wife/ and here 
he is hating her and 12 covering her with insulting words, saying “I did not find 
your daughter to be a virgin”. These are the proofs of the virginity 13 of my 
daughter’. And they shall spread the garment in front of the elders of that city. 
And the elders of that city shall take 14 that man and punish him; they shall 
impose a fine of one hundred silver shekels 13 and they shall be given to the 
young girl’s father, because he caused a bad reputation for a virgin of Israel. 

Col. lxvi /[...] ... [...] 2 they shall stone them and they shall be put to death; 
the young girl because she did not scream 3 in the city, and the man because he 
raped his neighbour’s wife; thus will be eradicated 4 the evil from your midst. 


11Q20 1 


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179 


But if it was in a field where the man met /the woman/, in a hidden place far 
5 from the city, and he coerced her and lay with her, only the man who lay with 
her will be put to death. 6 You shall do nothing to the young woman; she has 
not committed a fault meriting death, because it is the same in this case as 
when 7 a man rises up against his neighbour and murders him; he met her in 
the field, 8 the young betrothed girl screamed, but there was no-one to help 
her. Blank If a man violates a young 9 virgin who is not betrothed, and she suits 
him according to the Law and he lies with her to and they are discovered, the 
man who lay with her will give the girl’s father fifty silver shekels n and she 
will be his wife, since he raped her, and he cannot dismiss her all her life. 12 A 
man is not to take his father’s wife or uncover the member of his father. A man 
is not to take 13 his brother’s wife or uncover the member of his brother, of his 
father’s or mother’s son, because it is wanton. 14 A man is not to take his sister, 
the daughter of his father or the daughter of his mother; it is an abomination. 
13 A man is not to take his father’s sister or his mother’s sister because it is 
depravity. 16 A man is not to take Blank 17 his brother’s daughter or his sister’s 
daughter because it is an abomination. Blank A man is not to take 

Col. LXVII Blank 


HQTemple Scroll* (iiQ2o[iiQTemple*]) 

Frag. 1 (= 1 iqT xv) ?[...] seven yearling (lambs) and a he-goat [. . .] 2 [according 
to the regulation.] For the dedication of a sheep for each [day...] 3 [... You 
shall share out] all the sheep and the baskets over the seven [days of the dedica- 
tion, one for each day,] 4 [according to their divisions.] You shall offer to yhwh 
the holocaust [of the sheep, and the fat which covers] 5 [the entrails,] the two 
kidneys and the fat which is on them, [the fat which is on the loins and the 
w hole tail] 6 cut off at the coccyx, and the lobe of the liver, [and its offering and 
its libation, according to the regulation. You shall take up a cake] 7 [of unleav- 
ened bread] from the basket and a cake of oiled bread and a wafer, [and you 
shall place it all on top of the fat with the leg] 8 [offered in tribute, the right 
leg. Those who are offering shall lift up [the sheep and the baskets of bread,] 
9 [lifting up] before yhwh; it is a holocaust, fire-sacrifice of fragrance [which 
appeases yhwh. You shall burn everything] to [on the altar, on top of] the ho- 
locaust, in order to consecrate their souls (for) the seven days [of the consecra- 
tion.] 11 [...] Blank When the High Priest, is [about to serve before yhwh, the 
one who has been] 12 [consecrated in order to don the vestments [in succession 
to his fathers,] he shall offer [a bullock for all the people] 13 [and another for the 
pr]iests. He shall first bring near what is for the prifests. The elders from 
among the priests shall lay] 14 [their hands upon] his head, and after them the 
High Pr[iest] and all the [priests. And they shall slaughter] 15 the calf [before 


i8o 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


11Q20 3-7 


yhwh.] And the elders of the priests shall take some of the blood of the calf 
and [with their fingers they shall place upon the horns of the altar] 16 the blood 
[of the calf,] and they shall sprinkle around on the four faces of the base of the 
[altar...] 

Frag. 3 1 [...] ...2 [...upon] the thumb 3 [...] and of oil 

Frag. 4 1 [...]...[...] 2 [...] and they shall [burn...] 3 [...] Blank [...]* [...] out- 

side of [...] 

Frag. 5 1 [. . . on the fourth part of the] day they shall sacrifice [. . .] 2 [. . .] per- 

fect, and their offerings and their lib[ations, according to the regulation...] 
3 [...the first-fruits] will be for the priests, and they shall eat them in the 
court[yard . . .] 4 [. . .] new bread of ears [of wheat. . .] 5 [. . .] and they shall do no 
menial work [...] 

Frag. 6 (= hqt xix, 12-xx, 9) / [From the day on which you carried to yhwh 

the new offering,] the bread of the first-fruits, you shall count off seven weeks, 
2 [seven full weeks;] you shall count off fifty [days until the day following the] 
seventh [sabbath,] and [you shall c]arry 3 [new wine for the libation: four hin for 
all the tribes of] Israel, a third of a hin for 4 [each tribe. That day all the heads 
of a thousand of Israel] shall offer to yhwh [with the wine] twelve sheep 
5 [• • .she]ep, and the offering, according to the regulation; two 6 [. . . a third and 
one] hin of oil for the sheep, with that libation. 7 [. . .] seven yearling sheep and 
a he-goat 8 [. . .] the assembly. Blank 9 [. . .] and their libation /according to the 
regulation/ for the bullocks, and for the sheep. 10 [...] to yhwh in the fourth 
part of that day, and they shall sacrifice //[...] the sheep and the libation. And 
they shall sacrifice 12 [...] and the fourtefen] yearling lambs 13 [...] they shall 
offer the holocaust 14 [. . .] they shall burn upon the altar 1 5 [the fat surrounding 
the entrails and all the fat there is upon] the entrails and the 16 [lobe of the liver 
over the kidneys will be removed.] Blank 1 7 [And (also) the fat which there is on 
top of them and what is over the loins and] the tail, cut at 18 [the coccyx. And 
they shall burn everything upon the altar, with their offerings] and libations. 
19 [It is a fire-sacrifice of fragrance which appeases yhwh.] Blank 20 [They shall 
offer all the offering with which a libation is offered according to the regula- 
tion] for the offering. 

Frag. 7 (= 1 iqt xx, 13-16) 1 [. . .They shall eat it on this day and upon it] the 

sun [shall not set.] 2 [In all the oblations you shall put salt and it shall not be] 
missing: covenant of salt /for/ ever. 3 [You shall take for yhwh as tribute, 
from the ra]ms and from the lambs the right leg, 4 [the breast, the jawbones, 
the stomach] and the shoulder blade up to the bone of the upper foreleg. 


11Q20 8-9 


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181 


Frags. 8-9 col. 1 (= iiqt xxi, i-xxii, 5) 1 [...for the priests] there will be the 

leg of the offering and the breast 2 [of wave-offering . . . the shoulderj-blades, 
the jawbones and the stomachs of the portions 3 [. . .] and the lobe and the rest 
of the shoulder-blade 4 [. . .] It is eternal law for you and for your descendants. 
s [. . . and they shall offer for] the heads of thousands [. . .] of the sheep and of 
6 [the lambs; and for ...] a ram and a lamb; and for each one of the clans 7 [a 
ram and a lamb for each one of the clans of the twe]lve tribes of Israel. And 
they shall eat 8 [. . . before yhwh. The pries]ts shall drink there first 9 [and the 
levites ... the h]eads of the battalions first. 10 [...famous. After them all the 
people, from the oldest] to the smallest, shall go and drink the new wine. 
11 [They shall not eat any grape, sour fruit of the vine, until on] this day they 
atone for the new wine. And the children of Israel 12 [will rejoice in yhwh’s 
presence. Eternal law for their generations] in all their villages. They shall re- 
joice on 13 [this day on going to pour out a libation of juice, a new wine, over 
the altar of yhwh,] year after year. Blank 14 [ Blank From this day you shall 
count off] seven times seven weeks. 15 [There will be forty-nine days from the 
seven full weeks, up to the day a]fter the seventh sabbath. 16 [You shall count 
off fifty days and you shall offer new oil from the villages of the clans of the 
sons of Is]rael: half a hin 77 [each one of the clans. . .] ... 18 [. . .] the sheep [...] 
20 [. . .] with him for all the congregation before 21 [yhwh. . .] with this oil, half 
a hin 22 [. . . according to the regulation it will be a holocaust of fire of 
23 [pleasing aroma for yhwh.. .] they shall burn this oil in the lamps 24 [...] the 
heads of thousand with the pri[nces] 25 [...fourteen yearling lambs] and their 
offerings and libations [. . .] 26 [.. .] /the priests/ sons of Aa[ron. . .] 

Frags. 8-9 col. n (iiqt xxii, 8-xxiii, 4) 1 according to the regulation...] 2 to 

YHWH. [...the right leg and the breasts of] 3 the wave-offering; and as [first- 
fruits . . . and for the priests the jawbones and the stomach; it shall be their 
share] 4 in accordance with the ordinance. Blank [.. . And the sons of] 5 Israel 
shall give the priests a [ram and a lamb; to the levites a ram and a lamb and to 
each] 6 clan a ram and a la[mb. And they shall eat it throughout this day in the 
outer courtyard in front of yhwh.] 7 Eternal precepts for their generations, 
[year after year. Afterwards, they shall eat and they shall anoint themselves 
with the new oil and with the olives] 8 because on this day they shall atone for 
[all the virgin oil of the land in front of yhwh, once a year. And] 9 all the chil- 
dren of Israel shall rejoice in all [their villages. . .] 10-11 [.. .] 12 for the altar [. . .] 
13 the clans of [Levi] and Judah, on [the second day Benjamin and the sons of 
Joseph, on the thrid day, Reuben and Simeon,] 14 on the fourth day Issachar 
[and Zebulon, on the fifth day Gad and Asher, on the sixth day, Dan] 15 and 
Naphtali. Blank [. . . And they shall offer, on the festival of the offering of] 16 the 
wood, a holocaust for [yhwh. . .] 77 two he-goats for [. . .] 18 holo[caust. . .] 


182 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


11 Q 20 10 -l 6 


Frag. 10 1 2 [. . .] Blank 3 [. . .] in the fourth part of the day this canal 4 [. . .] 

perpetual [holocaust. Blanks [ ] a great sabbath of memorial, a holy assembly 

6 [ J he will do for life 7 f . . .] a sheep, a 

Frag. 12 (= iiqt xxxvii, 9-14) 1 [. . .in front of the rooms. In the inner court- 

yard,] next to [the wall] of the outer 2 [courtyard, places made for the priests, 
for their sacrifices and for] the first-fruits and the tithes, 3 [and for their peace- 
sacrifices which they will offer. There shall be no mingl]ing of the peace sacri- 
fices of the sons of Is[rael] 4 with the peace [sacrifices of the priests.] Blank 5 [In 
the four corners of the courtyard you shall make for them] /a place/ for the 
cauldrons where they shall [cook] 6 [their sacrifices and the sin-offerings . . .In 
the North-]eastern corner [. . .] 

Frags. 13- 16 col. 1 (= 1 iqt xlv, 9-XLVi, 18) 1 [. . . And on the third day he shall 

wash his clothes and bathe at sunset.] Afterwards 2 [he shall enter the temple. 
But they shall not enter my temple with their soiled impurity to defile it. Any- 
one] who lies [with his wife and has an ejaculation, for three] 3 days [shall not 
enter anywhere in the city of the temple] in the centre of which I dwell 5 [be- 
cause I, yh wh, dwell in the midst of the children of Israel for ever and always.] 
Blank 6 [Everyone who purifies himself from his gonorrhoea shall count off 
seven days up to his purification. On day] seven 7 [he shall wash his clothes and 
immerse his body completely in running water. Afterwards he shall enter the 
city of the temple. Anyone who is un]clean through contact with a corpse shall 
not 8 [enter it until he purifies himself. Any leper and infected person shall not 
enter it until] he purifies himself; when 9 [he purifies himself and offers the . . .] 
he shall not enter the temple 10 [. . .] and the temple / 1 [. . .] Blank 12-14 [• • •] 15 [ 
to be in the middle of my temple for ever and for all the centuries, for] I dwell 
[among them.] 16 [...] Blank 17 [You shall make a platform around the outer 
courtyard, on the outside, fourteen cubits in width, corresponding to the 
door]ways; [and for it you shall make] 18 [twelve steps so that the children of 
Israel can climb] up them in order to enter my temfple.] 19 [You shall make a 
platform around the temple, one hundred cubits in width, which separates the 
holy [temple from the city,] 20 [so that they do not suddenly enter my temple 
and defile it.] They shall make my tempfle] holy 21 [and respect it, for I dwell 
among them.] Blank 22 [You shall make lat]rines [for them] outside [the city, 
where they are obliged to go, outside, to the North-east of the city:] 23 [houses 
with beams] and wells within them, [into which excrement will be dropped; 
they shall not be visible from a total distance] 24 [from the city of three] thou- 
sand [cubits. You shall make] three [zones, to the East of the city, separate from 
each other, where] 25 [lepers, those who suffer gonorrhoea] and men [with a 
pollution. . .] 26 [. . .] ... [. . .] 


11Q20 17-20 


THE TEMPLE SCROLL 


183 


Frags. 13 - 16 col. a / and those who enter [...'] 2 ewe [. . .] 3 and all [ ] ^ affair 

[. . .] 5 [...] 6 and the .. [.. .] 7 Judah [...]# the cities of [...] 

Frag. 17 / and [. . .] 2 and all [. . .] 3 they purify themselves [. . .] 4 and those with 

gonorfrhoea ...].,- the clothes [. . .] 6 upon it [. . .] 7 with water [. . .] 7 And if [. . .] 
8 until [...] 

Frags. 18- 19 col. 1 (= 1 iqt l, 1 - 1 1) /[...] until the day 2 [. . . the] seventh day 

3 [...] in water 4 [.. .] of the dead man 5 [...] they shall eat 6 [.. . they will remain 
impure.] In any way 7 [. . .] Blank 8 Blank [Every man who in an open field should 
touch the bone of a] 9 dead person or a stabbed [person or a corpse or the blood 
of a dead person or a burial shall purify himself in compliance with the ruling 
of this statute, and if he does not purify himself] 10 according to the statute [of 
this law he will be impure, his uncleanness will still persist in him and everyone 
who touches him shall wash his clothes, bathe] 11 and will become pure by the 
[evening. When a woman is pregant and her son dies in her womb, all the days 
he] 12 is dead within her she shall be impure [like a grave. . ..] 

Frags. 18- 19 col. 11 (= 1 iqt Li, 5-18) ; at sunset, [afterwards he will be pure. 

Forewarn the children of Israel of every uncleanness. They are not to be de- 
filed by those things which I tell] 2 /them/ on this mountain. [They are not to 
defile themselves. Because I, YHWH, reside among the children of Israel. They 
shall sanctify themselves and they shall be holy. They shall not make] 3 their 
souls [odious] with anything [that I have separated from them as impure and 
they shall be holy. Blank In all your cities you shall put] 4 judges and magistrates 
[who judge the people with correct judgment, and make no distinction of per- 
sons in judgment,] 5 and accept no bribe, [because a bribe perverts justice, cor- 
rupts the words of the just person, blinds the eyes of the wise] 6 perpetrates a 
serious offence [and defiles the House with the wickedness of sin. Pursue jus- 
tice exclusively so that you can live and enter and take possession of the land] 
7 which I give you, [so as to own it for ever. Blank The one who takes bribes and 
perverts just judgment] 8 shall [die and you shall have no qualms in executing 
him....] 

Frag. 20 (= 1 iqt liv, 19-21) 1 [If your brother, the son of your fa|ther or [the 

son of your mother, or your son or your daughter, or the woman] 2 [who lies 
in your embrace or your soul]mate [provokes you in secret saying: ‘Let us go 
and let us serve other gods’] 3 [whom you do not know and neither do your 
fa]thers, of the gods of [the peoples who surround you, close to you] 4 [or far 
from] you, from one side of the land to the [other side of the land; you shall not 
go to him nor] 5 [shall you listen to him, nor shall your sig]ht [take pity] on 
him, nor shall you have compassion on [him, and you shall not conceal him, but 


184 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


1 1Q20 20 


instead you shall kill him;] 6 [your hand will be] the first one [over him] to kill 
him, and the hand of [all the people after you. You shall stone him with 
stones,] 7 [because he tried to turn] you aside. Blank [. . .] 


3 Q 4 • 4 Q l61 


PESHARIM 


185 


3 Pesharim 

A Commentaries on Isaiah 
3Qlsaiah Pesher (3Q4 [3QpIs]) 

1 Is 1:1 Vision of Isaiah, son of [Amoz, concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the 
period of Uzziah] 2 and of Jotham, of Achaz and of [Hezekiah, kings of Judah. 
The interpretation of the word which] 3 Isaiah prophesied concerning [. . .] 4 to 
[...] king of Ju[dah Is 1:2 Listen, heavens; pay attention, earth; for the Lord 
speaks.] 5 [...] Blank [Its interpretation: that ...] 6 [the] day of judgment [...] 
7 | ... ) ... | ... ] 


4Qlsaiah Pesher" (4Q161 [4QpIs"]) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 20 Is 10:20 [On that day, the remnant of Israel, the survivors of 

Jacob, will not revert to leaning] 21 [on their assailant but will lean exclusively 
on the Lord, the Holy One of Israel.] 22 {Is 10:21 A remnant will return, a rem- 
nant of] Jacob to God [the warrior.] 23 [Its interpretation: the remnant of] Israel 
is [the assembly of his chosen one. . .] 24 [. . .] the men of his army [. . .The rem- 
nant of Jacob is. . .] 25 [. . .] the priests, since [. . .] 

Frags. 2-6 col. 11 1 [/s 10:22 Even if your people, Israel were like the sand of the 

sea, only a remnant will return; extermination is decreed,] 2 [but overflowing 
justice. For it is decided and decreed: the Lord of Hosts is going to do it in the 
centre of all the earth.] 3 [Its interpretation concerns . . .] since [. . .] the sons of 
[. . .] 4 of his people. And as for what he says: Is 10:22 Even if [your people, Israel 
were like the sand of the sea,] 5 [only a remnant will return; extermination is 
decreed,] but justice will overflow. [Its interpretation: . . .] 6 [. . . to des]troy on 
the day of slaughter]; and many will die [...] 7 [...but they will be] saved, 
surely, by their plan] ting] in the land [...]#[...] Blank Is 10:24-27 This is why [the 
Lord God of Hosts] says: [do not be afraid, my people] 9 [li]ving in Zion, [of 
Assyria: it will hit you with a stick and lift its rod against you in the fashion of 
Egypt;] 10 [for] very shortly [my anger will end and my wrath will destroy 
them. The Lord of Hosts] will lash [against them] 11 [the flail as in the destruc- 
tion of Midian, on the rock of] Horeb, and he will lift his rod [against the sea] 
12 [in the fashion of Egypt. And on that day it will happen] that his load will be 
removed [from your shoulder,] 13 [ and his yoke from your neck. The interpre- 
tation of the word concerns] ...[...] 14 on his return from the wilderness of the 
[peoples. . .] 15 [. . .] the Prince of the Congregation, and after it will be removed 
from you [. . .] 16 [. . .] Blank [. . .] 17 [/s 10:28-32 Go up from the side of Rimmon;] 
come up to Aiath; cross [Migron; at Michmash] 18 [make an inspection of the 


i86 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


4Q161 . 162 


weapons; traverse] the gorge; spend the night in Geba; fearful [is Ramah; 
Gibeah of] ig [Saul deserts. Raise] your voice, Bat-Gallim; pay attention, 
Laishah; answer, Anathoth.] 20 [Retreat,] Madmenah, the residents of Gebiom 
flee; this very day [he makes a stopover in Nob,] 21 [already he stretches] his 
hand towards the mount of the daughter of Zion, towards the hill of Jerusalem. 
[Blank ] 22 [The interpretation of] the word concerns the final days, when the 
[king of the Kittim] comes [. . .] 23 [. . .] from his climb from the plain of Akko 
to do battle against Palestine. . .] 24 [. . .] and there is none like her, and in all the 
cities [...] 25 and up to the boundary of Jerusalem. [...] 

Frags. 8-10 col. ill 1 [/s 10:33-34 See! The Lord God of Hosts will rip off the 
branches at one wrench; the] tall[est trunks] will be felled, 2 [the loftiest 
chopped.] The thickest of the wood [will be cut] with iron and Lebanon, with 
its grandeur, 3 [will fall. Its interpretation concerns the] Kittim, who will be 
placed in the hands of Israel, and the meek 4 [of the earth...] all the peoples 
and all the soldiers will weaken and their heart will melt 5 1 . . . and what it says: 
« The] tallest [trunks] will be destroyed* are the soldiers of the Ki[ttim] f> [since 
. . .] «and the thickest of the wood will be cut with iron* are 7 [. . .] for the war 
of the Kittim. «And Lebanon, with its grandeur, 8 [will fall* are the command- 
ers of] the Kittim, who will be placed in the hand of their great [...] 9 [...] in 
their flight before Israel, 10 [...] Blank [...] u [/s 11:1-5 A shoot will issue from 
the stu]mp of Jesse and [a bud] will sprout from its ro[ot.] Over him [will be 
placed] the spifrit] 12 [of the Lord; a spirit] of discretion and wisdom, a spirit 
of ad[vice and courage,] a spirit of knowledge 13 [and of respect for the Lord, 
and his delight will be in respecting the] Lord. [He will not judge] by appear- 
ances 14 [or give verdicts on hearsay alone;] he will judge [the poor with justice 
and decide] 15 [with honesty for the humble of the earth. He will destroy the 
land with the rod of his mouth and with the breath of his lips] 16 [he will exe- 
cute the evil. Justice will be the belt of] his loins and lo[yalty the belt of his 
hips.] ij [. . .] Blank [...]?« [The interpretation of the word concerns the shoot] 
of David which will sprout [in the final days, since] ig [with the breath of his 
lips he will execute] his enemies and God will support him with [the spirit of] 
courage [...] 20 [...] throne of glory, [holy] crown and hemmed vestments 
21 [...] in his hand. He will rule over all the peoples and Magog 22 [...] his 
sword will judge all the peoples. And as for what he says: «He will not 23 [judge 
by appearances] or give verdicts on hearsay*, its interpretation: 24 [. . .] accord- 
ing to what they teach him, he will judge, and upon his mouth 25 [. . .] with him 
will go out one of the priests of renown, holding clothes in his hand 

4Qlsaiah Pesher* (4Q162 [ 4QpIs /j |) 

Frag. 1 col. I Is 5:5 For now I will tell you what I am going to do with my vine- 


4Q162 . 163 


PESHARIM 


187 


yard: 1 [.. .remove its fence so that it can be used for pasture, destroy] its wall 
so that you trample it. Is 5:6 For 2 [I will leave it flattened; they shall not prune 
it or weed it, brambles and thi[stles] will grow. The interpretation of the word: 
that he has deserted them 3 [...] and as for what he says: Is 5:6 «Brambles will 
grow, 4 [and thistles»: its interpretation concerns . . .] and what 3 [it says: . . . ] 
of the path 6 [. . .] his eyes 

Frag. 1 col. 11 1 The interpretation of the word concerns the last days, laying 

waste the land through thirst and hunger. This will happen 2 at the time of the 
visit to the land. Is 5:11-14 Woe to those who rise early in search of intoxicants 
and carry on until by twilight the wine 3 excites them and with zithers, harps, 
tambourines and flutes they feast their drunkenness, but they pay no attention 
to God’s doings 4 or notice the works of his hands! For this, my people will be 
exiled without realising it, their nobles will die of hunger 5 and the ordinary 
folk have a raging thirst. For this, the abyss distends its jaws and enlarges its 
mouth immeasurably, 6 lowers its nobility and its ordinary people and its revel- 
ling throng enters. These are the arrogant men 7 who are in Jerusalem. They 
are the ones who: Is 5:24 «Have rejected the law of God and mocked the word 
of the Holy One of 8 Israel. Is 5:25 For this the wrath of God has been kindled 
against his people and he has stretched out his hand against them and wounded 
them. 9 The mountains quake, their corpses lie like dung in the middle of the 
streets. In spite of this w [his anger] is not appeased [and his hand continues 
to be stretched out]». This is the Congregation of the arrogant men who are in 
Jerusalem. 11 [...] ... [...] 

Frag. 1 col. in 1 Is 3:29-30 and no-one rips [it out. On that day he will roar 
against him] 2 like the ro[ar of the sea. He will look at the earth, see deep dark- 
ness, even the light is obscured] 3 by the clofuds...] 4 He is [...] 5 they [...] 
6 who co[me. . .] 7 he has said [...]£ they have seen [. . .] 9 ... [. . .] 

4Qlsaiah Posher 1 (4Q163 [4Qls‘]) 

Frag. 1 1 [...]...[...] 2 [...] he is [...] 3 [...] and mistook the path of [...] 4 [... 

for it is] written concerning him in Jerefmiah. . .] 

Frags. 2-3 1 [/s 8:7-8 For this, behold, the Lord will bri]ng up against them the 

[torrential and violent] water of the river, [the king of Assyria] 2 [and all his 
pomp. He will] come up through all the channels and overflow all its banks. 
[He will invade Judah, he will flood, he will brim over] 3 [and will reach right 
up to the neck.] The opening of his wings will cover the breadth of your land, 
[O Emmanuel! The interpretation of the word concerns] 4 [. . .] ... the law; he 
is Rezin and the son of [Romeliah. . .]5 [.. . as it is written in [. . .] 6 [.. .] and not 
[...] 


i88 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


4Q163 4-IO 


Frags. 4-6 col. 1 14 [ 7 s 9:17-20 Because evil is burning like a fire] which consumes 

thistles [and brambles;] it catches fire 15 [in the dense wood and the height] of 
the smoke coils upwards. [By the wrath of the God] of Hosts devastated is] 

16 [the land and the people is fuel for the fire.] No-one [forgives] his brother,] 

17 [he destroys to the right and remains hungry, he consumes] to the left and 
is not replete; 18 [a man eats the flesh of his arm. Manasseh against] Ephraim 
and Ephraim against 19 [Mana]sseh; [the two] together [against Judah. And with 
all this] his wrath is not mollified. 

Frags. 4-6 col. 11 1 [ 7 s 10:19 A young man] will count them. [. . .] 2 The interpre- 

tation of the word concerns the edict of Babylonia [. . .] 3 the edicts of the peo- 
ples [. . .] 4 to betray many. He [. . .] 5 Jerusalem. And what it says: Is 10:19 «The 
remainder of the trees of the wood will be a small number and a young man 
will count them».] 6 Its interpretation concerns the reduction of men [...] 
7 Blank [. . .] 8 Is 10:20-22 On that day it will happen [that the remainder of the 
House of Israel and the survivors] 9 of the House of Jacob [will not return to 
lean on their aggressor but will lean on the Lord, the Holy One] 10 of Israel, in 
truth. A remnant [will return, a remnant of Jacob, to the warrior God.] 1 1 Even 
if your people, [Israel] were to be [like the sand of the sea, only a remnant will 
return.] 12 The interpretation of the word concerns the fi[nal] days [. . .] 13 they 
will go into captivity [...And what] 14 it says: Is 10:21 [«Even if your people, 
[Israel] were to be like the sand of the sea, only a remnant will return.*] 15 Its 
interpretation concerns the reduction [. . .] 16 Since it is written: [ 7 s 1 0:22-23 «De- 
struction is decreed but justice is overflowing. Because destruction is decreed] 

17 the Lord God [of the Hosts will execute it in the midst of the whole earth*] 

18 Blank [. . .] 19 is 10:24 Therefore, the Lord Go[d of Hosts say as follows: Do not 
fear, my people who live in Zion] 

Frags. 8-io 1 [The interpetation of the word] concerns the king of Babylon, 
[since ... as it is written: Is 14:8 «The very cypresses] 2 [laugh] at you, and the 
cedars of Lebanon. Since [you lie down, the hewer] 3 [does not come up] 
against them*. The cypresses and the cedars [of Lebanon are ...] 4 [...] the 
Lebanon. And what it says: Is 14:26-27 «This [is the strategy decided for] 5 [all] 
the earth and this is the hand [stretched out against all the peoples.] 6 [For the 
God] of the Hosts has decided, who will thwart him? His hand is stretched 
out,] 7 [who] will push it aside?*. This is ...[...] 8 [as it is written] in the book 
of Zechariah ... [Zac 3:9?...] pf...] Blank [...] 10 [...] Blank [...}ii [75 1 4:28-30) In 
the year of the deat]h of king Achaz [this oracle was uttered: Do not] rejoice, 
12 al[l Philistia,] that the rod [which injured you] is shattered, [because from the 
root of the] snake shall [come] 13 [a viper and its fruit will be a] flying [asp. The 
most destitute] will be fed [and the poor] 14 [will become safe. I will make your 
root die of hunger and he will kill] your remnant. [. . .] 


4Q163 11-21 


PESHARIM 


189 


Frag. 11 col. I 2 [...] servants of j [...] they are 4 [...] the insults (?) 

5 [•• •] this 

Frag. 1 1 col. n 1 Is ig.g-12 those who weave [white cloths. Their masters will be 
dismayed, all their] 2 labourers knocked [down. How deranged the princes of 
Zoan; the wise advise] 3 Pharaoh with [inane] advice. [How can you say to Pha- 
raoh: We are sons of wise men,] 4 we are sons of [ancient ki]ngs? [Where are 
your wise men? Let them announce,] 5 [if they know, what the God of Hosts 
is planning against Egypt.] 

Frags. 15-16 Is 2g: 10-11 [For] ; the Lord pours [upon] you [a breath] of languor 
and will blinker [your eyes-the prophets-and] 2 he will cover your heads-the 
seers-. For you [any vision] will be [like the text of a] 3 [sea]led [book:] they 
give it to someone who can read, tellin[g him: Please read this,] 4 [and he an- 
swers: I cannot because] it is sealed. [. . .] 

Frags. 18-19 1 Is 2g: 18-23 [°f the book;] without darkness or glo[om the eyes of 

the blind will see. The oppressed will return to rejoice in the Lord] 2 [and the 
poor]est of men [will delight in the Holy One of Israel. Because the tyrant is 
destroyed, the sceptic finished off and] 3 [all | those alert for evil [will be obliter- 
ated, those who are going to seize another in speaking and the one who defends 
in the gate with snares and, for nothing, engulf] 4 [the innocent.] Therefore, so 
says [the Lord to the House of Jacob, he who ransomed Abraham: No longer] 
5 [will] Jacob [be ashamed, no longer will his face smile when he sees that his 
sons, the work] 6 [of my hands in his midst,] worship my name, because they 
wor[ship the Holy One of Jacob.] 

Frag. 21 j[. . .] Is 2g: 77 Perhaps, [in a very little while, 2 [ will the Lebanon turn 

into] an orchard, and will the orchard] seem like [a wood?] The Lebanon are 
[■■■] 3 [•••] into an orchard and they will turn into [...] 4 [...] by the sword. And 
what it [says. . .] s [■ • •] • • • [ — ] 6 [. . .] ... [. . .] the teacher off... as it is written:] 
7 Zach 11:11 [It was annulled on that day, and] thus the most helpless of the flock 
which [was watching me knew] 8 [that it was in fact the word of the Lord.] Blank 
[• • •] 9 1*30:1-5 [Woe to the rebellious sons-oracle of the] Lord- who make plans 
[without counting] 10 [on me; who sign deals, but] without my spirit, to ad[d 
sin] 11 [to sin; who proceed to go do]wn to Egypt [without conferring with me, 
to gain strength] 12 [with the strength of the Pharaoh and shelter in the shadow 
of Egypt! [Their disgrace will be] 13 [the strength of the Pharaoh, and the 
shelter of the shadow of Egypt, [their shame. For in Zoan were] 14 [their 
princes, and their messengers] reached Hanes. [They were all ashamed of a] 
15 [powerless people which could neither help] nor [oblige...] 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


4Q163 . 164 


190 

Frag. 23 1 [...] and they [...] all 2 [...] Blank [...] 3 Is 30.15-18 

[For] thus says yhwh, the Holy One of Israel: By turning back and being 
plafcid will you be saved;] 4 your courage will comprise composure and trust. 
But you did not wish and sa[id:] 5 No, let us flee on horseback. Well, then, you 
need to flee. We will run at a gallop. Well, then 6 those chasing you will run 
faster. A thousand [shall flee] before the menace of one, before the menace 7 of 
five shall you flee, until you end up like a flagpole on the peak of a mountain, 
8 like a standard upon a hill. This is why the Lord waits to take pity on you, 
this is why he rises 9 to be lenient with you. For yhwh is a God of justice. 
Happy are those waiting for! 10 The interpretation of the word, for the last 
days, concerns the congregation of those [looking] for easy interpretations 
11 who are in Jerusalem [...] 12 in the law and not [...] 13 the heart, for in order 
to crush [...] 14 Hos 6:9 As bandits lie in wait, [the priests scheme]. They have 
rejected the law [...] 1 5 Is 30:19-21 [F]or a people living in Zion, [in Jerusalem, 
will no longer need to weep; the voice will have pity on you at the sound of] 
16 on your cry; when he hears [you he will answer you. Even though the Lord 
were to give you measured bread and rationed water,] 17 no longer will he hide 
[from your Master, and your eyes will see your Master.] 18 Your ears will [hear 
a word at your shoulder which says: This is the path, walk on it,] 19 when you 
need to go to the right [or to the left. The interpretation of the word, for the 
last days,] 29 concerns the sin of [. . .] 

Frag. 25 1 [. . .] the king of Babylon [. . .] 2 [. . .] with tambourines and zithers [. . .] 

3 [... downpour and hailstorm, implements of war, they are [...] 4 [...] Blank 
[. . .] 5 [Is 31:1 Alas those who go down to] Egypt! In horses [they trust and they 
rely on chariots] 6 [beca]use they are numerous, and on cavalry, because they 
are very strong, [without regard for] 7 [the H]oly One of Israel or [consulting 
yhwh. Blank] 8 [Its interpretation: they] are the people which relies [...] 

Frag. 26 1 [Is 32:3-6 No longer] will they call the fool an aristocrat, or treat the 

rogue as an aristocrat. For] 2 [the rogue says] roguish things. [His heart plots 
crime; he commits evil and speaks deceitfully against] 3 [the Lord, leaves the 
hungry person empty and takes water away from the thirsty. . .] 

4Qlsaiah Peskier 1 * (4Q164 |4QpIs‘ , |) 

Frag. 1 1 [he will trea]t all Israel like «jet» around the eye. Is 54: 1 1 And your foun- 

dations are sapphires. [Its interpretation: ] 2 they will found the council of the 
Community, the priests and the peo[ple...] 3 the assembly of their elect, like 
a sapphire stone in the midst of stones. Is 54:12 [I will place] 4 all your battle- 
ments [of rubies]. Its interpretation concerns the twelve [chiefs of the priests 
who] 5 illuminate with the judgment of the Urim and the Thummim [.. . with- 


4Q165 . i66 


PESHARIM 


lQl 


out] 6 any from among them missing, like the sun in all its light. 1*54:12 And a[ll 
your gates of glittering stones.] 7 Its interpretation concerns the chiefs of the 
tribes of Israel in the las[t d]ays [. . .] 8 of its lot, their functions [. . .] 

4Qlsaiah Posher 1, (4Q165 [4QpIs f ]) 

Frags. 1-2 1 ... [...] ... 2 and Jerusalem [...] And what is written: [Is 40:11 «He 

carries them on his chest and leads the mothers*.] 3 The interpretation of the 
word [concerns the Teacher of Righteousness who] reveals just teaching [. . .Is 
40:12 Who has measured the sea in fistfuls,] 4 or [charted] the sky [in palm- 
breadths, or the dust] of the earth [by bushels. Who] has weighed [the moun- 
tains on the balance or the hills in the scales?] 

Frag. 5 1 Is 2i:g-io [and all the statues of their gods has he smashed] to the 

ground. [My people, threshed on the threshing floor, what I have heard from 
the Lord of Hosts, God] 2 [of Israel, I will tell you.] The interpretation of the 
word concerns [. . . ] 3 [Oracle against Dumah: Is 21:1 1-15 Someone sh]outs from 
Seir: Watchman, what is left of the [night? Watchman, what is left of the night? 
The Watchman replies: Morning will come and also the night. If you wish to 
ask, ask,] 4 [come back, return. Oracle against Arabia:] In the scrub of the 
steppe shall you spend the night, [caravans of Dedan; take out water to meet 
the thirsty, dwellers in the land of Teman, take bread] 5 [to the refugee, 
for]/[. . .] he flees in front of the swords/ in front of the unsheathed sword/ in 
front of [the taut bow,] / in front of [the fierce fighting. The interpretation of 
the word concerns ...] 6 [...] the peoples and the bread [...] 7 [...] lays waste 
[...] 

Frag. 6 /[•••] the chosen ones of Israel [. . .] 2 [. . .] eternal. And what is written; 

[Is 32:5-7 No longer will they call the fool an aristocrat,] 3 [or] treat [the rogue] 
as superior. For the rfogue says roguish things and his heart is dedicated to 
evil, to commit wicked deeds] 4 [and to speak] absurdities against [the Lord]; 
to destroy [the soul of the hungry person and take water away from the thirsty. 
As for the rogue] 5 [his roguish deeds are] illicit and he hatches plots [to destroy 
the poor with lies] 6 [and the helpless who defends] his rights. Its interpretation 
concerns [...] 7 [...] ... to the law [...]...[...] 


b Commentaries on Hosea 
4QHosea Pesher" (4Q166 [4QpHos fl ]) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 1-2 [. . .] 3 [. . .] he will show his hostility 4 [. . .] and they shall com- 

miserate 5 [ . . . ] and move far away 6 [ . . . ] Blank 7 [Hos 2:8 Therefore, he will fence 


192 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


4Ql66 . 167 


in your path] with brambles and [he will not find] his footpaths 8 [Its interpre- 
tation: with madness,] blindness and confusion 9 [of heart will yhwh mutilate 
them . . .] and the era of his betrayal not 10 [. . .] they are the generation of the 
visitation 11 [...] the upholders of the covenant. 12 [...] end in the ages of 
wrath, because 13 [...] Blank 14 [...] Blank 15 [Hos 2:9 And he will say: I shall go 
and return to my fir]st [husband] because 16 [I was better off then than now. Its 
interpretation: ...] in the return of the converts 17 [...] pure 18-19 [...] 

Col. 11 1 [Hos 2:10 She did not know that] it was I who gave her wheat, [wine] 

2 [and oil.] I increased [the silver] and the gold [out of which they] made [idols] 
for themselves. [Its interpretation: ] 3 they will ea[t and] be replete and forget 
the God of [justice] 4 they will turn their backs on his precepts which he had 
sent to them [through the mouth of] 5 his servants, the prophets. They will 
listen to those who misdirect them and acclaim them [...] 6 and will revere 
them like gods in their blindness. Blank [. . .] 7 Blank [...]§ Has 2:11-12 Because of 
this I w ill collect back my wheat in its time and my wine [in its season,] 9 1 will 
reclaim my wool and my flax which cover [their nakedness.] 10 Now I will un- 
cover her disgrace in the sight of her lovefrs and no-one] 11 will free her from 
my hand. Blank [...] 12 Its interpretation: he has punished them with hunger 
and with nakedness so they will be shame 13 and disgrace in the eyes of the 
nations on whom they relied. But they 14 will not save them from their suffer- 
ings. Hos 2:13 I will make an end to her joys, 15 her fea[sts, her new] moons and 
her sabbaths and all her celebrations. Its interpretation: 16 they are to determine 
[all their celebrations] in agreement with the celebrations of the nations, but 
[all] 17 [her joy] will be changed into mourning for them. Hos 2: 14 I will devas- 
tate [their vines] 18 [and their fig trees about which she said: they are my wages 
[which] 19 [my lovers gave me;] I will turn them into thickets and the [wild 
be]asts will eat them. 

4QHosea Pesher a (4Q167 [4QpIlos / ’]) 

Frag. 2 1 [Hos 3: 13 but he cannot heal] your wound. The interpretation . . .] 2 [. . .] 

raging lion. Hos 5:14 For I will be like a lion [to Ephrjaim [and like a lion cub to 
the House of] 3 Judah. Its interpretation [concerns] the last priest who will 
stretch out his hand to strike Ephraim 4 [. . . his ha]nd. Blank [. . .]5 Hos 5: 15 1 will 
go and return to [my position] until they acknowledge their crime and seek my 
face; in their distress 6 [they will get up early in search of me. Its interpreta- 
tion:] God will hide his face from [the land] 7 [...] and they will not listen [...] 

Frags. 5-6 1 [...] the men of [...] 2 [...] their masters [...] upon [...] 3 [H0S6.4 

What] shall I do with you, [Ephraim;] what [shall I do with you Judah?...] 


4Q167 • 1Q14 


PESHARIM 


193 


Frags. 7-8 1 [ Hos 6.7 They, like Adam,] broke the covenant. Its interpretation: 

[••■] 2 [■■■] they deserted God and followed the laws of [...] they in all [...] 

F rags. 10 + 26 1 And what [it says]: [Hos 6.9-zo «They commit evils. [In the House 

of Israel I have seen something horrifying: there Ephraim prostitutes himself,] 
2 Israel [degrades herself»] Its interpretation: [...3 [the evil]doers of the nations 
[•■•]■* all the [...] 5 upon [...] 

Frags. 4 + 8 + 24 z [...Hos 6:11; 7: z Judah, also] a harvest [is ready] for you, 
2 [when the bondage of my people changes. The interpretation concerns . . .] on 
the day of 3 [. . .] for us 4 [. . .] 5 [. . .] and what 6 [it says: Hos 7:1 «When the bond- 
age of my people changes#. Its interpretation concerns . . .] since he will make 

7 [...] return [...] and humble [...] 

Frags. 11 + 12+13 ’~ 2 [•■•]...[...] 3 [...] (Hos 8:6) A sculptor made it [and it is not 

God.] 4 Its interpretation: they were among the peoples [. . .] j Hos8:6 For shat- 
tered to pieces was the ca[lf of Samaria. Its interpretation: . . .] 6 [Is]rael. Hos 8:7- 

8 They sow wind and [reap] storms. [It will not have shoots; the stalk will not 
have fruit;] 7 [if it did have any,] foreigners would eat it. [They have devoured 
Israel. Now they are among the nations like a] 8 usefless pot.] Blank [. . .] 9 The 
interpretation [ ...] zo ... [...] 

Frags. 15+16 col. 11 z [they shall] return. Hos 8:14 And [Israel] forgot her Maker 
and built palaces. And Judah] 2 increased her [fortified ci]ies. But I shall send 
fire against her cities and it will consume her palaces.] 3 Blank [...Its 
interpretation: [. . .] 4 to be [. . .] each one will collect [. . .] 5 in front [of. . .] God 
does not want [...] 


C Commentaries on Micah 
lQMicah Pesher ( IQ 14 [lQpMic]) 

Frags. 1-5 1 [Mic 1:2-5 Listen, every people; take notice, earth and what fills it: 

the Lord G]od [will be] 2 [a witness] against you [the Lord, from his holy tem- 
ple. For behold,] God [leaves] his place 3 [and descends upon the heights of 
the earfth. the mountains beneath [him] melt, [and the valleys spli]t a[part,] 
4 [like wa]x next to [the fire,] like wat[er poured down a slope.] all [because of 
Jacob’s crime,] 5 because of the sins [of the House of Israel. . .] 

Frag. 6 z[...] ... [...] 2 [... in the] last [days [....] 3 [...] the glory [...] 4 [... 

which] they infringe [...] 


194 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


4QI4 . 4Q168 


Frag. 7 /[...] Perhaps [...] not 2 [...] the simple [...] 3 [...] ... in it [...] 

Frag. 10 3 [Mic 1:3-6 What are the ‘high places’ of Judah? Is it not Je]rusa[lem? 

I will reduce Samaria] 4 [to a country ruin, to a plot of vines.] The interpreta- 
tion of this concerns the Spreader of Lies j [since he has misdirected] simple- 
tons. Mic 1:5 ‘What are the “high places” of Judah? 6 [Is it not Jerusalem? The 
interpretation of this co]ncerns the Teacher of Righteousness who 7 [teaches 
the law to his council] and to all those volunteering to join the chosen of 
8 [God, carrying out the law] in the council of the Community, those who will 
be saved on the day of 9 [judgment...] ... [...] w [...As for what he says: Mic 
1:6-7 I will reduce Samaria] to a country ruin 11 [to a plot of vines; I will tip her 
stones into the valley and lay bare her foundations. A]ll her idols 

Frag. 11 1 [Mic j.Sand I will wail. Its interpretation concerns the priests of] Jeru- 

salem, since they misdirect [...] 2 [...] their enemies. Mic 1:8-9 Barefoot and 
na[ked, I will mourn] 3 [as jackals howl and as ostrich young moan. For it has 
come as far as Judah, has reached] as far as the gate of my people, as far [as 
Jerusalem. 4 [...The interpretation concerns the Teacher of Righteousness, 
since he] will judge his enemies [. . .] 5 [. . .] turning to face towards him [. . .] 

Frag. 12 1 [. . .] 2 [. . .] his glory of Seir [. . .] 3 [. . . be]cause God will go out from 

[...] 

Frags. 17+18 1 [...] 2 [Mic 6: 13 ... you shall sow and not] reap, [tread olives] 

3 [and not anoint yourself, tread grapes and] not drink wine. [The laws of Omri 
are kept] 4 [and all the procedures of the House of Ahab;] you behave according 
to his counsels; thus [I shall destroy you] 5 [and hand over your inhabitants to 
insult. Its interpretation] concerns the last generation [since...] 6 [...] ... [...] 

Frags. 22 + 23 ' [•• •]•■•[■ . .] 2 [. . .] and he will shine 3 [. . .Mic 7:15-17 like the] day 

when you left [the land of Egypt] 4 [I will show you marvels. The peoples shall 
see it and be ashamed] of all their power, [they shall lift their hands to their 
mouth,] 5 [cover their ears, bite the dust like sn]akes and creepy-crawlies [of the 
earth.] 


4QMicah Pesher (?) (4Q168 [4QpMic(?)]) 

Frags. 1 + 3 7 [of the daughter of] Jerusalem. [Mic 4:9-12 Now, why do you yell, 

complaining? Have you no king? Are you lacking a counsellor?] 2 Since [pain] 
has gripped you [like a woman giving birth, have pain and push (it) out, daugh- 
ter of Zion, like a woman giving birth, because] 3 now shall you leave the city 
[and live on waste ground and go right to Babylon. There you shall be re- 


4Q169 1-4 1 


PESHARIM 


195 


deemed. There,] 4 the Lord will free you [from the hand of your enemies. Now 
many nations collaborate against you] 5 saying: [be defiled and let us fix our 
gaze on Zion. They do not know the plans of the Lord or] 6 [understand] his 
plans. 


D Commentary on Nahum 
4QNahum Pesher (4Q169 [4QpNah]) 

Frags. 1+2 1 [Nah 1:3 . . . His path is in the hurricane and in the storm, and] a 

cloud is the du[st of his feet. Its interpretation: . . .] 2 [the storms and the hurri- 
canes], vaults of his skies and his earth which he cr[eated. . .] 3 Nah 1:4 He roars 
against the sea and dries it up. Its interpretation: the sea are all the Kit[tim], 
since [.. .] 4 to carry out judgment against them and to eliminate them from the 
face of [the earth. Nah 1:4 And dries up all the rivers.] 5+ /[Its interpretation 
concerns the Kittim]/ with [all their chi]efs, since his rule will end. 5 [Nah 1:4 
Bashan and] Carmel [become dry] and the bloom of Lebanon shrivels. [The 
interpretation of the word concerns . . . since . . .] 6 many will die for him at the 
height of sin. For [the Kittim] are Bas[han, since . . . and his king is called:] 

7 [Car]mel and his chiefs: Lebanon; and the bloom of Lebanon is [. . . since . . .] 

8 [the sons of his fau]lts, and they will die in front of [...] the chosen of [...] 

9 [. . . a]ll the inhabitants of the world. Blank Nah 1:3-6 The mountains quake in 
front of him and the hillocks shake,] 10 the earth [rises] in front of him and 
before him [the world and a]ll that lives in it. Before his wrath who can endure? 
And who] u [can tolerate] the fire of his anger? Its interpretation ...] 

Frags. 3 + 4 col. 1 / [. . . Nah 2:12] residence for the wicked of the nations. For a 

lion went to go into it, a lion cub 2 [without anyone confining him. Its interpre- 
tation concerns Deme]trius, king of Yavan, who wanted to enter Jerusalem on 
the advice of the those looking for easy interpretations, 3 [but he did not go in 
because God did not deliver Jerusalem] into the hand of the kings of Yavan 
from Antiochus up to the appearance of the chiefs of the Kittim. But later, it 
will be trampled 4 [. . .] Blank Nah 2:13 The lion catches enough for his cubs and 
tears prey apart for his lioness; 5 [he fills his cave with prey and his den with 
spoils. The interpretation of the word] concerns the Angry Lion who struck 
6 [the simple folk of Ephraim] with his nobles and the men of his counsel. [And 
as for what he says: Nah 2:13 «he fills] his cave [with prey] and his den with 
spoils», Blank Its interpretation concerns the Angry Lion 7 [who filled his den 
with a mass of corpses, carrying out revjenge against those looking for easy 
interpretations, who hanged living men 8 [from the tree, committing an atrocity 
which had not been committed] in Israel since ancient times, for it is horrible 
for the one hanged alive from the tree. Nah 2:14 Here am I against [you]! 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


4Q169 4 I — III 


196 

g Orac[le of the Lord of Hosts. I shall burn your throng in the fire] and the 
sword will consume your cubs. I will eradicate] the spoils [from the earth]. 
Blank 10 and no [longer will the voice of your messengers be heard. Its 
interpretation: «Your throng* are his gangs of soldiers [...]; «his cubs» are 
u his nobles [and the members of his council, since. . .] and «his spoils* is the 
wealth which [the priests of Jerusalem accu]mulated [which] 12 they will deliver 
[... E]phraim, will be given Israel [...] Blank 

Frags. 3-4 col. 11 1 And his messengers are his emissaries, whose voice will no 

longer be heard among the nations. Nah 3:1 Alas the bloody city, all of it 
[treachery,] stuffed with loot! 2 Its interpretation: it is the city of Ephraim, 
those looking for easy interpretations, in the final days, since they walk in 
treachery and lies. 3 Nah 3:1-3 Spoils will not be lacking, nor the noise of the 
whip nor the din of colliding w heels. Horses at the gallop, chariots bouncing, 
horsemen lunging, flashing [of swords] 4 and flickering of spears! Masses of 
wounded and heaps of corpses! Endless corpses, they trip [over] their corpses! 
Its interpretation concerns the rule of those looking for easy interpretations, 

5 since within his assembly there will no lack of the sword of the gentiles, cap- 
tivity or looting, nor fire in among them, nor exile for fear of the enemy, a mass 

6 of corpses will fall in their days; there will be no end to the tally of their 
wounded and they will even trip over their bodies of flesh because of his mis- 
taken counsel. 7 Nah 3:4 On account of the many fornications of the prostitute, 
full of elegance and mistress of enchantment, who misleads nations with her 
sorceries. Blank 8 [Its] interpretation concerns those who misdirect Ephraim, 
who with their fraudulent teaching and lying tongue and perfidious lip misdi- 
rect many; 9 kings, princes, priests and people together with the proselyte at- 
tached to them. Cities and clans will perish through his advice, nobles and 
le[aders] 10 will fall [due to the fero]city of their tongues. Blank Nah 3:5 See, here 
am I against you! -oracle of the Lord of Ar[mies]-You shall hoist u [your] 
skirts up to your face and show the nations [your] nudity and kings your shame. 
Its interpretation [. . .] 12 [. . .] the cities of (the) East, because «the skirts* [. . .] 

Frags. 3-4 col. in / The nations with their uncleanness [and the re]fuse of their 
monstrosities. Nah 3:6 I will throw refuse on top of you, affront you and make 
you 2 odious. Nah 3:7 And what will happen is that all those who see you will 
run away from you. Blank 3 Its interpretation concerns those looking for easy 
interpretations, whose evil deeds will be exposed to all Israel in the final time 
4 and many will fathom their sin, they will hate them and loathes them for their 
reprehensible arrogance. And when the glory of Judah is revealed 5 the simple 
people of Ephraim will flee from among their assembly and desert the ones 
who misdirected them and will join the [whole of Is]rael. Nah 3: 7 They shall say: 
6 Nineveh is laid waste, who will be sorry for her? Where shall I find comfort- 


4Q163 ■ lQpHab 1 


PESHARIM 


197 


ers for you? Its interpretation concerns those looking for 7 easy interpretations, 
whose council will die and whose society will be disbanded; they shall not con- 
tinue misdirecting the assembly and simple [folk] shall no longer support their 
advice. Nah 3:8 Do you act better than Am[mon, seated between] the Niles? 
Blank 9 Its interpretation: Amon is Manasseh and the Niles are the important 
people of Manasseh, the nobles of the [people who surround Ma[nasseh] 10 Nah 
3:8 Water surrounds the one whose rampart was the sea, and the water her 
walls. Blank 11 Its interpretation: they are her men at arms, her mighty warriors. 
Nah 3:g Ethiopia was her strength [and Egypt, without end.] 12 [Its interpreta- 
tion . . .] Nah 3:g Put and Libya [were her guards] 

Frags. 3-4 col. iv 1 Its interpretation: they are the wick[ed people of Judah], the 
house of Peleg, which consorted with Manasseh. Nah 3:10 She, too, fled to exile, 
[walked to captivity, also] 2 her children were dashed to pieces at every cross- 
road and for their nobles they cast lots and all [their] important people [were 
loaded] 3 with chains. Its interpretation concerns Manasseh, in the last time, 
since his control over Isfrael] will weaken [. . .] 4 his women, his children and his 
babies will go into captivity, his warriors and his nobles [will fall] by the sword. 
[Nah 3:11 You, too, will get drunk] 5 and hide away. Blank Its interpretation con- 
cerns the wicked of E[phraim who . . .] 6 since its cup will come after Manasseh 
[. . .Nah 3: n You, too, will seek] 7 a hideout in the city from the enemy. Its inter- 
pretation [concerns . ..] 8 their enemies in the city, [... Nah 3:12 All their for- 
tresses] 9 are fig-trees [laden with figs. . .] 

Frags. 3-4 col. v 1 [Nah 3: 13 Look, your people are ] women a[mong you. The 
gates of your land are wide open to your enemy, fire has devoured your bars.] 
2 [The interpretation ...] the whole border of Israel to the sea [... Nah 3:14 
Stock up with water for the siege;] 3 [reinforce] your defences; tread mud [and 
stamp on clay, put it in the mould . . .] 

E Commentary on Habakkuk 

lQHabakkuk Pesher (lQpHab) 

Col. 1 1 [Hah 1.1-2 Oracle received by the prophet Habakkuk in a vision. For how 

long, yhwh] will I ask for help without 2 [you hearing me; shout: Violence! to 
you without you saving me? The interpretation of this concerns the beginning 
of the 3 [final] 2 generation 3 [...] upon them 4 [.. .they] will shout against 5 [... 
Hab 1:3a Why do you make me see misdeeds and] show [me to]il? Blank 6 [The 
interpretation ...] of God with persecution and betrayal. 7 [...Hab 1:3b you set 
violence and destruction in front of me and brawls occur and quarrels arise]. 
Blank 8 [The interpretation . . .] spoils [. . .] and brawls 9 [. . . argument and they 


EXEGETICAI. LITERATURE 


lQpHab I -IV 


198 

[think] destruction 10 [...] Hab 1:4a For the Law falls into abeyance. zz [The 
interpretation . . .] that they have rejected the Law of God. 1 2 [Hab i:4bc And 
justice does not emerge as the winner, for the evildoer acc]osts the upright 
man. Blank 13 [Its interpretation: the evildoer is the Wicked Priest and the up- 
right man] is the Teacher of Righteousness 14 [who ... Hab 1:41 1 This] is why 
justice emerges 15 [distorted. The interpretation... ] and not [...] 

Col. 11 1 Hab 1:5 you reported it. Blank [The interpretation of the word concerns] 

the traitors with the Man of 2 Lies, since they do not [believe in the words of 
the] Teacher of Righteousness from the mouth of 3 God; (and it concerns) the 
traito[rs of the] new [covenant] since they did not 4 believe in the covenant of 
God [and dishonoured] his holy name. 5 Likewise: Blank The interpretation of 
the word [concerns the trai]tors in the 6 last days. They shall be violators of 
[the coven]ant who will not believe 7 when they hear all that is going [to happen 
to] the final generation, from the mouth of the 8 Priest whom God has placed 
wi[thin the Community,] to foretell the fulfilment of all 9 the words of his ser- 
vants, the prophets, [by] means of whom God has declared 10 all that is going 
to happen to his people [Israel]. Hab 1:6 For see, I will mobilize u the 
Chaldaeans, a cru[el and determined] people. Blank 12 Its interpretation con- 
cerns the Kittim, who are swift and powerful 13 in battle, to slay many [with 
the edge of the sword] in the kingdom of 14 the Kittim; they will vanquish 
[many countries] and will not believe 13 in the precepts of [God . . .] 16 and [. . .] 

Col. hi z and they will advance over the plain, to destroy and pillage the cities 
of the country. 2 For this is what he has said: Hab 1:6 «To vanquish foreign 
habitations*. Hab 1. 7 It is terrible 3 and terrible; from his very self his justice 
and his preeminence arise. Blank 4 The interpretation of this concerns the 
Kittim, due to the fear and dread they provoke in all 5 /the peoples;/ their 
intrigues are planned ahead, and with cunning and treachery 6 they behave 
towards all the peoples. Hab 1:8 Their horsemen are swifter than panthers; they 
are more savage 7 than wolves at night. Blank Their riders leap and hurl them- 
selves from afar. 8 They will fly like the eagle stooping to gorge itself. Hab 1:9 
All of them resort to force; the breath of 9 their faces is like the East wind. Blank 
[Its interpretation concerns the Kittim, who 10 trample the land with their 
horses and their animals zz and come from far off, from the islands of the sea, 
to devour all the peoples, like an eagle, 12 insatiable. With fury [they will as- 
semble, and with bu]rning wrath 13 and livid faces they will speak to all [the 
peoples.] For this is what 14 he has said: [Hab 1:9 The breath of their faces is like 
the East wind. And they amass] captives [like sa]nd. 15 [The interpretation of 
this [...] 

Col. iv z Hab 1: 10a they sneer [at kings] and mock leaders. Blank Its interpretation: 


lQpHab iv-vi 


PESHARIM 


199 


2 they deride the powerful and despise the honoured men; at kings j and 
princes they mock, and sneer at a great people. Hab 1:10b And he 4 laughs at all 
the strong fortresses, rams down earth and captures it. 5 The interpretation of 
this concerns the leaders of the Kittim, who despise the 6 fortresses of the peo- 
ples and with disdain laugh at them, 7 they surround them with a huge army 
to capture them. And through dread and fear 8 they surrender to their hands, 
and they demolish them because of the wickedness of their occupants. 9 Hab 
1:11 Then the wind changed and went on. He made his might 10 his God. Blank 
The interpretation of this concerns the leaders of the Kittim, 11 who on the 
resolution of the House of Blafme] go by, one 12 in front of the other. [Their] 
leaders, one after another, will come 13 to raze the earth. Hab 1:11 He [made] his 
might his God. 14 Its interpretation [...] to the peoples 15 [...] 

Col. v 1 [Hab i:i2b-i3a You have appointed him to judge: Rock, you have installed 
him to correct. Your eyes are too pure 2 to be looking at evil, you cannot be 
staring at tyranny. Blank 3 Interpretation of the word: God is not to destroy his 
people at the hand of nations, 4 but by means of his chosen ones God will 
judge all the nations; 5 all the evildoers of his people will be pronounced guilty 
for the reproof of those who kept his commandments 6 in their hardship. For 
this is what he has said: Hab 1:13a «Your eyes are too pure to look 7 at evil». Blank 
Its interpretation: his eyes have not drawn them to licentiousness in the era of 
8 wickedness. Hab 1:13b Why are you staring, traitors, and you maintain your 
silence when 9 a wicked person consumes someone more upright than himself? 
Blank Its interpretation concerns the House of Absalom 10 and the members of 
his council, who kept silent at the time of the reproach of the Teacher of Righ- 
teousness, 11 and did not help him against the Man of Lies, Blank who rejected 
12 the Law in the midst of their whole Comm[unity.] Hab 1:14-16 You made man 
like fish of the sea, 13 like a reptile, to govern him. All of [them] he removes 
[with a fish]-hook, catches in a net 14 and collects in [a seine. This is why he 
offers sacrifices to his net; this is why he rejoices 15 fand is happy and burns 
incense to his seine; since by them] his portion is fat 16 [and his food rich...] 

Col. vi 1 of the Kittim, and they will garner their wealth with all their loot 2 like 
the fish of the sea. And what it says: Hab 1:16a For this he sacrifices to his net 

3 and burns incense to his seine. Blank Its interpretation: they 4 offer sacrifices 
to their standards and their weapons are 5 the object of their worship. Hab 1.16b 
Since by them his portion is fat and his food rich. Its interpretation: they have 
shared out their yoke and 7 their burden, which is their food, among all the 
peoples, year after year, ravaging many countries. Hab 1:17 For this he continu- 
ally unsheathes his sword 9 to kill peoples without pity. Blank 10 Its interpreta- 
tion concerns the Kittim who will cause many to die by the edge of the sword, 
1 1 youths, adults and old people, women and children; not even 12 children at 


200 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


lQpHab VI -IX 


the breast will they pity. Hab 2:1-2 I will stand firm in my sentry-post, 13 I will 
position myself in my fortress to see what he says to me, 14 what he answers to 
my allegation, yhwh answered me is and said: Write the vision; inscribe it on 
tablets so that 16 [he who reads it] takes it on the run. Hab 2: 1-2 [. . .] 

Col. vn 1 And God told Habakkuk to write what was going to happen 2 to the 
last generation, but he did not let him know the end of the age. 3 Blank And as 
for what he says: Hab 2: 2 ] «So that the one who reads it /may run/». 4 Its inter- 
pretation concerns the Teacher of Righteousness, to whom God has disclosed 
5 all the mysteries of the words of his servants, the prophets. Hab 2:3 For the 
vision has an appointed time, it will have an end and not fail. Blank 7 Its inter- 
pretation: the final age will be extended and go beyond all that 8 the prophets 
say, because the mysteries of God are wonderful. 9 Hab 2:3b Though it might 
delay, wait for it; it definitely has to come and will not 10 delay. Blank Its inter- 
pretation concerns the men of truth, 11 those who observe the Law, whose 
hands will not desert the service 12 of truth when the final age is extended be- 
yond them, because 13 all the ages of God will come at the right time, as he 
established 14 for them in the mysteries of his prudence. Hab 2:4 See, 1 5 [his 
soul within him] is conceited and does not give way. Blank Its interpretation: 
they will double 16 [persecution] upon them [and find no mercy] at being 
judged. Blank 

Col. viii z Its interpretation concerns all observing the Law in the House of 
Judah, whom 2 God will free from punishment on account of their deeds and 
of their loyalty 3 to the Teacher of Righteousness. Hab 2:5-6 Surely wealth will 
corrupt the boaster 4 and one who distends his jaws like the abyss and is as 
greedy as death will not be restrained. 5 All the nations ally against him, all the 
peoples collaborate against him. 6 Are they not all, perhaps, going to chant 
verses against him, explaining riddles at his expense? 7 They shall say: Ah, one 
who amasses the wealth of others! How long will he load himself 8 with debts? 
Blank Its interpretation concerns the Wicked Priest, who 9 is called by the name 
of loyalty at the start of his office. However, when he ruled 10 over Israel his 
heart became conceited, he deserted God and betrayed the laws for the sake of 
n riches. And he stole and hoarded wealth from the brutal men who had re- 
belled against God. 12 And he seized public money, incurring additional serious 
sin. 13 And he performed repulsive acts of every type of filthy licentiousness. 
Hab 2:7-8 Will 14 your creditors not suddenly get up, and those who shake you 
wake up? You will be their prey. 13 Since you pillaged many countries the rest 
of the peoples will pillage you. 16 Blank The interpretation of the word concerns 
the Priest who rebelled 17 [...] the precepts of [God...] 

Col. ix 1 being distressed by the punishments of sin; the horrors of 2 terrifying 


lQpHab ix-xi 


PESHARIM 


201 


maladies acted upon him, as well as vengeful acts on his fleshly body. And what 

3 it says: Hab 2:8a «Since you pillaged many countries the rest of the peoples will 
pillage you». Blank Its interpretation concerns the last priests of Jerusalem, 
5 who will accumulate riches and loot from plundering the peoples. 6 However, 
in the last days their riches and their loot will fall into the hands 7 of the army 
of the Kittim. Blank For they are Hab 2:8a «the greatest of the peoples*. 8 Hab 2:8b 
For the human blood [spilt] and the violence done to the country, the city and 
all its /occupants/. Blank 9 Its interpretation concerns the Wicked Priest, since 
for the wickedness against the Teacher of 10 Righteousness and the members 
ot his council God delivered him into the hands of his enemies to disgrace him 
17 with a punishment, to destroy him with bitterness of soul for having acted 
wickedly 12 against his elect. Hab 2:g-n Woe to anyone putting ill-gotten gains 
in his house, placing 13 his nest high up to escape the power of evil! You have 
planned the insult 14 to your house, exterminating many countries and sinning 
against your soul. For 13 the stones will shout from the walls, and the wooden 
beams will answer. 16 [The interpretation of the quo]te concerns the [priest] 
who [...] 

Col. x 1 for its stone to be for repression and the beam of its wood for pillage. 
And what 2 it says: Hab 2:10 ((Exterminating many countries and sinning against 
your soul». Blank 3 Its interpretation: it is the house of judgment, for God will 
give 4 his judgment among many countries and from there will lead him to 
punishment. 5 And in their midst he will proclaim him guilty and will punish 
him with sulphurous fire. Hab 2: 12-13 Woe 6 to him who builds a city with blood 
and founds a town on a misdeed! Does 7 this not stem from yhwh of Hosts? 
The peoples wear themselves out for fire and 8 the nations are exhausted for 
nothing. Blank 9 The interpretation of the word concerns the Spreader of De- 
ceit, who has misdirected many, 10 building a useless city with blood and erect- 
ing a community by subterfuge 11 for his own renown, wearing out many by 
useless work and by making them conceive 12 acts of deceit, so that their 
labours are for nothing; so that 13 those who derided and insulted God’s chosen 
will go to the punishment of fire. 14 Hab 2:14 For the earth will become full of 
the knowledge of yhwh’s glory just as water 15 fills the sea. Blank Interpreta- 
tion of the word: 16 in his return [. . .] 

Col. xi 1 deceit. Afterwards, knowledge will be revealed to them, as plentiful as 
the water 2 in the sea. Hab 2: 15 Woe to anyone making his companion drunk, 
spilling out 3 his anger! He even makes him drunk to look at their festivals! 

4 Blank Its interpretation concerns the Wicked Priest who 5 pursued the Teach- 
er of Righteousness to consume him with the ferocity 6 of his anger in the 
place of his banishment, in festival time, during the rest 7 of the day of Atone- 
ment. He paraded in front of them, to consume them 8 and make them fall on 


202 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


lQpHab . 1Q15 


the day of fasting, the sabbath of their rest. Hab 2:16 You are more glutted 
9 with insults than with awards. Drink up also and stagger! 10 The cup of 
yhwh’s right hand will turn against you and disgrace come n upon your glory. 
Blank 12 Its interpretation concerns the Priest whose shame has exceeded his 
glory 13 because he did not circumcise the foreskin of his heart and has walked 
on paths of 14 drunkenness to slake his thirst; but the cup of 1 5 God’s anger 
will engulf him, heaping up [shame upon him.] And the pain 

Col. xii 7 Hab 2:17 will appal you owing to the human blood and the violence 
(against) the country, the city and all its occupants. 2 The interpretation of the 
word concerns the Wicked Priest, to pay him the 3 reward for what he did to 
the poor. Because Lebanon is 4 the Council of the Community and the Animals 
are the simple folk: of Judah, those who observe 5 the Law. God will sentence 
him to destruction, Blank 6 exactly as he intended to destroy the poor. And as 
for what he says: Hab 2:17 «Owing to the blood 7 of the city and the violence 
(against) the country». Its interpretation: the city is Jerusalem 8 since in it the 
/Wicked/ Priest performed repulsive acts and defiled 9 the Sanctuary of God. 
The violence against the country are the cities of Judah which 10 he plundered 
of the possessions of the poor. Hab 2:18 What use is the sculpture which the 
craftsman carves, 77 (or) the cast effigy and sham oracle, in whom their crafts- 
man trusts, 72 to make dumb idols? The interpretation of the word concerns all 
the 7 s idols of the nations which they made, to serve them and bow down 14 in 
front of them. But they will not save them on the day of Judgment. Hab 2:19 
Woe 75 to anyone [saying to wo]od: Wake up! and to a silent stone: [Get up!] 

Col. xiii 7 Hab 2:20 Silence in his presence, all the world! Its interpretation con- 
cerns all the nations 2 which serve stone and wood. However, (on) the day 3 of 
judgment God will obliterate all the worshippers of idols, 4 and all the wicked, 
from the earth. Blank 5-15 Blank 

F Commentaries on Zephaniah 

tQZephaniah Pesher (1Q15 [lQpZeph]) 

[7 Zeph 1:18 . . . with the fire of] his zeal [all the earth] will be consumed; [because 
unquestionably he will cause the devastation,] 2 [the obliteration of all the 
inhabitants of the earth. Zeph 2:1-2 Gather together [and huddle up, people, 
/[before you scatter like] chaff which passes in one day/ 3 [without shame, 
before] the fire of the Lord’s wrath [overtakes you,] 4 [before the day of] the 
Lord’s wrath [overtakes you.] The interpretation 5 [of the word concerns all the 
occupants] of the land of Judah, since [...] 6 [...] will be [...] 


5 Qio . 4Q170-17 1 


PESHARIM 


203 


4QZephaniah Pesher (4Q170 [4QpZeph]) 

1 [Zeph 1:12-13 . . .] yhwh [does not do] good and does not do evil. [Their wealth] 
will be plundered [and their houses flattened. . .] 2 [...] he cannot [.. .] Its inter- 
pretation [concerns ...] 


G Commentary on Malachi 
SQMalachi Pesher (5Q10 [5QpMal(?)]) 

1 [Mai 1:14 Curse the cheat who has a male in his flock and offers a] maimed 
[victim] to the L[ord.] 2 [Its interpretation concerns those . . . who] make fun of 
animals [...] 3 [...] Mai 1:14 Because I am the Great King, s[ays] 4 [yhwh of 
Hosts, and my name is feared among the peoples. Its interpretation:] he is a 
living God and [...]5 [...]...[...] 

H Commentaries on the Psalms 
4QPsalms Pesher a (4Q171 [4QpPs a ]) 

Col. 1 20 [ft 37:6 ... He will make your justice come out like the dawn and your 

rights like] midday. 21 [Its interpretation concerns the congregation of the poor 
who are ready to do] the will of 22 [God. . .] the arrogant ones choose 23 [. . . who 
l]ove slovenliness and mislead 24 [...] wickedness at the hands of E[phra]im. 
Blank 25 [ft 37:7 Be si]lent before [yhwh and] hope in him, do not be annoyed 
with one who is affluent, with someone who 26 [hatches] plots. Its [interpreta- 
tion] concerns the Man of Lies who misled many with 27 deceptive words since 
they thought up absurdities and [did not] listen to the Interpreter of knowl- 
edge. This is why 

Col. 11 1 they will die by the sword, by hunger and by plague. Ps 37:8-9 Curb 

anger and control temper and do not get 2 exasperated; it only leads to evil and 
those doing evil will be cut off. Its interpretation concerns all who converted 
3 to the law, who do not reject their separation from their wickedness, for all 
the rebels 4 to convert from their sin will be cut off. Ps 37:9 And those who hope 
in yhwh will inherit the land. Its interpretation: 5 they are the congregation of 
his elect who carry out his will, ft 37:10 A short while yet and the wicked will 
no longer exist. 6 Blank 7 Ps 37:10 I will stare at his place and he will no longer be 
there. Its interpretation concerns all the evil at the end 8 of the forty years, for 
they shall be devoured and upon the earth no wicked person will be found. 
9 Ps 37:11 And the poor shall inherit the land and enjoy peace in plenty. Its in- 
terpretation concerns 10 the congregation of the poor who will tolerate the pe- 


204 


EXEGETICAI. LITERATURE 


4 Q 171 II — III 


riod of distress and will be rescued from all the snares of 11 Belial. Afterwards, 
all who shall inherit the land will enjoy and grow fat with everything. . . 72 of 
the flesh. Blank 13 Ps 37: 12-13 The wicked plots against the just person, grinding 
[his teeth] agafinst him;] yhwh laughs at him because he sees 14 that his day is 
coming. Its interpretation alludes to the ruthless ones of the covenant who are 
in the House of Judah, who 75 plot to destroy those who observe the law, who 
are in the Community Council. But God will not surrender them 16 into their 
hands. Ps 37:14-13 The evildoers unsheathe the sword and discharge their bows 
to bring down the poor and humble, 1 7 to murder those on the correct path. 
Their swords shall pierce their own hearts and their bows shall break. 18 Its 
interpretation concerns the wicked of Ephraim and Manasseh who will attempt 
to lay hands ig on the Priest and the members of his council in the period of 
testing which will come upon to them. However, God will save them 20 from 
their hands and after they will be delivered into the hands of dreadful nations 
for judgment. 21 Blank 22 Ps 33:16 Better is the little for the just man than the 
plenty of the many wicked. [Its interpretation concerns . . .] 23 who observes the 
law, who does not [...] 24 for evil things. Ps 37:17-18 For the arms [of wicked 
men will be broken, but yhwh supports just men] 25 yh[wh knows the days 
of perfect men and their inheritance will last for ever. Its interpretation con- 
cerns . . .] 26 [their] will [...] 27 [ft 37:19 They shall not] be ashamed in [the evil 
time. Its interpretation concerns...] 

Col. ill 7 those who have returned from the wilderness, who will live for a thou- 
sand generations, in safety; for them there is all the inheritance of 2 Adam and 
for his descendants for ever, ft 37:19-20 And in the days of famine they shall be 
replete; for the wicked 3 shall die. Its interpretation: he will keep them alive 
during the famine of the time of [distress, when many 4 will die because of 
famine and plague: all who did not leave [there] with 5 the congregation of his 
chosen ones. / Blank Ps 37:20 Whoever loves yhwh will be like precious lambs. 
Its interpretation [concerns. . .]/ who will be chiefs and princes over [the whole 
congregation, like shepherds] 6 of ewes in among their flocks. Blank [...] 7 Ps 
37:20 Like smoke they all vanish. [Its] interpretation concerns the wicked 
princes who 8 oppress his holy people, who will die like smoke which 
disappears in the w]ind. Ps 37:21-22 The wicked asks for a loan but does not pay, 
g while the just man is sympathetic and gives. For those who are blessed by 
him shall inherit the earth, but those who are cursed by him shall be cut off. 
70 Its interpretation concerns the congregation of the poor [for of them is] the 
inheritance of the whole wor[ld. 11 They will inherit the high mountain of 
Israel [and] delight [in his] holy [mou]ntain, «but those who are [cursed by him 
72 will be cut off». These are the ruthless ones of the cofvenant, the wicke]d 
men of Israel who will be cut off and exterminated 13 for ever. Blank 14 Ps 37:23- 
24 For by yhwh [the steps of a man] are secure; he delights in his path: even 


4Q171 III— IV 


PESHARIM 


205 


though he stumbles he will not 13 fall, for yhwh [supports his hand]. Its inter- 
pretation concerns the Priest, the Teacher of [Righteousness, whom] 16 God 
chose to stand [in front of him, for] he installed him to found the congregation 
[of his chosen ones] for him, 13 [and straightened out his path, in truth, ft 
37:25-26 I used to be [young] and am old now; yet I have [not] seen [a just per- 
son] 18 deserted or his offspring begging for bread. [Daily] he has compassion 
and makes loans, and his offspring is blessed. The interpretation] ig of the 
word concerns the Teac[her of Righteousness who ...] 20 and [. . .] 

Col. iv 1 judgment and does not desert his devout ones. They shall be annihi- 
lated for ever and the offspring of the wicked will be cut off. Its interpretation: 

] they are the ruthless ones 2 [of the covenant who. . .] the law. Ps 37:29 The just 
[will inherit the earth and live] on it [for] ever. 3 [Its interpretation. . . they shall 
inherit the earth] over a thousand [generations, ft 37:30-31 The mouth of the 
just man utters] wisdom and his tongue speaks 4 [justice; the law of his God is 
in his heart; his steps will not falter. Its interpretation concerns ...] of the 
truth, who speaks 5 [. . .] announces them. Blank 6 Blank 7 Ps 37:32-33 The wicked 
person spies on the just person and tries [to kill him. yh]wh [will not relin- 
quish him into his hand, or] permit them to convict him when he is judged. 
8 Its interpretation concerns the [Wic]ked Priest, who spies on the just man 
[and wants] to kill him [...] and the law g which sent him; but [God will not 
desert him] or permit them to convict him when he is judged. But [God] will 
pay [him] his reward, delivering him w into the hands of dreadful nations so 
that they can carry out [vengeance] upon him. [fts 37:34 Wait for yhwh] and 
observe his path and he will promote you, so that you inherit u the earth; and 
you shall see the destruction of the wicked. [Its interpretation concerns the 
community of the poor] who will see the judgment of evil, and with 12 his cho- 
sen one will rejoice in the true inheritance. Blank 13 Ps 37:35-36 I saw a dreadful 
wicked man, who displayed himself [like a leafy tree.] I passed by his place [and 
he no longer existed; I looked for him] and did not 14 [find him. Its interpreta- 
tion alludes] to the Man of Lies [who . . .] ... against God’s chosen [and tried] 
to end with 15 [...]...[...] to carry out judgment [against him] [...] he acted 
impertinently with an arrogant hand 16 [...] ... | ft 37:37 Observe the man of 
integrity and watch] the upright man, [for there is a future for the man] of 
peace. Its interpretation concerns 17 [. . .] ... [. . .] peace. Ps 37:38 But the rebels 
18 will be obliterated together, and the future of the [wicked will end up sev- 
ered. Its interpretation concerns the traitors with the Man of Lies who] will die 
and be cut off ig from among the congregation of the Community, [ft J7. J9 The 
salvation of just men comes from yhwh. He is their refuge in the moment of 
danger, yhwh assists them] 20 and rescues them and delivers them from the 
wicked [and saves them, because they take refuge in him. Its interpretation . . .] 
21 God will save them and free them from the hand of the wicked [. . .] 22 Blank 


206 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


iqi6 . 4Q173 


23 Ps 45:1 To the choirmaster. According to the Liflies. A Maskil of the sons of 
Korah. Love-song. Its interpretation: ] They are the seven divisions of 24 the 
converts of Isjrael who ...] [Ps 45:2] My heart [overflows with a good poem, 

25 I refcite my verses to the king. Its interpretation ...] of the holy spirit, for 

26 [. . .] the books of [. . .] Blank Ps 45:2 And my tongue is the pen of 27 fa speedy 
scribe. Its interpretation concerns] the Teacher of [Righteousness...] before 
God with eloquent tongue 

Col. v [and] with influential] mouth [...] to return together to the law w[ith a 
whole heart...] 2 [...] ... [...] the chosen of Israel [...] 

Frag. 13 j [[...]...[...] 2 [. . .] Blank [. . .] 3 [ft 60: 8-q = Ps io8:8-g G]od spoke [in his 
sanctuary: I will exult, I will divide up Shechem,] 4 parcel out [the Valley of 
Suc]coth; mine is [Gilead and mine Manasseh, and Ephraim is the helmet of 
my head.] 5 [Its interpretation concerns Gi]lead and to the half tribe [of Manas- 
seh which ...] 6 [...] they will be reunited [...] 

tQPsalms Pesher (1Q16 [tQpPs]) 

Frags. 3-4 1 [...]...[...] 2 [...] ... they acknowledged ...[...] they observed [...] 

3 [...] ... Ps 68:13 the kings of the armies go flfeeing, go fleeing; she who lives 
at home shares out the loot.] Its interpretation: the ho[me is ...] 4 [...] ... the 
grandeur [...]5 [...] which they share out [...] 6 [...] ... 

Frag. 8 1 [Ps 68:26 In the middle go the girls playing tambourines.] Bless G[od] 

in choirs. [The interpretation ...]2[... the ble]ssing of hope for blessing ...[...] 

Frag. 9 1 [Ps 68:30 To your temple, to Jerusalem, kings bring] gifts. Its interpre- 

tation concerns all the ...[...] 2 [...] before him in Jerusalem. Ps 68:31 Rebuke 
the savage [beast of the reedbed;] 3 [the herd of bulls are the calves of the peo- 
ples, who proceed with ingots of] silver. Its interpretation: the savage beast of 
the ree[dbed is] 4 [. . .the Kitjtim for ...[...] 

4QPsalms Pesher* (4Q173 [4QpPs*]) 

Frag. 1 /[...]...[...] 2 [...] who looked for [...] 3 [...]... of the Teacher of 

Righteousness [. . .] 4 [. . . pri]est in the final era [. . .] 5 [. . .] Blank [. . .] 6 [. . .] and 
the fever, the inheritance of [...] 

Frag. 2 /[...] Blank The interpretation of the quotation. . .] 2 [. . .the Te]acher of 

Righteousness...] 


4 Q 173 3-4 


PESHARIM 


207 


Frag. 3 1 the man [...] 2 [...] who will be ...[ 

ashamed ...[•••] 


] 3 [. . .] they shall not be 


Frag. 4 1 [ft i2g.y-8 which does not] fill the hand of the reaper or [the armful of 

the one who binds, nor do those who pass by say to him:] 2 [«May yh]wh 
ble[ss] you. [We bless you in the name of yhwh . . .] 3 [. . .] the wicked [...]... 


208 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


4QI76 


4 Other texts 

4QTanhumin (4Q176 [4QTanh]) 

Frags. 1-2 col. 1 1 Perform your marvel, do your people justice and ... [...] 

2 your temple. Argue with kingdoms over the blood of [...] j Jerusalem. See 
the corpses of your priests [. . .] 4 there is no-one to bury them. And of the book 
of Isaiah: Words of consolation. [Is 40:1-5 Be consoled, consoled, my people!] 
5 says your God; speak to the heart of Jerusalem and shofut to her that her 
service is done,] that 6 her fault has been forgiven, that from the hand of **** 
she has received double for all her sins. A voice shouts: 7 in the wilderness clear 
the path of ****, straighten out a roadway for our God in the [the ste]ppe. 
Every valley is to be raised, 8 [and every mountain and hi]ll to be flattened; the 
rough terrain is to be made into a plain, [and the peaks into] a plateau, 9 [And 
the] glory of **** [will be revealed.] Is 48:1-9 But you, Israel, are my servant, 
Jafcob, whom I cho]se, 10 [seed of Abra]ham, my favourite, whom I took [from 
the en]ds of the earth, and [whom I called] from faraway lands; n and I [said] 
to you: You are my servant, [I chose you and did not reje[ct] you! 

Frags. 1-2 col. 11 1 [**** who are] loyal, the holy one of Isr[rael, and he has 

chosen you. Is 40: 13-13 Celebrate, heavens, rejoice, earth;] 2 erupt with applause, 
mountains! For God has consoled [his people, and has compassion on his poor. 
But Zion said:] 3 **** has deserted me [and my Lord has forgotten me. Does 
a woman, perhaps, forget her suckling child, stop having compassion for the 
fruit of her womb?] 4 Even should she forget, [I will not forget you! See, I have 
inscribed you on the palms of my hand,] 5 your ramparts [are always before me. 
Your rebuilders are in a hurry, your wreckers and your destroyers] 6 depart 
from you. [...] 

Frags. 9-11 7. ..[...]... Blank 2 [Ls 52: 1-3 Wake up, wake up, put on strength,] 

Zion; put [on your party clothes, Jerusalem, holy city, for 3 [no longer will 
either uncircumcised or unclean enter you! Shake the dust from yourself, get 
u]p, be seated, Jerusalem, undo 4 [the fetters from your neck,] prisoner, [daugh- 
ter of Zion! For so] says [****: For nothing have you been sold, and without] 
money will you be ransomed. 5 [ Blank ?] 1154:4-10 Do not fear, [for] you will {} 
not be ashamfed, do not smile, for] you will not be insulted. Because the indig- 
nity of 6 [your spinst]erhood you are to forget and the humiliation of your wid- 
owhood you are [not] to remember any more. For your husband will be your 
maker, **** 7 [Seba’ot] is his name, your redeemer will be the Holy One of 
Is[rael, the one] called [God of all the ea]rth. Because, as a woman, abandoned 
8 [and troubled in] spirit has **** called you; and the wife of youth, why 
should she be discarded? says **** your God. 9 [A] short [moment] I deserted 


4Q176 . 177 i 


OTHER TEXTS 


209 


you, but with great compassion I will take you back. In a fit of anger [I hid my 
face] 10 from you [for a moment,] but with everlasting tenderness I took pity on 
you, says **** your redeemer. As in (the) days of Noah will this be for me; as 
11 [I swore] that the waters of Noah would not flood the earth, so have I sworn 
not to become angry with you again or threaten you. 12 Should [even the 
mountains move or the hills wobble, my compassion will not shift from you 
[...] 13 [...] Blank Lose hope (?) until the words of comfort and of great glory. 
It is written in [. . .] 14 [. . .] among those who love [. . .] no longer since the time 
of [...] Blank 15 [Beli]al to oppress his servants by [...] 16 [...] will rejoice [...] 
I will raise her who lies [. . .] 17 [. . .] ... [. . .] 

Frags. 16+17+18 + 22 + 23 + 53 1 and [. . .] Blank And how much more in the 

temple [...] the possession of his hand, for [man] is not vindicated 2 before 
[him.] Because he created every [spirit] of the eternal generations, [and with] 
his commandment [he established] all the paths. The earth 3 he created [with 
his rigjht (hand) before it existed, and he continually supervises everything 
[there is in it. And in his] mystery he causes the lot to fall on man in order to 
give [. . .] 4 [. . .] with the angel of [. . .] holy, and in order to give man’s reward 
bef[ore] 5 [. . .] eight [. . .] over those who love him and over those who keep his 
commandmen[ts.] 6 [. . .] he showed himself to us since ...[...] forget his cove- 
nant. Blank And to[.. .]/[...] the Law [. . .] changes in order to be [...]<?[.. .] the 
Law [. . .] completing them. [. . .] 9 [. . .] ... [. . .] 

4QCatena‘ < (4Q177 [4QCatena“]) 

Col. 1 (frags. 5 + 6 + 8) 1 [. . .] the braggarts who [. . . in the ordeal to co]me upon 

the men of the Commufnity,] 2 [as it is written in the book of Isaiah the 
pro]phet: Is 37:30 This year what gro[ws of itself] will be eaten, [and the follow- 
ing year the self-seeded yield. And what it s]ays: «what grows of itself», is 3 [. . .] 
until the period of the ordefal which comes upon...] After this [...] will arise 
*[...] for all of them are children [. . .] The braggarts said [...] 5 [... as is writ- 
ten] about them in the book of I[saiah the prophet: . . .] for the law of [. . .] 6 [. . .] 
calls them, as [is written about them in the book of Isaiah the prophet: Is 32:7 
He] hatches wicked plots to desftroy the poor] 7 [with cunning words... the] 
Insolent One to Israel [... Ps 11:1 For the choirmaster.] Of David. In yhwh [I 
trusted.] 8 [For, see, the wicked draw the bow,] notch arrows [to the string, to 
aim in the darkness at those with an honest heart. Its interpretation:] the me[n 
of . . .] will flee 9 [. . .and he will flee] like a bird from its spot and will be exifled 
from his land. Blank And this is what is written about th]em in the book of [. . .] 
10 [Mic 2:10-11 On account of uncleanness he will ravage you with a dreadful 
destruction. If a man should run after the win[d and invent untruths: «I fore- 
tell strong drink and wine for you» he would be] a preacher for the people. This 


210 


EXEGET1CAL LITERATURE 


4Q177 I — hi 


[is ...] u [...] as is written about them in the book of [...] the experts [...] 

12 [<••] {•••} Bhmk (Ps 12) For the choirmaster. On the ei[ghth ...] for he has no 
knowledge] 13 [...] they are the eighth division [...] compassion [...] 14 [... 
and] there is [no] peace. For they are [. . .] 15 [as is written in the book of Isaiah, 
the prophet:] Is 22: 13 Sacrifice of oxen and slaughter of flocks, efating meat and 
drinking wine. . .] 16 [. . .] the Law, those who make up the Community [. . .] 

Col. 11 (frags. 11+10 + 26 + 9 + 20 + 7) 1 [ft 12.7 The words of yhwh are pure 

words, silver purified in a clay crucible, re]fined seven times. As is written 2 [in 
the book of the prophet Zachariah: Zac 7:9 Upon this single stone there are 
seven eyes; see, ] its inscription is engraved, oracle of yhwh. What 3 [. . .a]s is 
written about them: «I shall cure the [. . .] 4 [. . .a]ll the men of Belial and all the 
rabble 5 [. . .] them, the Interpreter of the law, because there are no 6 [. . .] each 
one upon his wall when they stand firm 7 [. . .] those who make the sons of light 
stumble 8 [. . . Ps 13:2-3 How long, yhwh?] Are you going to forget me [for ever? 
How long will you hi]de your face [from me?] How long am I to churn over 
9 [worries in my soul, anxieties in my heart each day?] How long [is my enemy 
to lord it over me?] The interpretation of the word concerns the purification 
of the heart of the men of 10 [the Community...] in the last days [...] to test 
them and refine them 11 [. . .] them by the spirit, and the spotless and purified 
[. . .What it] says: «The enemy is not to say 12 [I have proceeded against him» 
Blank ] These are the congregation of Those Looking for Easy Interpretations, 
who [. . .] who seek to destroy 13 [the members of the Community . . .] by their 
fervour and their animosity [...] as is written in the book of Ezekiel, the 
prophet 14 [. . . Ez 23:8 House of Israel] and of Judah, like all the peoples. [The 
interpretation of the word concerns the] last [days] when against them will rally 

13 [...] a just people, but the wicked, the demented and the simpleton [. . .] the 
men who serve God 16 [...who] circumcise the foreskin of their heart in the 
las[t] generation [...] and all that belongs to them, he will pronounce unclean 
and not 

Col. hi (frags. 2 + 24+14 + 3 + 4+1 + 31) 1 [... a]ll their words [...] the praises 

of his glory, as [. . .sa]ys 2 [. . . Dt 7:13 yhwh will remove] all illnesses from you. 
Ps 16:3 As for the ho[ly ones who are] in the land, they are all the powerful ones 
[in whom] I delight [...] 3 [...] will be like him [...Nah 2:11] and shaking of 

knees and trembling in every lo[in ] 4 [...] Ps 17:1 Listen, [yhwh, the just,] 

take notice of my shout, give ear to [my plaint . . .] 5 [. . .] in the last days, at the 
time when [...] will seek the advice of the Community. He is [...] 6 [...] The 
interpretation of the word: A man of the ho[use of ...] will arise ... [.. .] 7 [.. .] 
and they will be like fire for the whole world. And these are ones about whom 
it is written for the last days [...] ... [...] 8 [...] rules over the lot of the light 
which is in mourning during the reign of Belfial, and the one who rules over 


4Q173 • i8o 


OTHER TEXTS 


211 


the lot of darkness,] which is in mourning [ . . .] 9 [. . . ] of him [. . .] return to the 
chiefs of mourning [...] God of compassion and God of Israel [•■■] ••• 10 [•■■] 
who have rebelled against the spirits of Belial and they will be forgiven for 
ever, and [. . .] will bless them again {by the hand of} for ever, and [. . .] will bless 
them [ . . . ] their periods 1 1 f . . .] of their fathers, according to the number of their 
names, according to the precise list of their names, man to man, [. . .] their years 
and the period of their service [...] their tongues 12 [...] the descendants of 
Judah [. . .] And now, see, everything has been written on the tablets which [.. .] 
and showed them the number of [all the generations, and gave him in inheri- 
tance 13 [...] to him and to his seed forever. And he lifted him from there to 
walk from Aram [...] Hoss:8 Sound the horn in Gibeah. The horn is the book 
1 4 [of the Law. . . the trum]pet of alarm is the book of the Second Law which 
all the men of his council have spurned and they have spoken revolt against 
him. And he sent 75 [. . .] great signs {. . .} over [. . .] And Jacob will be over the 
wine-press and will rejoice over the descent of 16 [. . .] by the sword [. . .] (to) the 
men of his council. They are the sword. And as for what he says: 

Col. iv (frags. 19 + 12 + 13 1 + 15) 1 [...]...[...] 2 [...] those who do disgusting 

things come to me [...] j [...] spend the night together and [...] 4 [...] wallow 
[...] 5 [.. .] I shall gather the anger [...] 6 [...] they shall be converted and [.. . 
Jer 18: 18 For] the Law [is not to disappear] from the pr[iest, nor advice from the 
sage, nor the word] from the prophet 7 [. . .] for the last days, as David said: Ps 
6:2-3 yhwh, do not scold me in anger. [Take pity on me yhwh,] for I am col- 
lapsing. #[...] Ps 6:4s My soul is very troubled; but you, yhwh, how long? 
Take pity on me, save my li[fe. . .] over 9 [. . .] Belial, to destroy him in his anger, 
for there will no longer be [. . .he will not] give rest to Belial 10 [. . . Abra]ham, 
until there are ten just men in the city, for the spirit of truth [. . .fo]r there are 
no 11 [.. .] and his brothers through the scheming of Belial, and he will triumph 
over them [...]... 12 [. . .] the angel of his truth will ransom all the sons of light 
from the power of Belial [...] 13 their hands [...] to scatter them in a dry and 
bleak land. This is the period of distress [. . .] 14 because [. . .] continually (?) the 
just man will flee and God’s great hand will be with them to rescue them from 
all the spirits [of Belial...] 15 [...those who f]ear God, they will sanctify his 
name and enter Zion with joy, and Jerusalem [. . .] 16 [. . .] Belial and all the men 
of his lot will be finished for ever, and all the sons of light will be reunited [. . .] 

Col. v (frag . 13 11) 1-4 [. . .] s Belial [. . .] 6 for the la[st] days [...] 7 the horn [. . .] 

Si shall cover them [...] 9 God [...] 10 Belial [...] 11 the men of [...] 12-16 [...] 

4QAges of Creation (4Q180 [4QAgesCreat]) 


Frag. 1 1 Interpretation concerning the ages which God has made: An age to 


212 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


4Q180 . 181 


achieve [all that there is] 2 and all that will be. Before creating them he deter- 
mined their operations [according to the precise sequence of the ages,] 3 one 
age after another age. And this is engraved on the [heavenly] tablets [for the 
sons of men,] 4 [for] /all/ the ages of their dominion. This is the sequence of 
the so[ns of Noah, from Shem to Abraham,] 5 [unt]il he sired Isaac; the ten 
generations . . .] 6 Blank 7 Interpretation concerning c Azaz’el and the angels who 
[penetrated the daughters of man] 8 [and] sired giants by them. And concerning 
c Azaz’el [who misled them into fallacy,] 9 [to love] sin and to make them inherit 
evil for all the ag[es, for destruction] 10 [for the fervour] of the judgments and 
the judgment of the council of [...] 

Frags. 2-4 col. 11 1 [. . . Mount Zi]on on which God resides for e[ver . . .] 2 which 

[. . .] attractive for Lot (?), to inherit [. . .] 3 the earth [. . .] Blank The three men 
[who] 4 appeared to [Abra]ham in the oak wood of Mambre are angels. [And 
what it] 5 [says: Gen 18:20-21 The sh]out of Sodom and Gomorrah is loud and 
their sin is 6 very serious. I am going down to see: (if it corresponds to) their 
shout which comes 7 [right to me, I will wre]ak destruction, and if not, I will 
check [it. The interpretation] of the word [concerns all] 8 flesh which [...] and 
to every [mouth] 9 which speaks [...] and I will check it, for everything [is in- 
scribed in conformity with the ages of] 10 [their plans, since] before creating 
them he knew their thou[ghts.] 

Frags. 5-6 1 [... for e]ver. Blank [.. .] 2 [. . . And what is wr]itten concerning the 

earth [...] 3 [...] two days’ journey [...] 4 [...] is Mount Zion, Jerusalem [...] 
5 [... and wh]at is written concerning Pharaoh [...] 

4QAges of Creation (4Q181 [4QAgesCreat]) 

Frag. 2 1 [to Abraham until he sire]d Isaac; [the ten generations. c Azaz’el and the 

angels who penetrated] 2 [the daughters of] man and sired gian[ts] by them [. . .] 
3 to Israel in the seventieth week to [. . .] 4 to love sin and to make them inherit 
evil [. . .] 5 in the eyes of all those knowing [. . .] 6 and his goodness is unfathom- 
able [. . .] 7 these are the wonders of knowledge [. . .] 8 he measured them by his 
truth and [...] 9 in all their ages [...] 10 their creatures [...] 

Frag. 1 1 for guilt in the Community with a counsel of sin, to wallow in the sin 

of the sons of man, and for great judgments and vile maladies 2 in the flesh. 
According to the powerful deeds of God and in line with their evil, according 
to the foundation of their impurity, he delivered the sons of the heavens and 
the earth to a wicked community until 3 the end. In accordance with God’s 
compassion and in accordance with his goodness and the wonder of his glory 
he approaches some from among the sons of the world [. . .] so that they can be 


4Q182 . 183 . 252 


OTHER TEXTS 


213 


considered with him in [the community of] 4 the gods like a holy congregation 
in the position of eternal life and in the lot of his holy ones [. . .] 5 [the mysteries 
of] his wonder, each man according to the lot assigned to him [...] 6 [...] for 
eternal life [. . .] 


4QCatena* (4Q182 ^QCatena*) 

Frag. 1 / [Its interpretation for] the last days concerns [. . .] 2 [. . .] who stiffened 

their necks [...] 3 [...] and remove restraint with arrogant hand to defile [...] 
4 [as is written about them in the book of Jere[miah: Jer$:- Why should I have 
to forgive you?] 5 [Your so]ns have deserted me and have sw[orn by what is not 
a god...] 

Frag. 2 1 [...]... for the last days [...] 2 [...] to destroy them[...] 

4QHistorical Work (4Q183) 

I their enemies. And they defiled their temple [...] 2 of them, and they arose 
for wars, one man [against his brother. But those who remained loyal] 3 to his 
covenant, God saved and set free [. . . And he selected the chosen of] 4 his be- 
nevolence, and gave them the heart to walk [on the path of his heart and so that 
they would detest] 5 any wicked wealth. And they went away from the path [of 
the people and taught all] 6 those with misguided spirit, and with the language 
of truth [they spoke to . . .] 7 and atoned for their sins through their sufferings 
[. . .] 8 their sins. Blank [. . .] 9 As for what he says: [. . .] 

4QGenesis Pesher" (4Q252 [4QpGen a ) 

Col. 1 1 [In the y]ear four hundred and eighty of Noah’s life, Noah reached the 

end of them. And God 2 [sa]id: ‘My spirit will not reside in man for ever’. 
Their days shall be fixed at one hundred and twenty 3 [y]ears until the end of 
the waters of the flood. And the waters of the flood burst over the Blank earth 
in the year six hundred 4 of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the first (day) 
of the week, on its seventeenth (day). On that day 5 all the springs of the great 
abyss were split and the sluices of the sky opened and rain fell upon 6 the earth 
forty days and forty nights, until the twenty-sixth day of the third 7 month, the 
fifth day of the week. One hundred and fifty days did the wate[rs] hold sway 
over the [ea]rth, 8 until the fourteenth day in the seventh month, the third (day) 
of the week. At the end of 9 one hundred and fifty days, the waters came down 
(during) two days, the fourth day and the fifth day, and the sixth w day, the ark 
rested in the mountains of Hurarat, the seventeenth of the seventh month. 

II And the waters continued [diminishing until the [ten]th month, on its first 


214 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


4Q252 I— IV 


(day), the fourth day 12 of the week. And the peaks of the mountains began to 
be visible at the [e]nd of forty days. 13 And Noah [opjened the window of the 
ark the first day of the week, which is the tenth 14 of the eleventh] month. And 
he sent out the dove to see whether the waters had diminished, but it did not 
15 find a place of rest and returned to him, [to the] ark. And he waited yet 
afnother] seven days 16 and again sent it out, and it returned to him, and in its 
beak there was a cut olive branch. [It was day twenty-] 77 four of the eleventh 
month, the first (day) of the wee[k. And Noah knew that the waters had dimin- 
ished] 18 over the earth. And at the end of another seven days, [Noah sent the 
dove out, but it did not] 79 come back. It was the [fir]st day [of the twelfth] 
month, [the first day] 20 of the week. And at the end of the th[irty-one days 
from Noah having sent out the do]ve which did not re[turn to him] 21 again, the 
wat[ers] dried up [from upon the earth and] Noah removed the cover of the ark 
22 and looked, and behold [they had dried up on the fourth day,] on the first 
(day) of the first month. 

Col. 11 7 in the year six-hundred and one of Noah’s life. On the seventeenth day 

of the second month 3 the land dried up, on the first (day) of the week. On that 
day, Noah went out of the ark, at the end of a complete 3 year of three-hundred 
and sixty-four days, on the first (day) of the week. On the seventh 4 Blank one 
and six Blank Noah (went out?) from the ark, at the appointed time of a com- 
plete 5 year. Blank And Noah awoke from his wine and knew what 6 his youn- 
gest son had done. And he said: ‘Cursed be Canaan; he will be, for his 
brothers], the last of the slaves!’ [But he did not] 7 curse Ham, but only his 
son, for God had blessed the sons of Noah. And they dwelt in the tents of 
Shem. 8 He gave the land to Abraham, his beloved. Blank Terah was one hun- 
dred and [for]ty years old when he left Ur of the Chaldees and came to Haran, 
and Ab[ram was scjventv years old. Abram lived five years 70 in Haran, and 
afterwards [Abram] went [to] the land of Canaan. Six[ty five years (?).] 77 The 
heifer, the ram and the he-g[oat ...] Abram to God [...] 12 the fire when he 
crossed [...] 13 for Ab[ram] to go [to the land of] Canaan [...] 

Col. ill 7 As it is written: [,..]twe-2lveme[n . ..] and also 3 this city. [...The] just 
4 [I will] not [destroy them. . .] only those will I exterminate. 5 If there are not 
found there [...] that is found in it and its booty 6 and its children. And the 
remnant [. . .] forever. And Abraham 7 stretched out his hand [ . . .] 8 And he told 
him: [...] 9 your only [...] 70-77 [...] 12 El-Shaddai will [bless] you [...] 13 the 
blessing of your father [. . .] 14 [. . .] ... [. . .] 


Col. iv 7 Timnah was the concubine of Eliphaz, Esau’s son, and she bore him 
Amaleq. It was he whom Saul sl[ew], 2 Blank as he said Blank through Moses in 
respect of the last days: Dt 25:79 «I will erase the memory of Amaleq 3 from 


4 Q 2 5 2_2 54 


OTHER TEXTS 


215 


under the heavens». Blank Blessings of Jacob: Gen 49:3-4 «Reuben, you are my 
first-born 4 and the first-fruits of my manhood, pre-eminent in stature and pre- 
eminent in strength; you seethe like water; you shall not enjoy supremacy. You 
mounted 5 your father’s bed; then you defiled it, for he had lain in it». Blank Its 
interpretation: That he reproved him, because 6 he lay with Bilhah, his concu- 
bine. And as for what he said: «You are my first-born» [...] Reuben 7 was the 
first of his order [...] 

Col. v 1 Gen 49:10 A sovereign shall [not] be removed from the tribe of Judah. 
While Israel has the dominion, 2 there w ill |not] lack someone who sits on the 
throne of David. For «the staff* is the covenant of royalty, 3 [the thousands of 
Israel are «the feet». Until the messiah of justice comes, the branch 4 of David. 
For to him and to his descendants has been given the covenant of royalty over 
his people for all everlasting generations, which 5 he has observed [. . .] the Law 
with the men of the Community, for 6 [. . .] it is the assembly of the men of [. . .] 
7 [...] He gives 


4QGenesis Pesher* (4Q253 [4QpGen*) 

Frag, r ;[...] Israel [...] 2 [...] of the ark [...] 3 [...] to show to all [...] 

Frag. 2 1 the impurity [...] 2 ... [. . .] 3 the clean (animals) of creation [. . .] 4 his 

holocaust according to his will, for we shall take [...] 5 for him the highest 
gates, since [. . .] 

Frag. 3 col. I /[...] and he will pay attention 2 [. . . Mol 3:16-18] And they shall be 
for me 3 [my possession on the day that I prepare. I will have pity o]n them, as 
4 [a man has pity on the son who serves him. You shall return, then, to differ- 
entiate] between the just and the wicked, 5 [between who serves him and who 
does not serve him . . .] justice and upon 

Frag. 3 col. 11 1 and {he who} /a man of/ Israel who ea[ts . . .] 2 and approaches 

its blood, who does not [...] 

Frag. 4 1 [...]...[...] 2 [.. .] Belial, and as [. . .] 3 [. . .] and he will abandon [. . .] 

4QGenesis Pesher' (4Q254) 

Frag. 1 1 And what he says: [. . .] 2 upon the openings, and [. . . And Noah awoke 

from his wine] 3 and knew what [his youngest son had] done. And he said: 
‘Cursed be Canaan;] 4 the last of the slaves [will he be for his brothers!’ ...] 


2l6 


EXEGETICAL LITERATURE 


4Q2542-15 


Frag. 2 1 and for his bread and for [. . .] 2 your countenance does not [. . .] 3 Blank 

what he gathers [...]5 [and] to separate from [...] 

Frag. 4 1 [. . .] to them, and to the people [. . .] 2 [. . .] the two sons of the oil of 

anointing which [. . .] j [. . .] those who observe God’s precepts [. . ,]5 [. . .] for the 
men of [...] 

Frag. 5 1 Gen 4g:is And he bent [his shoulder to the burden and was reduced to 

(the) tribute] of a slave. Blank [. . .] 2 which [. . .] the great ones [...] j servant . . . 
[... Gen 4g:iy Dan will judge] his people like one of the ju[dges of Israel ... 
4 Dan will be a ser[pent on the path, an asp on the w[ay. . .] 5 the horse’s heels 
[...] 

Frag. 6 1 [. . . Gen 4g: 24-26 And] his bow [remained steady [and his arms and his 

hands stayed agile, by virtue of the hands of the Strong One of Jacob,] 2 [by the 
name (?) of the Shep]herd, the Stone of Israel. [...] j [...blessings of the 
heaven] above, [...] 4 [...] ... [...] 

Frag. 15 1 [. . .] the seventeenth] of the [second] 2 month [. . .] Noah went out of 

the ark at the appointed time of the complete (?) days 3 [. . .] Blank 4 [. . . And he 
sent out the ra]ven and it went out, going to and fro and returned, to show to 
the la[st] generations 5 [■ ■ • ] before him, for the raven went out, going to and fro 
and returned] 6 [. . .] the dove [. . .] 7 And this is the plan of the construction of 
the ar[k: three hundred cubits will be the len]gth of the ark, and fift[y cubits] 
8 the width, and thirty [the height . ..] g And the measurement of the ark [. . .] 
jo [...]... [...] 


Para-biblical Literature 


2l8 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


This chapter also gathers together material differing greatly in literary form 
and in origin: reports, apocalypses, testaments, etc. Even so, all the composi- 
tions from which this material comes could be classed as ‘para-biblical litera- 
ture’, literature that begins with the Bible, which retells the biblical text in its 
own way, intermingling it and expanding it with other, quite different tradi- 
tions. Every one of these compositions has its starting point in specific texts of 
the Torah or of the Prophets but, unlike the exegetical literature, rather than 
interpreting the biblical text, they elaborate on it, augmenting it with other 
material. 

Fidelity to the original biblical text varies greatly from composition to com- 
position. While the Paraphrases of the Pentateuch do not seem to be much more 
than a collection of literal quotations of various passages from the Pentateuch, 
interwoven with other traditions previously undocumented (to the extent that 
it would be reasonable to wonder whether, in fact, we have found atypical vari- 
ants of biblical manuscripts) the connection with the original text of other com- 
positions included here is weaker or more remote. In some compositions, such 
as the Genesis Apocryphon or the Book of Jubilees, the biblical plot is still distin- 
guishable with ease. In many others, such as the pseudepigrapha, the modifica- 
tions effected are such that the biblical origin is only visible as a fine thread 
running throughout the work. Other compositions seem, rather, to be self-con- 
tained developments around certain biblical characters. The starting point con- 
tinues to be the biblical text, but the development results in independent com- 
positions. In the last texts to be included, such as those with the title ‘proto- 
Esther’, the connection is even more tenuous and remote. It is really literature 
which is parallel to, earlier than, or simultaneous with, the biblical text, but 
with no direct connection to it. 

Some of these texts, such as the Books of Enoch or the Book of Jubilees, have 
reached us at the periphery of the official Bible. Of other compositions, such 
as Pseudo-Ezekiel, it appears possible to trace some echoes in the literature of 
primitive Christianity. Others, such as th e Aramaic Testament of Levi, seem to 
have served as the model for later compositions. Most of them, though, have 
been lost for ever. Their retrieval, even in this fragmented condition, allows us 
to envisage the breadth of para-biblical literature in circulation. 

It is hard to determine exactly the origin of each particular work. Some com- 
positions preserve clear evidence of a Qumranic origin. Of others it can be 
stated w ithout a doubt that they were produced outside the Qumran commu- 
nity. For most of the works represented, it is impossible, even so, to specify the 
milieu in which they arose, or the kind of reader for which they were intended. 


4Q158 i-6 


PARAPHRASE OF THE PENTATEUCH 


219 


1 Paraphrase of the Pentateuch 
a 4QReworked Pentateuch" (4Q158 [4 qRP"]) 

Frags. 1-2 1 [...] because of this [...] 2 [...] you shall fight and [...] 3 [...] Gn 

32:25-30 And [Jacjob remain[edl alone there, and [a man] was fi[ghting] with him 
until first light. Since he saw that he could not prevail against him, he seized 
him in the thigh joint] 4 [and Jacob’s thigh joint was dislocated] while he strug- 
gled with him and he caught hold of him. And said to him: [Let me walk, for 
dawn is breaking. But Jacob replied: I shall not let you walk] 5 [unless you have 
blessed] me. He asked him: What is your name? And [he told him: Jacob. He 
said to him: Now you will no longer be called Jacob, but Israel, for you have 
fought] 6 [with God and with] men and you have won. And Ja[cob] asked him 
and said: Tell me your nafme] /please/! 7 [And he said to him: Why do you ask 
me [my name?] And he blessed him right there. And he said to him: May 
yhwh make you fertile and bl[ess] you [. . . May he fill you with] 8 [knowledge 
and intelligence; may he free you from all violence [. . .] 9 until this day and for 
everlasting generations {...} 10 And he walked on his way after having blessed 
him there. [0/132:31-33 Jacob named the place Penu’el: Because I saw God face 
to face and in spite of that my life has remained safe. And there rose] 11 the sun 
as he passed Penu’el [and he went on with a game thigh. . .] 12 on that day. And 
he said to him: You shall not ea[t...] 13 above the two joints of the thigh until 
the present [day...] 14 Ex 4:27-28 to Aaron saying: Go and find [Moses in the 
desert! He went, then, and coming across him on God’s mountain he kissed 
him. Moses repeated to Aaron all] 15 the words of yhwh which he had trans- 
mitted to him, and all [the signs which he had commanded. . .] 16 yhwh to me, 
saying: When you make leave [. . .] 17 in order to go like slaves. And see, these 
are the thifrty...] 18 yhwh God [...] 19 ... [...] 

Frag. 3 1 And Jacob called [. . .] 2 in this earth [. . .] 3 my fathers in order to enter 

[...] 

Frag. 4 1 [. . .] he commands you [. . .] 2 the people of Egypt: you shall sferve. . .] 

3 according to the number of the twelve tribes of [Israel. . .] 4 and he offered the 
holocaust on the altar [...Ex 24:6 And Moses took half the blood and put it] 5 in 
earthenware bowls and the (other) half of the blood he poured over the al[tar. . .] 
6 as I showed Abraham and [Jacob] [. . .] 7 to them, so that God would be for 
them and for their descendants [...] S for ever [...] 

Frag. 6 1 [Ex 20:19-21 Samaritan in the midst of one like us.] You, [approach and 

listen to all that yhwh our God tells you and you shall transmit to us all that 
yhwh our God tells you] 2 [and we will hear it and carry it out. But God] is 


220 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q158 6-8 


not to talk to u[s, in case we die. Moses answered the people: Do not fear, for 
in order to test you] 3 Go[d] has come [and] so that fear of him [be with you 
and you shall not sin. And the people kept their distance, while Moses ap- 
proached the thick fog in which] 4 God [was]. And yhwh [spoke] to Moses 
sa[ying: I have heard the noise of the words of this people, what they have said 
to you: all they have said to you is good. Who gave them] 5 and placed in them 
this heart, to fear me [and keep my statutes all their days, so that it will go well 
with them and their children for ever! And you, hear] 6 the sound of the words 
which I tell them: [I will raise up] a prophet [like you for them from amongst 
their brothers, and I will place my words in his mouth and I will tell them ev- 
erything I command him. And it will happen that the man] 7 who does not 
listen to the words [which he will utter in my name, I will call him to account. 
But the prophet who dares to speak in my name what I have not commanded 
him] 8 to say, or who spfeaks in the name of other gods, that prophet shall die. 
And if you say in your heart: How will I know the word which yhwh has not 
spoken?] 9 If what [the prophet] says [in the name of yhwh does not occur, or 
does not happen, it is a word which yhwh has not pronounced; the prophet 
has pronounced it daringly; have no fear of him.] 

Frags. 7-8 1 [Ex 20: 12-17 your fat]her and your mother [so that your days on the 

soil which yhwh your God gives you are lengthened. You shall not kill. You 
shall not commit adultery. You shall not rob. You shall not give] 2 false evi- 
dence against your fellow man. You shall not covet the wife of [your neighbour, 
or his house, or his servant, or his maid, or his ass, or anything of what belongs 
to your neighbour.] 3 And yhwh said to Moses: 015:30-31 Go and tell them: Go 
back to [your tents! You, however, stay here with me, for I am going to explain 
to you all the commandments, the laws] 4 and the statutes, so that they can be 
taught and put into practice in the land [which I give them so that they can 
possess it...] 5 And the people did return, each man to his tent. But Moses 
remained in the presence [of yhwh...] 6 Ex 20:22-26 You have seen that from 
the heavens have I spoken. You shall not make [alongside me gods of silver or 
gods of gold, do not make them! You shall construct for me an earthen altar, 
and sacrifice] 7 on it their holocausts and their peace-offerings, their flocks [and 
their cattle. In any place where I make you commemorate my name, I shall 
come to you and bless you. If] 8 you construct [an altar of stone] for me, you are 
not to chisel it in the manner of blocks of stone, for by passing [your chisel 
over each one of them you will desecrate it. Nor are you to climb to my altar 
by steps, in case you reveal your nakedness] 9 on it. Blank Ex 21:1-10 These are 
the statutes which you are to propound to them. [When you purchase a Hebrew 
slave he will serve for six years, but on the seventh he shall go away free] w [for 
nothing.] If he came in alone he will go away alone; if [he was married, his wife 
will go with him. If his master gave him a wife and she bore him sons or 


4Q156 8- 12 


PARAPHRASE OF THE PENTATEUCH 


221 


daughters] 11 [the wife and her children will be] for the master and he [will go 
away alone. But if the slave should say clearly: I love my master, my wife and 
my children; I do not wish to go away free,] 12 [his master] will lead [him before 
God, place him near the door or the jambs. . His master will pierce] 13 his ear 
with an awl, [and he will serve him for ever. When a man sells his daughter as 
a slave-girl, she is not to leave as the slaves leave. If she turns out to be un- 
pleasant in the eyes of her master, who had intended her for himself, he shall 
allow her to be] 14 redeemed; [he cannot sell her to] a foreign peofple, having 
been disloyal to her. If he intends her for his son, he shall treat her according 
to the norm for daughters. If he takes another (girl) for himself,] 15 he is not [to 
take from (the first) her food, her clothing] [and her conjugal rights...] 

Frags. 10-12 1 [. . .Ex 21:32-37 If the bull gores a slave or a slave-girl, their owner 

is to be paid] thirty sil[ver] shekels [and the bull shall be stoned.] 2 [When a 
man opens a well or digs a well and not having covered it, a bull or an ass falls 
into it, the owner] of the well will pay [him; he will compensate] 3 [their owner 
with money, and the dead animal will be for him. When someone’s bull 
wounds his neighbour’s bull, so that it dies, the live bull will be sold and] its 
price [shared out,] and [the dead animal will] also [be shared out.] 4 However, 
if it was kno[wn, that [in the past] that bull used to] gore, [and its owner did not 
keep it in, the latter must repay, bull for bull, and the carcass will be for him.] 
3 If anyone steals a bull or a ewe, and slaughters it or se[lls] it, [he is to pay five 
beasts for the bull and four sheep for the ewe. Ex 22:1-13 If] 6 [the thief was 
surprised during the break-in,] and was wounded and died, he will not be the 
subject of blood vengeance. If the sun was shining, he will be the subject of 
blood vengeance. [He is to repay, of course; if he owns nothing, he will be sold 
for what he stole. If] 7 [the stolen property is found in his possession, should 
it be a] live [bull,] ass or ewe, he will pay double. When a man uses [a field or 
vineyard for pasture, and leaves his flock loose to graze in the field of someone 
else] 8 [he is to make repayment from his own field, depending] on its produce; 
if he used the whole field, [he is to repay] with the best of his (own) field or the 
best of his vineyard. [When a fire breaks out and, encountering thorns,] 9 [a 
hayrick or the cornfields or the field are consumed,] whoever lit the fire has to 
pay damages. When a man entrusted [his neighbour] with [money, or objects 
for safekeeping, and they were stolen from that person’s house, if the thief is 
found he is to pay double.] 10 [If the thief is not found,] the owner of the house 
[shall approach] the house of God (to swear) that he did not put his hand on the 
property [of his neighbour. Whatever the object of the felony might be, 
whether a bull, an ass, a sheep,] 11 [clothing or anything else lost,] about which 
one could say: /This is it,/ the affair of both parties shall come to yhwh: [the 
one w hich God convicts is to pay his neighbour double.] 12 [When someone has 
given his neighbour an ass,] or bull or ram, or any animal for safekeeping, [and 


222 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q364-365 


it should die or suffer injury or be stolen without an eyewitness, the oath of 
yhwh shall intervene] 13 [between both parties: if he did not reach out his 
hand] to his neighbour’s property, the owner of the beast must concede and he 
shall not [pay. However, if] it was stolen from beside him, [he shall pay dam- 
ages to its owner. If it was torn to pieces] 14 [he is to show the torn animal as 
evidence, and shall not pay.] When someone takes a loan of an animal from a 
friend [and it is torn to pieces or dies] its owner not being with it [he has to 
repay.] 

Frag. 14 1 [...]... 2 [. . .al fle]sh and all the spirits 3 [. . .] for blessing for the land 

4 [...] the peoples [...] and the land of Egypt 5 shall have desolation [...] the 
yoke of /the hand/ of Egypt, and I shall free them 6 from their hands and I 
shall make them a people for myself for [eternal generations [...] of Egypt. 
And the seed 7 of your sons shall [possess the la]nd in security [. . .And Egypt 
I shall hurl into] the middle of the sea, into the depths 8 of the abyss [. . .] who 
dwell 9 in it [. . .] the frontiers (?) 

B 4QReworked Pentateuch*' 1 (4Q364-365 [4 qRP*‘]) 

Frag. 3 / you (Rebecca) shall see him [...] 2 you shall see in peace [...] 3 your 

death, and your eyes [. . .Why should I have to remain deprived of] 4 you two? 
And [Isaac] called [Rebecca, his wife,... and showed] 5 her all the wofrds...] 
6 after Jacob, his son [. . .] 7 Gn 28:6 And Esau saw that [Isaac had blessed Jacob, 
and had sent him to 8 Pa[dan-]Aram in order to acquire [a wife] there [. . .] 

Frag. 6 col. 11 1 you despise (?) [. . .] 2 for the majesty of [. . .] 3 you are great, the 

saviour [...] 4 the enemy’s hope has died and he is forfgotten. . .] 5 they have 
died in the copious waters, the enemy [...] 6 and he raised her to the heights 
[. . .] and gave [. . .] 7 [. . .] majesty. Blank [. . .] 8 Ex 15:22-2 6 And he made Moses 
leave for Is[rael] from the sea, and they walked through the desert for three 
[days and did not find water.] 9 And they reached Marah, [but] they were 
[un]able to drink the waters of Marah because they were bitt[er. This is why 
that place is called Marah (bitterness)] 10 And the people complained agafinst 
Moses] saying: What will we drink? And Moses called to [yhwh and yhwh 
showed him] n a log. He threw it in the [water] and the waters became sweet. 
There he imposed on him the law and [the statute, and there he put him to the 
test. And he said:] 12 If you lis[ten care]fully to the voice of yhwh your God, 
and do what is right in his eyes, and [lend an ear] 13 [to his commandments and 
keep] all his laws, all the plagues which he imposed on Egyp[t] 14 he will not 
impose on you, for I am yhwh, the one who] heals [you]. Blank 


Frag. 7 1 Ex 15:16-20 until [your people] pa[sses Blank yhwh, Blank until Blank the 


4Q364-365 


PARAPHRASE OF THE PENTATEUCH 


223 


people you gained passes. Blank You will bring them in and plant them] 2 in the 
mountain of your inheritance. Blank in the place [you prepared] for your 
residence Blank yhwh, Blank the temple, Lord, Blank which your hands 
founded.] 3 yhwh will rule for ever and ever. Blank When [the Pharaoh’s cav- 
alry Blank , with its chariots and horses] went into the sea, Blank 4 yhwh [over- 
turned] Blank the waters of the sea upon them. Blank And the so[ns of Israel 
Blank walked with dry feet Blank in the middle of the sea,] 5 [and the wa]ters 
formfed a wall] on their left and on their right. Blank And [Miriam, the prophet- 
ess, Aaron’s sister,] took [the timbrel in her hand] and all the women came out 
behind her with [timbrels and in choirs.] 

Frag. 25 1 Lv 23:42-24:2 you shall live [in hu]ts for seven days; all those natives of 

Israel shall stay in huts, so that your generations may] know 2 that your fathers 
lived [in hu]ts when 1 took them out of the land of Egypt. I am yhwh, your 
God! 3 Blank And Moses promulgated the feasts of yhwh to the children of 
Israel. Blank 4 And yhwh spoke to Moses saying: Command the children of 
Israel, saying: When you enter the land which 5 I will give you as inheritance, 
and you live safely in it, you will offer wood for the holocaust and for all the 
work of 6 [the hojuse you are to build in the land, in order to arrange it upon 
the altar of sacrifice. And the holocausts 7 [...] for the passover sacrifices and 
for the peace offerings, for the sacrifices for sins and for the freewill offerings 
and for the holocausts, each thing according to [its order] £[...] and for the 
gates and for all the work of the house they shall off[er...] 9 [...] and for the 
feast of oil, the twelve [...] shall offer the wood the twe[lve...j 10 [...] ... those 
who offer on the first day, Levi [...] u [...Reu]ben and Simeon [and on the 
four]th [day...] 

Frag. 28 col. 1 2 [. . .] for the wheat and for the oil .?[...] the children of Israel and 

on the day of first produce 4 [...] the grapes and the pomegranates 5 [...] the 
offering of the sacrifices upon which one places 6 [.. .offering] for jealousy, and 
to the right of this gate 7 [. . .] ... they will eat the offerings for sins <?[...] Blank 
9 [. . .] and the distance up to the side 10 [. . .] and the distance in every direction 
//[...] between recess and recess, three and a half cubits 

Frag. 28 col. 11 1 one hundred cubits; from the gate of Zabulon up to the gate of 

Gad, three [hundred and sixty cubits]; from the gat[e of G]ad up [to the North 
corner, three hundred] 2 and sixty cubits. From this corner up to the gate of 
Dan, three [hundred] and sixty cubits; and the same [from the gate of Dan up 
to] 3 the gate of Nephtali, three hundred and sixty cubits; and from the gate of 
Nephtali up to the gate of Asher, three hundred and [sixty cubits...] 4 and 
from the gate of Asher up to the Eastern corner [. . .] three hundred and sixty 
cubits. And [the gates of the courtyard wall] will project [outwards] 5 seven 


224 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


2Q22 . 4Q37O 


cubits [and] in the inside /it will penetrate/ from the courtyard wall thirty-six 
cubits. The width of the gateways will be fourteen] 6 cubits and their height 
twenty-five cubits up to [the crossbeams] and likewise the lintel. And [the 
beams] will be encased [with cedarwood] 7 and encased in gold. Their doors 
will be encased in pure gold. Between one door and another you shfall make 
storage places and rooms and porches on the inside.] sThe width of a storage 
place will be ten cubits; its length twenty cubits and its height fourteen cubits. 
They will be encased with timber from] g cedarwood. The width of the wall 
will be two cubits and on the outside, the rooms. The width of a room will be 
ten cubits; its length] w twenty cubits. The width of the wall will be two cubits 
[...] 11 of cedarwood and its entrance three cubits wide [...] 

C Other texts 

2QApocryphon of David(?) (2Q22 [2QapDavid?]) 

Col. 1 1 [. . . and I did not need to begin anew because] yhwh our God [had de- 

stroyed him] with the edge of the [sword.] 2 [...and I made] deadly catapults 
with bows and (did) not j [... the ba]ttle to seize fortified cities and to terrify 

Col. 11 1 [...] ... because I knew [...] 2 for his kindness towards Israel [...] j he 

in all his paths /words/ and not [...] 4 he will deliver them to judgment. And 

alp-.] 

4QExhortation based on the Flood (4Q370) 

Col. 1 1 And he crowned the mountains with produce and rained food upon 

them and satisfied every living thing with good fruit. « May all those who do 
what I want, /eat and be satisfied))/ says yhwh 2 «and bless my [holy] name». 
«But now they have done what is evil in my eyes», says yhwh. And they re- 
belled against God with their deeds. 3 And yhwh judged them according to all 
their ways and according to the thoughts of the [evil] inclination of their heart 
and thundered against them with his might. And all 4 the foundations of the 
earth shook, and the waters overflowed from the abysses; all the sluice-gates of 
the heavens were opened and the abysses overflowed with mighty waters; 5 and 
the sluice-gates of the heavens poured out rain. And he destroyed them with 
the flood. [. ..] all of them. . .[...] 6 This is why everything there was on dry land 
[vanished,] and men, the [animals and all the] birds, all winged things [died.] 
And the gi[a]nts did not escape. 7 [. . .] ... And God made [a sign of (the) cove- 
nant and] placed the rainbow [in the clouds] to remember the covenant 
8 [. . .and never again will] the water of the flood [come] for [destruction, or] will 


4Q372 


PARAPHRASE OF THE PENTATEUCH 


225 


the turmoil of the waters be opened. 9 [. . .] they made, and clouds [. . .] for (the) 
waters [...] w [...] ... [...] 

Col. 11 1 of sin, they will seek [. . .] 2 yhwh will justify [...].; and he will cleanse 

them from their sins [...] 4 their evil and their knowledge [...] 5 They jump, 
but their days are like a shadow [...] 6 and he is compasionate for ever [...] 
7 yhwh’s marvels; remember the won[ders. . .] 8 due to his fear and [your] soul 
will rejoice [. . .] 9 those who support you. Do not disobey [yhwh’s] words. . . 

4QApocryphon of Joseph (4Q372 (4QapocrJoseph‘‘|) 

Frag 1. 1 [...]...[...] 2 he who does [...]...; foreigners [...] 3 and the priests of 

foreign gods and they honour those who serve [idols. . .] 4 the Most High, and 
he delivered them into the hands of the nations in order to [... and he dis- 
persed them] 5 in all the countries and among all [the peoples he scattered 
them... They did not enter...] 6 Israel. And he uprooted them from the land 
[...] ... [from the place ... to him; they did not allow them to rest...] 7 The 
nations were given a place in the valley of the vision and ... [. . . Zion, and they 
made. . . and turned] 8 Jerusalem into ruins and the mountain of my God into 
a wooded height [...]...[... the laws . . . ] 9 God and Judah as well, together with 
him, and he stood at a crossroads, to d[o...] 10 to be together with his two 
brothers. And in all this, Joseph was thrown into lands which he did not 
kn[ow...] 11 among a foreign people, and they were scattered in the whole 
world. All the mountains were appalled at them [...fools...] 12 building a high 
place for themselves on a very high mountain to arouse the jealousy of Israel. 
And they spoke words [...] 13 the sons of Jacob, and they terrified them with 
the words from their mouths, blaspheming against the tent of Zion; they spoke 
[false] wor[ds and all] 14 the deceitful words, they spoke them to anger Levi, 
Judah and Benjamin with their words. And in all this, Joseph [was delivered] 
15 into the hand of foreigners, consuming his strength and breaking all his 
bones up the time of his end. And he shouted [and his call] 16 summoned the 
powerful God to save him from their hands. And he said: «My father and my 
God, do not abandon me in the hands of gentiles, 17 do me justice, so that the 
poor and afflicted do not die. You have no need of any people or of 18 any help. 
Your finger is bigger and stronger than any there are in the world. For you 
choose truth and in your hand there is no 19 violence at all. And your tender- 
ness is great and great is your compassion for all who seek you; they are stron- 
ger than me and all my brothers who 20 are associated with me. An enemy peo- 
ple lives in it and [. . .] and they open their mouth against 21 all the sons of your 
beloved Jacob with insults for [...] 22 the moment of their destruction of the 
whole world and they shall be delivered [...] 23 I will arise to do right and 
justice. . . to do] 24 the will of my creator, to offer sacrifices [of thanksgiving. . .] 


226 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q373 . 462 


25 to my God. And I will declare his compassion [...] 26 I shall praise you, 
yhwh, my God and I shall bless all [...] 27 the first things, and in order to 
teach sinners your statutes and your law to those who forsake you 28 and 
the evil, so that your witnesses do not reproach me and to declare your ju[st] 
words [...] 29 For God is great, holy, powerful, glorious, terrifying and 
wond[erful] are [his. . . the heavens] 30 and the earth and even in the depths of 
the abyss. Splendour and [majesty...] 31 I know and understand and ... [...] 
32 

Frag. 2 1 [...]...[...] 2 [...] yhwh in the heavens [...] 3 [,..]in the depths and 

in all the abyss [...] 4 [...who may tr]ain his hand for war, who may come [...] 
5 [. . . who] gives him intelligence to understand knowledge [. . .] 6 [. . . to d]o his 
delights for ever, according to the greatness of [. . .] 7 [. . .] time. For he gave you 
strength to overcome. . .]<?[...] and he placed them in the hand of his people 
in the judgment [...] 9 [. . .moujntain of Bashan. . .[. . .] and all their cities [...] 
10 ... you shall be placed in [...]/ 1 [. . .] whoever does to his people trust in [ . . . ] 
... [...] 12 [. . .Is]rael, for it has been scattered in his presence [...] 13 [...] his 
head with a deadfly] stone [. . .] 14 [. . .] not [. . .] 

4QApocryphon of Joseph (4Q373 ^Qapocrjosepl/]) 

?[• ••] his. . . and he [. . .] 2 all his servants with Og [. . .xxx] 3 and a half cubits 
was his height and two [cubits his girth ..., a sword like a cedar...] 4 and a 
shield like a tower. The light-footed [. . .] 5 whoever moves seven stadia away. 
I did not stand [...] 6 and I did not do it a second time, but yhwh, our God, 
crushed him; with the edge of the sword [. . .] 7 I made deadly catapults wi[th 
bows and not . ..] Sfor [...war to take fortified cities and to terrify...] 9 [... and 
now...] 


4QNarrative (4Q462) 

2 [...Shem,] Ham and Japhet [...] 3 [...] for Jacob, and he [...] and re- 
membered [...] 4 [...] ... for Israel [...] Blank Then it will be said: [,..] 5 [...] ... 
we were empty-handed; for, to seize [...] 6 [...] like slaves for Jacob. With love 
[...] 7 [... he] will give to many in inheritance. ****, who governs ...[...] S[...] 
his glory which from one will fill the waters and the earth [...] 9 [...]...[...] the 
control; they captured his people; the light was with them and over us there 
was [...] 10 [...the peri]od of darkness [has gone] and the period of light has 
arrived. And they will rule for ever. That is why it will be said: [...] 77 [...] to 
Israel, for in the midst of us was the people of the beloved Jacob [...] 72 [...] ... 
and they served and gave support and shouted to **** [ . . . ] 13 [ . . . ] and behold, 
they were delivered up to Egypt a second time in the period of the kingdom 


4Q19 • 4Q5 22 


PARAPHRASE OF THE PENTATEUCH 


227 


and sup[ported . . . ] 14 [ . . . the inhabitants of Philistia and of Egypt for spoil and 
devastation and they shall raise her [...] jy [...]... to set wickedness on high so 
that it contracts uncl[eanness...] 16 [...] and the hardness of her face will 
change into brilliance and her «uncleanness» and her clothes [...] 17 [...] and 
what he did to her, so will be the uncleanness of [. . .] 18 [. . .] she was loathed as 
she was prior to her construction [...] ig Blank And he will remember /Israel/ 
Jerusalem [...] 

6QGenesis (?) (6Q19) 

1 of the sons of Ham [...] 2 [...] the peoples [...] 3 [...] ... [...] 

4QWork with Place Names (4Q522) 

Frag. 6 1 [...] And Sime[on 2 [...] to them. And Dan, neither was he 

destroyed [. . .] 3 [. . .] And Issachar to . . . And Asher [. . .] 4 [. . . to] Dazan (?) ... 
[...] 

Frag. 7 1 2 [...] and the Canaanites who [...] 3 [. ..] from the Vale of 

Achor [...] 

Frag. 8 col. I 2 [...] and to Ain Qeber, Bet ... 3 [...] Beqa c a and to Bet Zippor, 
to 4 [ . . . ] ... and to all the valley of Mizvah, to 5 [ . . . ] to Heikal Y zad, to Ya c apor 
and to 6 [...] ... and to Mani, to En Kober 7 [...Moun]t Garizim, to Chadita 
and to c Oshel 8 [...] ... [... to Ma]don, which 9 [...] ... and to [...to] Ashkelon 
1 o[... to] Galilee and the two S[... and] to the Sharon 11 [... toJu]dah, toBeer- 
Sheba c and [to] Be c alot 12 [. . .] to Qe c ilah, to Adullam and to 13 [. . .] Gezer, to 
Temni and to Gimzon and to 14 [...] Chiqqar and Qitron and Ephronim and 
to Soccoth 13 [. . .] Bechoron, Lower and Upper, and to 16 [.. .] to Gilat, Upper 
and Lower 

Frag. 8 col. 11 /[...]...[...] 2 ...[...] to establish there the tent of me[eting . . .] 

3 of the times. For, behold, a son is born to Jesse, son of Perez, son of Jufdah 
. ..] 4 the Rock of Zion, and he will drive out from there /all/ the Amorites, 
from [. . .] 5 to build the house for yhwh, God of Israel. Gold and silver [.. .] 
6 he will bring cedar and cypress [from] Lebanon for its construction; but his 
son, the younger, [...] 7 the first will officiate there [...] and to him [...],? [...] 
of watcfhers ...] The beloved of yhw[h will] dwell in safety [...] 9 [the] days, 
[and] his people will dwell forever. But now, the Amorites (are) there, and the 
Canaan[ites ...] /o dwellers who have made them sin, because I have not ex- 
plained [the prejcept [...] 11 of you. And the Shilonite and the [.. .] I have made 
the servant of [my pe]ople [...] 12 And now, let us establish the t[ent of 


228 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q458 . 559 


meejting far from [. . .] 13 Eleazar [to transport the [tent of mejeting from the 
house of [. . .] 14 salvatifon ... to the ch]ief of the army [. . .] 

6QDeuteronomy (?) (6Q20) 

1 Blank [...] 2 For the ea[rth . ..] j a land of to[rrents . . .] 4 the house of [. ..] 5 the 
abysses [...] 6 new and [...] 7 and you shall inherit [...] 

4QNarrative (4Q458) 

Frag. 1 1 [...] to the beloved [...] 2 [...] the beloved [...] 3 [...] in the tent [...] 

4 [•• •] they did not know [. . .(5 [...] burns of fire [. . .] 6 [.. .] and they arose with 
him from [...]/ [...] he spoke to the first, saying: [...]£[...] the first angel will 
send to those living [. . .] 9 [. . .] burnt, and he will destroy the tree of wickedness 
[. . .] 10 [. . . from] Egypt to the house of [. . .] 

Frag 2. col. 1 2 [. . . the mo]on and the stars j [. . .] the years 4 [. . .] the flight . . . 

5 [. . .] impurity 6 [. . .] fornication. 

Frag. 2 col. 11 3 and he destroyed him, and his strength [. . .] 4 and she devoured 

all the uncircumcised ones and . . . [.. ,]5 and he justified him and went on high 
[...] 6 anointed with the oil of kingship [...] 

4QBiblical Chronology (4Q559) 

Frag. 1 1 [,..I]saac,Ja[cob . . .] 2 [. .. xxx] 5 in the la[ndof ...] j[...] ... years [...] 

Frag. 2 1 [Abraham was 99] years old [when he begot Isaac.] 2 [And I]saac was 

[60 years old when he begot Jacob. And Jacob] 3 [was] 65 ye[ars old when he 
begot Eevi ...] 4 [•■■]••• [...] 

Frag. 3 7 [. . . And Levi was 3]4 [years old] when he [begot Qahat.] 8 [And Qahat 

was 2]9 years old when he begot c Amram. And c Amram [was] 9 [1 10 years old 
when he begot] Aaron. And Aaron left Egy[pt. . .] 10 [. . .] these: 1 1 thousand and 
536 Blank 

Frag. 4 1 [...]...[...] 2 [...] from the lan[d of ...] 3 [...] years [...].# [...Joshua 

the Jo]rdan [as far as ...]...[...] 5 [...] 35 years in Gilgal [...] 6 [... in Timnath 
Ser]ah (for) 20 years. And from the death [of Joshua ...] 7 [...] Cushan- 
rishathaim, king of Aram-naharaim ...]<?[...] S [ye]ars. Othniel, son [of Kenaz 
■ ■■] 9 Eglon, king of Moab, [...] 10 [.. .E]hud, son of Gera, 80 years; Sham[gar, 
son of c Anath . . .] 


4Q559 


PARAPHRASE OF THE PENTATEUCH 


229 


Frag. 5 1 [. . .] 2 [Gideon, son of Joash,] 40 yfears;] To[la, son of Pua . . .] 3 [. . .] 


230 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


lQapGen 


2 Genesis Apocryphon 


lQGenesis Apocryphon (1Q20 [lQapGen ar]) 


Frag. 1 col. 1 1 [...] you shall pour out you anger and tear out (?) [...] and who 

is he who 2 [...] the fury of your anger. Blank 3 [...]and those who have been 
wiped out and those who have fallen, bereft and [...] 4 [...] and now, look, I 
have oppressed the prisoners 5 [. . .] . . . 6 [. . .] Blank 7 [. . . the Great] Holy One 
8 [. . .] all that he g-10 [. . .] ... 

Frag. 1 col. 11 3 day of [...] 4 all [...] 5 6 land of [...] Sand the 

evil for [...] 

Frag. 2 1 [...]... 2 [...] and they were struck from behind 3 [...] Blank 4 [...] ... 

5 [. . .] in front of the Lord of the Universe. 


tQGenesisApocryphon (lQapGen ar) 


Col. 1 1 [...].. . and with the sowing 2 [. . .] ... not even the mystery of evil which 

3 [...] ... the mystery which 

Col. 11 / Behold, then, I thought in my heart that the conception was the work 

of the Watchers and the pregnancy, of the Holy Ones, and it belonged to the 
Gian[ts, ...] 2 and my heart within me was upset on account of this boy. Blank 
[■ ■ ■] 3 Then I, Lantech, was frightened and turned to Bitenosh, my wife, [and 
said: . . .] 4 [Swear to me] by the Most High, by the Great Lord, bv the King of 
the Universe, . . .] 5 [. . .] the sons of heaven, that you will in truth let me know 
everything, if [...] 6 You will [in truth] and without lies let me know whether 
this [. . . Swear to me] 7 by the King of all the Universe that you are speaking 
to me frankly and without lies [...]<? Then Bitenosh, my bride, spoke to me 
very harshly, she wep[t . . .] 9 and said: Oh my brother and lord! Remember my 
pleasure [...] 10 [. ..] the time of love, the gasping of my breath in my breast. 
I [shall tell you] everything accurately [,..]»[...] and then within me my heart 
was very upset. Blank [. . .] 12 When Bitenosh, my wife, realized that my counte- 
nance had altered [...] 13 then she suppressed her anger, speaking to me and 
saying to me: O my lord and [brother! Remember] 14 my pleasure. I swear to 
you by the Great Holy One, by the King of the heafvens...] 15 that this seed 
l comes from you, that this pregnancy comes from you, that the planting of this 
1 fruit comes from you, 16 and not from any foreigner or watcher or son of 
heaven. [Why is the expression] 17 of your face so changed and distorted, and 
your spirit so depressed? [. . .] 18 1 speak truthfully to you. Blank [...] uj Then I, 
Lantech, /ran/ to my father, Methuselah, and [told] him everything, [so that 


lQapGen ii-xii 


GENESIS APOCRYPHON 


231 


he would go and ask Enoch,] 20 his father and would know everything for cer- 
tain from him, since he (Enoch) is liked and well-liked [... and with the holy 
ones] 21 his inheritance is found and they show him everything. When Methu- 
selah heard [these things] 22 [he ran] to Enoch, his father, in order to know 
everything reliably [. . .] 23 his will. And he left for the higher level, to Parvaim, 
and there he met [Enoch, his father...] 24 He said to Enoch, his father: O my 
father and my lord, to whom I [. . .] 25 [. . .] I tell you: Do not be annoyed with 
me because I came here to [you. . .] 26 fear (?) before you [. . .] 

Col. ill 3 For in the days of Jared, my father [...] 

Col. v 3 I, Enoch [. . .] 4 [not from the sons of] heaven but from Lamech [your 
son...] 9 Now I tell you ... I let you know [...] 10 Go, tell Lamech, your son 
[. . .] 24 When Methuselah heard [. . .] 25 and with Lamech, his son ... he spoke 
[...] 26 When I, Lamech [...] 27 which he brought out of me [...] 

Col. vi 2 and all my life I have behaved correctly [...] 6 [.. .] I, Noah, a man [...] 

Col. vii 1 [you will rule] the earth and all there is in it, over the seas [...] 7 [...] 
and I was happy at the words of the Lord of the heavens [. . .] 

Col. x 12 [...] the ark settled [on] one of the mountains of Hurarat [...] 13 [...] 

I atoned for all the whole earth [...] 13 [...] I burned incense on the altar [...] 

Col. xi 17 [. . .] You shall eat no blood of any kind [. . .] 

Col. xii /[...] and it was for me a sign in the cloud [. . .] 2 [. . .] the earth 3 [. . .] 
was revealed to me 4-7 [...]... 8 [ . . . ] in the mountains of Hurarat; afterwards I 
descended to the base of these mountains, I, my sons and my sons’ sons 9 [. . .] 
for desolation was great in the earth [...] after the flood 10 [...] was born first 
Arpachsad two years after the Flood [...] all the sons of Shem, all of them 

II [...] Put and Canaan [. . .] 12 [.. .] seven. Blank And the sons ofjaphet, Gomer, 
Magog, Madai, Yavan, Tubal, Mosok, Tiras and four daughters. 13 I, and all 
my sons began to till the earth and I planted a huge vineyard on Mount Lubar 
and four years later it produced wine for me. 14 [...] Blank And when the first 
feast occurred, on the first day of the first feast of the month, 15 [. . .] my vine- 
yard; I opened the pitcher and began to drink it on the first day of the fifth 
year. 16 [. . .] On that day I called my sons, and my sons’ sons, and all our wives 
and their daughters and we got together and we went [. . .] And I blessed the 
Lord of the Heavens, the God Most High, the Great Holy One, who saved us 
from destruction. 


232 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


lQapGen xvi-xix 


Col. XVI 11 [. . .] all the land of the North until he reached [•■•] '2 [...] this fron- 
tier, the waters of the Great Sea [. . .] 16 [. . .] the river Tina [. . .] 

Col. xvii £[...] towards the West, towards Ashshur, until it reached the Tigris 
[...] 9 to Aram, the land which [...] until it reached the upper part of [...] 
io [. . .] this mountain of the Bull, and he crossed this portion towards the East, 
until he reached and over the upper part of the three portions [ . . . ] 

To Arpachsad [...] 16 [...] to Gomer he gave the Eastern part in the North, 
until it reached the river Tina and its crown; to Magog [. . .] 

Col. xix 7 [...There I built an altar and called on the name of God] there and 
said: You are 8 for [me the eternal God] . . . Until now I have not reached the 
holy mountain. I left, then, g as far as [...] and kept on walking towards the 
South [. . .] until I reached Hebron. [At that time] Hebron had been built, and 
I lived io [there two ye]ars. Blank However, a famine occurred in this whole 
country. I heard that there was grain in Egypt, and left u to [enter] the land of 
Egypt [. . .] I reached the river Carmon, one of the 12 branches of the river [. . .] 
now we [. . .] our land. And I crossed the seven branches of this river which [. . .] 
13 [• • •] Then we cross our land and we enter the land of the sons of Ham in the 
land of Egypt. 14 Blank I, Abram, dreamt a dream, on the night of my entry into 
Egypt. And in my dream I saw a cedar and a palm-tree. 13 [. . .] Some men ar- 
rived intending to cut and uproot the cedar, leaving the palm-tree alone. 16 But 
the palm-tree shouted and said: Do not hew down the cedar, because both of 
us are of the same family. And the cedar was saved thanks to the palm-tree, 
17 and was not hewn down. Blank I woke up from my slumber during the night 
and said to Sarai, my wife: I have had 18 a nightmare [. . . and] I am alarmed by 
this dream. She said to me: Tell me your dream so that I may know it. And I 
began to tell her the dream. ig [And I let her know the interpretation] of the 
dream. I said: [. . .] they want to kill me and leave you alone. This favour only 
20 [must you do for me]: every time we [reach a place, say] about me: He is my 
brother. And I shall live under your protection and my life will be spared be- 
cause of you. 21 [...] they will try to separate you from me and kill me. Sarai 
wept because of my words that night. 22 [...] the Pharaoh [Zoan ... so that] 
Sarai [did not wish] to go to Zoan 23 [with me, because she greatly feared] 
within herself that anybody could see her. After these five years 24 three men 
of the princes of Egypt [came. . .] from Pharaoh Zoan on account of my [words] 
and of my wife. They gave me 25 [many presents expecting from me] goodness, 
wisdom and truth. I read in front of them the [book] of the words of Enoch 
26 [. . .] concerning the famine which [. . .] and not [. . .] and they arrived, urging 
until [...] to her [...] the words of [...] 27 [...] with much eating and drinking 
[...] wine [...] 


lQapGen xx 


GENESIS APOCRYPHON 


233 


Col . x x 7 2 [...] How dazzling and pretty is the shape of her face, and 

how [. . .] 3 [. . .,] how smooth the hair of her head! How lovely are her eyes; how 
pleasant her nose and all the animation 4 of her face [...] How graceful is her 
breast and how lovely all her whiteness! How beautiful are her arms! And her 
hands, how 5 perfect! How alluring is the whole appearance of her hands! How 
pretty are the palms of her hands and how long and supple all the fingers of 
her hands! Her feet, 6 how lovely! How perfect her legs! No virgin or wife who 
enters the bridal chamber is more beautiful than her. Above all 7 women her 
beauty stands out; her loveliness is far above them all. And with all this beauty 
there is in her great wisdom. And everything she does with her hands 8 is per- 
fect. When the king heard the words of hrknws and the words of his two 
companions, since the three of them spoke in unison, he desired her greatly 
and sent 9 with all speed for them to fetch her. He saw her and was amazed at 
all her beauty, and took her for himself as a wife. He tried to kill me, but Sarai 
said 70 to the king: He is my brother, so that I could profit at her expense. I, 
Abram, was forgiven on her account and I was not killed. But I wept 77 bitterly 
that night, I, Abram and my nephew Lot with me, because Sarai had been 
taken away from me by force. Blank 12 That night I prayed, pleaded and en- 
treated and said in my distress, while my tears flowed: Blessed are you, O God 
Most High, my Lord, through all the 14 universe. For you are Lord and Master 
of everything and rule all the kings of the earth, to judge them all. Now 14 I 
lodge a complaint before you, my Lord, against Pharaoh Zoan, king of Egypt, 
because my wife has been taken away from me by force. Do justice for me 
against him and show your mighty arm 75 against him, and against all his 
house. During this night, may he not be able to sully my wife, separated from 
me; and so they shall know you, my Lord. For you are the Lord of all the kings 
7 6 of the earth. And I wept and stayed silent. That night, the God Most High 
sent him a chastising spirit, to afflict him and all the members of his household, 
an evil spirit 1 7 that kept afflicting him and all the members of his household. 
And he was unable to approach her, much less have sexual intercourse with 
her, in spite of being with her 18 for two years. At the end of two years, the 
punishments and plagues, against him and against all the members of his 
household, increased and intensified. And he sent 79 for all [the wise men] of 
Egypt to be called, and all the wizards as well as all the healers of Egypt, (to 
see) whether they could heal him of that disease, [him] and the members 20 of 
his household. However, all the healers and wizards and all the wise men were 
unable to rise up and heal him. For the spirit attacked all of them and 21 they 
fled. Blank Then hrknws came to me and asked me to come and pray for 22 the 
king, and lay my hands upon him so that he would live. For [he had seen me] 
in a dream. But Lot said to him: Abram, my uncle, cannot pray for 23 the king 
while Sarai, his wife, is with him. Go, now, and tell the king to send back his 
wife to her own husband and he will pray for him and he will live. 24 Blank 


234 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE lQapGen XX-XXI 


When hrknws heard Lot’s words, he went and said to the king: All these 
plagues and punishments 25 with which the king my Lord is afflicted and pun- 
ished are on account of Sarai, Abram’s wife. They should return Sarai, then, 
I beg you to Abram, her husband, 26 and this plague and the spirit of purulent 
evils will cease to afflict you. (The Pharaoh) called me to him and said to me: 
What have you done to me with regard to Sarai? You told me: 27 She is my 
sister, when she is your wife; so that I took her for myself for a consort. Here 
is your wife; take her away! Go! Depart from 28 all the cities of Egypt! But now 
pray for me and for my household so that this evil spirit will be banished from 
us. I prayed for [...] 29 and laid my hands upon his head. The plague was re- 
moved from him; [the evil spirit] was banished [from him] and he lived. 30 The 
king got up and informed me [. . .] The king swore an oath to me that not [. . .] 
Then, they [brought to] me 31 Sarai. The king gave her much gold [and silver] 
and many clothes of fine linen and purple [. . .] 32 in front of her and also Ha- 
gar. He handed her to me, and appointed men to escort me out [of Egypt.] 
33 I, Abram, walked with much cattle and also with silver and gold. I left 
[Egypt . . . Lot] 34 , my brother’s son, [was] with me. Lot, too, had acquired 
many flocks and had taken for himself a wife from among the daughters [of 
Egypt. 1 camped with him] 

Col. xxi 1 in all my (old) camp-sites until I reached Bethel, the place where I 
had built an altar, and I built it once again. 2 Upon it I offered holocausts and 
an offering to the God Most High, and invoked the name of the Lord of the 
Universe there; I praised God’s name and blessed 3 God. I gave thanks there 
in God’s presence for all the flocks and wealth which he had given me, because 
he had acted well towards me, and because he had returned me 4 in peace to 
this land. Blank 5 After that day, Lot parted from me on account of the 
behaviour of our shepherds. He went and settled in the Jordan Valley (taking) 
all his flocks 6 with him. And I even added many to his. He pastured his flocks 
and reached Sodom and bought himself a house in Sodom 7 and lived there, 
while I lived in the mountain of Bethel. It distressed me that Lot, my brother’s 
son, should have parted from me. 8 Blank God appeared to me in a night vision 
and said to me: Go up to Ramat Hazor, which is to the North of g Bethel, the 
place where you are living; raise your eyes and look to the East, to the West, to 
the South and to the North. Look at all w this land, which I am giving you and 
your descendants for ever. The following morning I went up to Ramat Hazor 
and looked at the land from ,, that height, from the River of Egypt up to Leba- 
non and Senir, and from the Great Sea up to Hauran, and all the land of Gebal 
up to Qadesh, and all the 12 Great Desert which there is to the East of Hauran 
and Senir as far as the Euphrates. And he said to me: I shall give all this land 
to your descendants and they will inherit it forever. 13 I will multiply your 
descendants like the dust of the earth which no-one can count. In the same 


lQapGen xxi-xxii 


GENESIS APOCRYPHON 


235 


way, your descendants will be innumerable. Get up, walk its length and 
breadth, 14 and see how great is its length and how great is its width. For, I 
shall give it to you, to you and to your descendants after you, for all the centu- 
ries. Blank 15 I, Abram, went out to traverse and see the land. I began the tra- 
verse at the River Gihon. I went along the edge of the sea until 16 1 reached the 
mountain of the Bull. I walked from [the coast] of this Great Sea of Salt, skirt- 
ing the mountain of the Bull towards the East, through the breadth of the land 
17 until I reached the River Euphrates. I proceeded towards the East along the 
bank of the Euphrates, until reaching the Red Sea. I continued walking along 
the shore 18 of the Red Sea until arriving at the branch of the Sea of Reeds 
which issues from the Red Sea, and continued towards the South until I 
reached the 19 River Gihon. Then I turned back and arrived at my house in 
peace and found everyone well. I went and settled next to the oaks of Mamre, 
in Hebron, 20 to the North-east of Hebron. There I built an altar, and upon it 
I offered a holocaust and an offering to the God Most High. And I ate and 
drank there, 21 1 and all the people of my household. I invited, Mamre, Arnem 
and Eshkol, three Amorite brothers, my friends, and they ate together 22 with 
me and drank with me. Blank 23 Before those days there came Chedorlaomer 
king of Elam, Amraphel, king of Babylonia, Arioch, king of Cappadocia, Tidal, 
king of Goiim, which is Mesopotamia, and they declared war on Bera, king of 
Sodom, Birsha, king of Gomorrah, Shinab, king of Admah, 25 Shemiabad, 
king of Zeboiim and the king of Bela. All these formed an alliance to do battle 
in the Valley of Siddim. However, the king of 26 Elam and the kings allied with 
him were victorious over the king of Sodom and all his allies, and they imposed 
tribute on them. Over twelve years they continued 27 paying their tribute to the 
King of Elam but in the thirteenth they revolted against him. In the fourteenth 
year, the king of Elam positioned himself at the head of all 28 his allies, they 
climbed up the desert road and were ravaging and laying waste from the river 
Euphrates. They routed the Rephaites of Ashteroth-agkarnaim the 
Zumzumites of Ammon, the Emim of Shaveh-kiriathaim and the Horites of 
Mount Gebal until they reached El-joparan, in the desert. They returned [. . .] 
in Hazazon-tamar. Blank 31 The king of Sodom went out to meet him, together 
with the king [of Gomorrah,] the king of Admah, the king of Zeboiim and the 
king of Bela. [They engaged] battle 32 in the Valley [of Siddim] against 
Chedorlaomer, [and the allies] who were with him. But the king of Sodom was 
defeated and fled; the king of Gomorrah 33 fell in the pits [...] The king of 
Elam pillaged all the property of Sodom and of 34 [Gomorrah...] and they 
captured Lot, the son of the brother 

Col. xxii 1 of Abram, who was living in Sodom, together with them and all his 
cattle. One of the shepherds of the flock 2 which Abram had given Lot, who 
had escaped captivity, came to Abram -at that time Abram 3 was living in Heb- 


236 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


lQapGen xxii 


ron-and told him that Lot, the son of his brother and all his flocks had been 
captured, but that he was not dead, and that 4 the kings had taken the road of 
the Great Valley up to his city, taking prisoners, ravaging, killing and proceed- 
ing 5 as far as the city of Damascus. Abram wept for Lot, the son of his 
brother. Abram gained courage, stood up 6 and chose from among his servants 
those most fit for war: three hundred and eighteen. Arnem, 7 Eshkol and 
Mamre were with him. He went in pursuit of them until he reached Dan and 
found them 8 camped in the Valley of Dan. He fell upon them by night from 
(all) four sides. He killed 9 some during the night. He destroyed them and 
chased them and they were all fleeing before him w until they reached Helbon 
which lies north of Damascus. He retrieved from them all that they had cap- 
tured, 11 all that they had looted and all their own goods. He also saved Lot, his 
brother’s son, and all his flocks and brought back all 12 the captives they had 
taken. The king of Sodom heard that Abram had brought back all the captives 
13 and all the loot and went up to meet him. He went to Salem, which is Jerusa- 
lem. Abram was encamped in the Valley of 14 Shaveh, which is the Valley of 
the King, the Valley of Bet ha-Kerem. Melchizedek, king of Salem, brought 
out 13 food and drink for Abram and for all the men there were with him. He 
was a priest of the Most High God. He blessed 16 Abram and said: Blessed be 
Abram by the Most High God, Lord of heaven and earth and blessed be the 
Most High God, 1 7 who has delivered your enemies into your hands. And (A- 
bram) gave him a tithe of all the flocks of the king of Elam and his allies. 
18 Blank Then, the king of Sodom approached and said to Abram: My Lord 
Abram, ig give me the people who are mine, who are captive with you, whom 
you have rescued from the king of Elam. All the wealth, 20 keep for yourself. 
Blank Then Abram answered the king of Sodom: 21 I swear this day by the 
Most High God, Lord of heaven and earth, that I will not accept a thread or 
a sandal thong 22 or anything of what belongs to you so that you will not say: 
From my wealth do 21 Abram’s riches (come), 23 apart from what my boys who 
escort me have eaten, and apart from the share of the three men who 24 came 
with me; they are owners of their share to give to you. Abram gave back all the 
wealth and 25 all the captives and gave (them) to the king of Sodom. And all the 
prisoners who were with him from that area he released 26 and freed them all. 
Blank 27 After these events, God appeared to Abram in a vision and said to him: 
See, 28 ten years have passed since the day you left Haran; you have spent two 
years here, seven in Egypt and one 29 since you came back from Egypt. Now 
inspect and count up all you possess and see how many times 30 everything 
which left with you on the day of your move from Haran has increased. Now, 
do not fear, I am with you and for you I shall be 31 support and strength. I shall 
be your shield and your buckler against one stronger than you. Your riches and 
your flocks 32 shall increase enormously. Blank Abram replied: My Lord God, 
great are my riches and my flocks; but what use is all this to me? 33 When I die 


1 


lQapGen xxn 


GENESIS APOCRYPHON 


237 


I shall go naked and without sons. One of my servants will inherit from me, 
34 Eliezer [...] ... But he answered him: He will not inherit from you but 
(some)one who has left 


238 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q216 I-II 


3 The Book of Jubilees 
40301111665" (4Q216 [4Qjub“]) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 ( =Jub 1 : 1-2. 4-7) 3 [Sinai, when he went up to] re[ceive the stone 

tablets, the Torah and the statute] by the word of YHWH [according to which 
he told him:] 4 [Go up] to the top of the mountain. In the first year] of the 
so[ns of Israel] leaving 5 [Egypt, in the] thir[d month, the sixteenth of this 
month] yhwh spoke to 6 [Moses saying: Come up to me] on the mountain [and 
I will give you the two tablets] of stone, the Torah 7 [and the statute which I 
have written in order to te]ach [you. And Moses climbed the mountain of 
yhwh and] the glory of yh[wh settled] 8 [on top of Mount Sinai and for six 
days the cloud covered it...] 9-70 [...] 11 [...And he showed him the divisions 
[of periods for the Law 1 2 [and for the testimony. And he said to him: Pay 
attention to all the wo]rds which I tell you 13 [on this mountain and write them 
in a book so that] their generations may [know] that he has not forsaken them 
14 [for all the evil which they did by breaking the covenant which] I set up to- 
day between me and you 13 [for their generations on Mount Sinai. And when] 
all these things happen to them 16 [they will know that I have been just with 
them in all] their judgments and in all] their curses and they will know 77 [that 
in truth I was with them. And you, write] all these wo[rds. . .] 

Frag. 1 col. 11 (=Jfub 1:7-15) 2 in the land [which I promised to their fathers, 

to Abraham and to Isaac and to Ja]cob, 3 saying: To your offspring [I will give 
a land which flows with milk and ho]ney. They will eat and be replete [but they 
will turn back] 4 after other gods [who did not save them from any trou]ble. 
And the [testimony] will reply to this testimony; bec[ause they will forget all 
my statutes, all that I] commanded you and they will go [after] 6 [the nations 
and [after their foulnesses and after their disreputableness]. And they will serve 
other go[ds who to them will be a hindrance,] 7 trouble, [affliction] and [trap. 
Many will be destroyed.] They will be captured and fall [into the hand of the 
enemy for] 8 [they will forsake] my laws and [my statutes, the festivals of my 
covenant [and my sabbaths and the holy things] 9 which they will dedicate to 
me in the mid[st of them and my tent and my] temple [which I made holy for 
myself in the midst] 10 of the earth in order to place [my name] in it [and reside 
there]. They made for themselves burial mounds, sacred woods and idols] 
77 and grovelled in front of a[ll the work]s of their wickedness. [And they will 
sacrifice their sons to the devils and to all the works of the wickedness of their 
heart.] 12 I shall send them witnesses [to testify against them, but they will not 
listen and will kill the witnesses] 13 They will harass those who study the Torah 
[and they will alter everything and will start to do what is evil] 14 in my eyes. 
And I shall hide my face from them and w ill confsign] them [into the hand of 


4Q216 iv-vi 


THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 


239 


the nations for imprisonment,] 13 [for ru|in [and so they can be consumed. I 
will remove them from the midst of the land and] scatter them among all the 
nations. 16 |They will forget all my laws and all my statutes] and all my teach- 
ings and they will forget [the month, the sabbath] 1 7 [the feast, the jubilee and 
the covenant. After this they will come back] to me from among the natifons 
with all their heart . . .] 

Frag. 1 col. iv (=Jub 1 : 26-28) 3 [. . .the first and the] last 4 [and what will come 

in all the divisions of the periods for the] Law and for the testimony] 5 [and for 
the weeks and the jubilees for ever until I come down] and stay with [them] 
6 [for all the centuries of centuries. And he told the angel of the] presence to 
dictate 7 [to Moses from the beginning of creation until] my temple is built 
8 [in their midst for all the centuries of the centuries, yhwh will reveal himself 
to the eyes of] everyone and they will [all] know 9 [that I am the God of Israel 
and the father of all the sons of] Jacob and the king 10 [on Mount Zion for all 
the centuries of centuries And Zion and Jerusalem [will be holy...] 

Frag. 1 col. v (= Jub 2:1-4) 1 [And the angel of the presence told Moses at 

God’s command: Write all the wo]rds of the creation: h[ow] 2 [on the sixth day 
yhwh Elohim finished all his works and all that he had created] and observed 
the sabbath on the [seventh] day 3 [and made it holy for all the centuries and 
placed it as a sign for all] his works. Blank 4 [Blank For on the first day he created 
the] upper hea[vens,] the earth, 5 [the waters and all the spirits who serve before 
him: the angels] of the presence, the angels of ho[liness,] 6 the anfgels of the 
spirits of fire, the angels of the spirits of the win]ds and the angels of the spirits 
of the [clouds] 7, darkn[ess, ice, frost, dew, snow, hail and hoarjfrost; and the 
angels of thufnder] 8 and the angels of the [storm-]winds [and the angels of the 
winds of cold and of] heat, of winter and of summer, [all] 9 the spirits of his 
creatures [which he made in the heavens and which he made in the ea]rth and 
in everything, the abyfsses] 10 the darkness, the dawn [the light, the dusk which 
he prepared with his knowledge. Then we saw his deeds and [blessed him] 
11 on account of all his deeds and [we praised him in his presence because he 
had ma]de seven great works [on the first day.] 12 And on the [second d]ay [he 
made the vault in the middle ] of the waters [and the waters were separated on 
that day. Half] 13 went up on to[p of the vault and half went down below the 
vault which was in its midst, on top of the face of all] 14 the earth [...] 

Frag. 1 col. vi (= Jub 2 : 7 - 12) 2 [. . . and the po]ols and all the d[ew of the earth] 

3 [the seed for sowing with its seed, every shoot and tree that gives fruit, the] 
woods and the garden of Eden [in Eden] 4 [for pleasure and for eating. These 
four great works] he did on the thir[d] day. 5 [ Blank On the fourth day yhwh 
made the] sun, the moon and the stars. [He placed them] 6 [in the vault of the 


240 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4 Q 2 l 6 VI-VII 


sky so that could give light to the whole earth] to regulate day and night and to 
separate] 7 [light and darkness. And he placed the sun as a] great [sign above 
the earth] of the days, the weeks, the mon[ths] 8 [the feasts, the years, the weeks 
of years and the ju]bilees and of all the ag[es of the years.] g [It separates light 
from darkness and is the vitality by which everything] that sprouts and grows 
in the ea[rth prospers.] 10 [These three great works he did on the fourth day.] 
Blank 11 [On the fifth day he created the] grea[t cetaceans in the core of the 
abys]ses of the wafters, for these] 12 [were the first works of flesh by his hands; 
and everything that moves in] the waters, fish and all [the birds] 13 [which fly 
and all their species. The sun shone over them for] vigour and over everything 
there was on the earth, [everything] 14 [that sprouted from the earth and every 
tree that yields fruit and all flesh. These] three great [things] 15 [he did on the 
fifth day. Blank ] 

Frag. 1 col. VII (=jfub 2 : 13-24) 1 [On the] sixth [day he made] all the animfals 

of the earth and all the cattle and everything that slithers over the earth. After 
all these] 2 he made man, male and fefmale he made them, and gave them con- 
trol over everything there is on the earth and in the seas and over everything 
that flies] 3 over the animals and over everything that slithers [creeping over the 
earth, and the cattle and over all the earth. Over all these he gave them control.] 
4 He made these [four] types [on the sixth day. And in all there were twenty- 
two types. And he finished all his works on the sixth day: everything] 5 there 
is in the heavens and on the earth [and in the waters and in the abysses, in the 
light and in the darkness and in everything. And he gave us a huge sign, on the 
day of the] 6 sabbath on which he left off doing [all the works which he had 
created over the six days . . . ] 7 they were made in six days [ . . . ] 8 and we observe 
the sabbath on the seventh [day (refraining) from all work. For we, the angels 
of the presence and all the angels of - these] 9 two classes -he commanded us 
[to observe the sabbath with him in the heavens and on the earth. And he said 
to us: I am going to isolate for myself] w a people among my peoples. And 
[they will keep the sabbath and I will consecrate them as my people and I will 
bless them. They will be my people and I w ill be their God.] 11 And I chose the 
descendants of Jacob among [all those I saw. And I registered him for me as the 
first-born son and consecrated him to me] 12 for ever and ever. The [seventh] 
day [I will teach them so that they keep the sabbath on it above all. For I 
blessed them and consecrated them as an exceptional people] 13 among all the 
nations so that together [with us] they keep [the sabbath. And he lifted up his 
statutes like a pleasant perfume which is acceptable in his presence] 14 every 
day. Blank [There are twenty-two patriarchs] 15 from Adam to him and twenty 
two typ[es of works were done up to the seventh day. One is blessed and holy 
and the other is blessed] 16 and holy. One and the other were made together for 
holiness [and for blessing. To this one was granted to be blessed and holy for- 
ever.] ?7 And this is the testimony and the first Law. [. . .] 


1 1Q12 1-6 


THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 


241 


liQjubilees (11Q12 [uQjub]) 

Frag. 1 (=Jub 4:7-11) 1 [And in the] fourth [year] of the fif]th week they re- 

joiced and Adam knew his wife once again] 2 and she bore a son for him and he 
named him [Seth for he said: yhwh has raised a seed for us] 3 [in the] earth, 
another in place of Abel, since [Cain] killed him. [In the sixth week she bore] 
4 [Azu]ra, her daughter. And Cain took his sister [Awan as his wife and she 
bore Enoch for him] 5 [at the end of the] fourth [ju]bilee. Blank [In the first year 
of the first week] 6 [of the fifth jubilee] they built houses in the la[nd and Cain 
built a city and gave it] 7 [the name of his s]on Enoch. And Ad[am knew his 
wife Eve and she gave birth to 8 [nine more children. And in the fi]fth we[ek 
...] 


Frag. 2 (=Jub 4 : 13- 14) ; [And she gave birth to a s]on [for him] in the [third 

ye]ar [of the fifth week and gave him the name] 2 [Cainan. And] at the end of 
the [eighth ju]bilee [Cainan took for himself a woman, Muhalelet] 3 [his sister] 
as a wife. [And she gave birth to a son for him in the ninth jubilee, in the first 
week] 4 [in the thi]rd [year] of [that week.] 

Frag. 3 (=jfub 4 : 16- 17) / [in the fifth wee]k [of the fourth year of the jubilee 

and called him Enoch.] 2 [Bla]nk. He was the first (person) [to learn writing. . .] 

Frag. 4 (= Jub 4 : 29-30) 1 [the first to be bur]ied in [the earth, seventy years 

short of one thousand] 2 [years, for] a thousand years [are like one day in the 
testimony of heaven. This is why] 3 [it was written concerning the tr]ee of 
knowledge: For on [the day on which you eat from it, you shall die. This is 
why] 4 [he did not complete the] years of that day [.. .] 

Frag. 5 (Jub 5:1-2) 1 [. . . those fal]len. And [brutality on earth] increased [and 

all flesh perverted] 2 [its way from men to] animals, the bea[sts, the birds and 
everything that moves] 3 [over land; all these pe]rverted their ways and their 
standards and began to consume each] 4 [other and brutality increased upo]n 
earth. [...] 

Frag. 6 ( =Jub 12 : 15-17) 1 and [his sons in order to go to the country of Leba- 

non and the country of Canaan and he settled in Haran. And Abram stayed] 
2 [in Haran] with [Terah his father during two ‘weeks’ of years. Blank And in 
the sixth week] 3 in his fifth [year] Abram kept vigil during the night of the first 
day of the seventh month to observe 4 the stafrs from the evening to the morn- 
ing, in order to see what the yearly cycle would be in relation to the rains. And 
it happened that] 5 while he [was sitting alone, watching, a voice came to his 
heart and said to him: All the signs] 6 of the stafrs. . .] 


242 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q220 . 219 


Frag. 7 ( =Jub 12 : 28-29) 1 Blank And it happened that in the sev[enth year] of 

the sixth week he spoke to his father and told him] 2 [that] he was leaving 
[Haran to go to the land of Canaan to see it and to return to him.] 3 [And his 
father] Terah [said] to him [:Go in peace. May the eternal God direct your 
path] 4 [and may yhwh be with] you and kee[p you from every evil; may no 
son of man overpower you] 5 [to mis]treat you. [...] 

4Qjubilees‘ (4Q220 |4Qjub‘ ]) 

(= Jub 21 : 5 - 10) 1 [... You, my son, keep his pre]cepts [his decrees and his 

judgments; do not go after] idols or after [carved or cast effigies.] 2 [And] do not 
[eat any blo]od of an animal, cattle or any bird which [flies in the sky. If you 
sacrifice] 3 [a victim for] a holocaust or a free-will offering, [you will sacrifice 
it and pour the blood over the altar. And all] 4 [the fat] which is for the holo- 
caust you shall offer upon the alftar] with the finest flour of its offering mixed 
with [oil] 5 [and its libation. And] you will burn everything upon the altar, a 
fire-offering with a pleasant fragrance before Elohim. [...] 6 You will offer on 
the fire which is upon the altar, and the fat [...] 7 [...] and all the fat which 
there is upon the entrails and the kidneys and the [...] 8 and the appendix of 
the liver and from the kidneys you shall remove [. . .] 9 with the offering and the 
libation for the plea[sant fragrance...] w [You are to eat the flesh the] same 
[day] and the following morning and not [. . .] 

4Qjubilees l/ (4Q219 [ 4 f 4 j ub' / |) 

Col. 1 (=Jub 21 : 14- 16) 11 [And in the sixth year, in] the seventh [week of this 

jubilee, Abraham called Isaac, his son,] and commanded him saying: I am old 
[and I do not know the day of my death, for I have completed] 13 my days. 
Behold, I am [one hundred and seventy-]two [years, and throughout all the 
days of my life I have been remembering] 14 our Elohim always and I have been 
[seeking him with all my heart. . .] 15-31 [...] 32 [upon] the altar [with the finest 
flour of its offering mixed with oil and its libation. And you will burn every- 
thing upon] 33 the al[tar, a fire-offering with a pleasant fragrance before 
Elohim. And the fat of the thanksgiving sacrifice you will of]fer 34 [on the fire 
which is upon the altar, and the fat which is upon the belly, and] all the fat 
35 [which is upon the entrails and the kidneys and] all the fat which is upon 
them and that which 36 [is on the loins and the appendix of the] liver with the 
kidneys you shall remove. You shall offer 37 [the whole for a pleasant fragrance 
before Elo]him, with its offering and its libation [for a pleasant (fragrance), the 
bread] 38 [of the fire-offering to yhwh. You are to eat its flesh] the same [day] 
and the following morfning, and (the sun) will not set upon it.] 


4Q219 ■ 221 


THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 


2 43 


Col. II (=Jub. 21 : 14- 16.18-22 : 1) 11 [...and the aroma of its fragrance does 

not ri]se to heaven. Keep 12 [this commandment and carry it out, my son, so 
that you will be uprjight in all your actions. 13 [And at every time be pure in 
your flesh and wash yourself with water before] going to offer 14-16 [...] 
17 [You are not to eat blood any more] because the blood is [the life, and you 
are not to eat any blood. You are not to accept] 18 [a bribe for any blood] of 
men which is poured out [for no reason, without judgment, because the blood 
which is poured out] ig [defiles the earth, and the] earth cannot be [purified 
from the human blood except with the blood] 20 [of the one who shed it. Do 
not take a bri ]be or atonement for [human blood: blood for blood, and it will be 
acceptable] 21 [before yhw]h, God Most High. He will be custodian for [the 
goodness, and so you will keep yourself from every] 22 [evil and He will] pro- 
tect you from every pestilence. Blank [. . .] 23 [My son: I see that all the labours 
[of the human race are evil and sinful and all] 24 [their actions are uncleanness, 
abomination] and filth, and there is no truth in them. Blank Be[ware, lest you 
walk] 25 [in their ways and] tread in their paths and commit a deadly misdeed 
[in front of God Most High] 26 [and He hide his face] from you, give you into 
the hands of your fault and obliterate you [from the earth] 27 [and your progeny 
from] beneath the sky. And your name and your memory will vanish from the 
whole [earth. 1 28 [Refrain from all] their deeds and from all their abominations, 
and keep the regulations of God] 29 [Most High and do] His will, and you will 
be succesful in everything. He will bless you in all your deeds, [and will cause 
to sprout] 30 [from you a plant of] truth in the earth for all the generations of 
the earth. And [my name] 31 [and your name] will not cease [from beneath] the 
sky for all the days. Blank Be upright, my son, in pea[ce. May he strengthen] 
32 [you, the God] Most High, my God and your God, to perform his will and 
to [bless your progeny] 33 and the [remnant of your pro]geny for all the eternal 
generations w ith every blessing [of truth so that you might be] 34 a blessing [in 
all the earth.] Blank And he went out from him rejoicing. Blank 33 [...] In the 
first week of the [forty-]third [jubilee, in its] 36 [second year, which is] the year 
in which Abraham died, [Isaac and Ishmael] came 37 [from Beer Sheba to cele- 
brate] the feast of [weeks] which is the festival of the first fruits.] 

4Qjubilees^ (4Q22 1 [4Qjul> / ]) 

Frag. 1 (=Jub 21 : 22-24) 1 Be[ware of walking in their way]s and committing 

[a deadly misdeed in front of God Most High] 2 [lest] He hide his face from 
you, give you [into the hands of your fault and obliterate you] 3 [from the earth] 
and your progeny from beneath the sky. [Blank ...] 4 And your name and your 
seed will vanish from the whole earth. [Refrain from all their deeds and from 
all] 5 their abominations; keep the regulations of God Most High, [and do His 
will and you will be successful] 6 [in everything.] <and from all their abomina- 


244 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4QI76 19-21 


tions; keep [the regulations of God Most High, [and do his will] 7 [and you 
will] be successful in everything.! He will bless you in all [your deeds, and will 
cause to sprout from you a plant of truth] 8 [in the earth for all the generations 
of the ear]th. And [my name and your names will not cease from beneath the 
sky] g [for al]l the days. 

3Qjubilees (3Q5 [3Qjub]) 

Frags. 3+1 (= Jub 23 : 6-7.12-13) z [...and this] was heard in [Abraham’s 
house. Blank ] 2 [And Ishmael his son got up and] fled to Afbraham his father. 
And he wept for Abraham] 3 [his father, he and all the me]n of the house(hold) 
of A[braham; they wept a great deal. And] 4 [Isaac and Ishmael his sons] buried 
him in the cave of Macfphelah next to Sara, his wife.] 

2Qjubilees tf (2Q19 2Qjub a ]) 

[=jfub 23 : 7-8] z [...And Isaac and Ishmael his sons buried him in the cave of 
Mac]phelah ne[xt to Sara, his wife.] 2 [And for him wept] for forty days all the 
me[n of his household, and Isaac and Ishmael and all their sons and all the sons 
of Qetura] 3 [in their places.] Blank [And the mourning ended,] 4 [the lament for 
Abra]ham. He had lived for three jubilees and fo[ur weeks of years, one hun- 
dred and seventy-five years and he ended] 5 [the days of his life] old and replete 
with days. [. . .] 


4Qjubilees^(4Qi76fragments 19-21 [4Qjul/|) 

Frags. 19-20 ( =Jub 23 : 21-23) 1 [•■• They invoke the great name, however 

neither in tru]th nor in justice, 2 [and they defile the Holy of Holies with his 
impur]ity and with the defsolation of abomination.] Great punishment there 
will be against the works of this generation 3 [on the part of the Lord who will 
deliver them] to the sword, to the judgment, to [the bondage] to pillage and to 
be devoured. He will rouse against them 4 [the sinners of the nations who will 
have neither mercy nor compas]sion towards them, and [who will not] respect 
any[body nor] 

Frag. 21 (=Jub 23 : 30-31) z And their ene[mies] will see [all their judgments] 
2 in all their cur[se. Their bones will rest in the earth] 3 and their spirits [w ill 
rejoice exceedingly and they will know that] 4 a God exists who administers 
[justice and has mercy] 5 to the thousands] and the my[riads who love him.] 


1Q17- 18 . 2Q20 


THE BOOK OF JUBILEES 


245 


1 (Jubilees" (1Q17 [lQjub"]) 

[=Jub 27 : 19-21] 1 [...] Blank [...] 2 [And Jacob left Beersheba to] go to Haran 

in the first [year of the second week of the forty-fourth jubilee] 3 [and reached 
Luz] which is on the mountain -it is Bethel -[the first (day) of the first month 
of that week.] 4 [And he reached] the pl[ace in the eve]ning and he moved off 
the path, to the ri[ght, that night and spent the night there, because the sun had 
set.] 5 [And he to]ok one of the stones of that place [and placed it as a pillow 
under the tree and lay there] 6 [for he] travelled alone. [...] 

1 (Jubilees* (1Q18 [tcjub*]) 

[=jfub 35 : 8 - 10] 1 [...with] me about your death. Blank [...] 2 [And she fled to 

Isaac and said to him: One request] I ask of you. Make Esau swear that 3 [he 
will not bully Jacob, his brother and that he will not harass] him with enmity, 
for you know Esau’s nature which is 4 [evil from his youth and you know all 
that he has do]ne from the day on which [his brother Jac]ob fl[ed] to Haran 
[right till today.] 


2Qjubilees* (2Q20) [2(Jub"]) 

[= Jub 46 : 1 - 3] 1 [... And they were very fruitful] 2 [and multiplied greatly 

during ten] weeks of years, a[ 11 the days of Joseph’s life.] 3 [And he had neither 
rival nor any evil] all the days of Joseph’s life whicfh he lived after] 4 [his father 
Jacob, for all Egypt] paid hono[ur to Jacob’s sons] 5 [all the days of Joseph’s 
life. And Joseph died at the age of] one hundred and te[n years] 

4QPseudo Jubilees' (4Q227 [4QPsJub‘J) 

1 [. . .] Enoch, after we had taught him 2 [...] six jubilees of years 3 [. . .] of the 
earth, among the sons of men and he gave witness against them all 4 [. . .] and 
also against the Watchers and he wrote everything 5 [. . .] of the heavens and the 
paths of their armies and [. . .] 6 [. . .] so that they would not stray [. . .] 


246 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q201 I -II 


4 The Books of Enoch 
4QEnoch" (4Q201 [4QEn" ar]) 

Col. 1 (= 1 Enoch 1:1-6) 1 [Words of blessing with which] Enoch [blessed] the 

chosen [just ones, who will be present on the day of distress to eliminate all the 
enemies and wicked people,] 2 [while the just will be saved. Enoch, a just man 
to whom a vision of the Holy One and of heaven was revealed, announced] his 
oracles saying: [The vision of the Holy One of heaven] 3 [was revealed to me, 
and I heard] all the words of the Wat[chers] and of the Holy Ones [and because 
1 heard it from them, I knew and understood everything] 4 [I will not speak for 
this] generation but a future generation. [Now I speak about the chosen, con- 
cerning them I declare my oracle, saying:] 5 The Great Holy One will leave [his 
dwelling and the eternal God will descend upon the earth and will walk to 
Mount Sinai and will appear] 6 [with his great army] and will rise in the 
strength of his might [from the height of the heavens. All the Watchers will 
shake and will be punished in secret places] 7 [in all the lim]its of the earth; all 
the limits of the earth will split [and they will be seized with shuddering and 
fear as far as the edges of the earth. They will split and fall] 8 [and] the peaks 
[will melt] and [the high mountains will be flattened. . .] 

Col. 11 (= Enoch 2 : 1 - 5 : 6) 1 [they appear in their constellations] and they do not 

overstep his command. Notice the earth and scrutinise his works 2 [from the 
first to the] last, how none alter and everything is obvious to you. Notice the 
indications 3 [of the summer: . . .] above it. And the indications of winter: how 
all the earth 4 [is filled with water] and the clouds drip rain. Notice how all the 
trees turn white 5 [and lose all their leaves, ap]art from fourteen trees whose 
leaves survive 6 [and do not renew their leaves until] two or three years [go by]. 
Notice the indications 7 [of summer: how then (in it) the sun burns] and warms 
and you look for shade and relief from it 8 [upon the scorching face of the 
earth] without finding a way of walking through the dust or the stones owing 
to g [the heat. Notice and understand all the] trees; in all of them green leaves 
sprout and cover 10 [the trees, and all their fruits are for] decoration and show. 
Exalt and contemplate all these works u [and realise that God, who lives [for 
eternity, has made all these works. Year 12 [after year his works do not alter, 
instead] they all carry out his word. However, you alter your works 13 [and do 
not carry out his word, instead you offend] against him with great and harsh 
[words] with your unclean mouth 14 [against his greatness. Hard-hearted ones] 
there will be no peace for you! This is why you will curse your days and 13 [the 
years of the your life will perish. . .] The years of your destruction will increase 
with an everlasting curse. There will be no mercy ?6 [or peace for you. This is 
why your name will be] (an) everlasting curse [for all the just ones and through 


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247 


you will be cursed] 17 [all the accursed; and all the sinners and evil ones will 
swear by you,] and to all [the sinners. . . J 

Col. Ill (= 1 Enoch 6 : 4 - 8 : 1) 1 They will all say to him: We take [an oath and 

swear, all under oath, one to another not to] 2 go back on this enterprise [until 
we have completed this work. Then they] 3 all [took an oath] together and they 
promised [each other. They were two hundred, all who went down] 4 in the 
time of Yared upon the [peak of Mount] Hermon. [They called the mountain 
‘Hermon’] 5 because they took an oath and swore under oath [with each other 
upon] it. These are [the names of their chiefs] 6 Shemihazah, who [was his 
chief; ’Ar’teqo]f, second to him; Ramt’el, [third] 7 to him; Kokab’el, [fourth to 
him; ...-’el, fifjth to him; Ra’ma’el, [sixth to him;] 8 Dani’el, seventh [to him; 
Zeq’el, eighth] to him; Baraq’el, ninth [to him;] 9 c Asa’el, tenth [to him; 
Hermoni, eleventh] to him; Matar’el, twelfth [to him;] 10 Anan’el, thirteenth 
[to him; Sato’el, fourteenth to him; Shamshif’el, fift]?;eenth to him; Sahari’el, 
sixteenth to him; Tumi’el, seventeenth to him;] 12 Turi’el, eighteenth to him; 
Yomi’el, nineteenth to him; [Yehadi’el, twentieth to him.] 13 These are the 
chiefs of the chief-of-tens. They and their chiefs [all took for themselves] 
14 women, choosing (from) among (them) all, and [they began to penetrate 
them, and be defiled by them] ;j and taught them sorcery, [incantations and the 
cutting of roots and to explain herbs.] 16 They became pregnant by them, and 
[gave birth to giants, some three thousand cubits tall, who] 17 were born upon 
the earth [in keeping with their infancy and grew at the rate of their growth and 
consumed] 18 the work of all the sons of men, without [the men being able to 
supply them. The giants] 19 plotted to kill the men [and to consume them. 
They began to sin and to ...] 20 against all the birds and animals of the earth 
[and against the reptiles who move upon the earth and in the waters] 21 and in 
the sky and the fish of the sea and for some to consume the flesh [of the others 
and drink the blood. Then| 22 [the earth denounced the] wicked [for all that 
had been done to it.] 23 [‘Asa’el taught men] to [apply...] 

Col. iv (= Enoch 8:3-9:3.6-81 1 Shemihazah taught incantations [and (how) to 

cut roots; Hermoni taught (how) to undo magic,] 2 sorcery, magic and skills; 
[Baraq’el taught the signs of the shafts; Kokab’el taught] 3 the signs of the stars; 
Zeq’el [taught the signs of the lightning; ’Ar’teqof taught the signs of the 
earth;] 4 Shamsi’el taught the signs of the sun; [Sahari’el taught the signs of] 
the moon. [All began) 5 [to reveal] secrets to their wives. Since [a section of 
men] was expiring on the earth, their outcry 6 went right up to [the sky. Then] 
Michael, [Sariel,] Raphael, Gabriel gazed 7 from the sanctuary [of the heavens 
to the earth and saw] much blood spilt [upon the earth] and all [the earth] 8 was 
filled with the [evil] and violence perpetrated upon it. [Hearing this the four of 
them went] 9 and said to themselves [that the] outcry and the wail for the [de- 


248 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4 Q 201 . 202 


struction of the sons of the earth went right up to] 10 [the gates of heaven. [And 
the holy ones of heaven said: It is now to you, holy ones of heaven] u to whom 
[the souls of the sons of men appeal saying:] 12-18 [. ..] ig [.. . in the ear]th and 
[every trick in] 20 [the dry land. For they have taught the eternal mysteries 
which exist in heaven so that the cognoscenti] 21 [from among men] perform 
them. And (see) Shemihazah, to whom you gave jurisdiction] to rule over all 
[his fellows.] 22 [They have gone to the daughters of men of the earth and have 
slept with those women] becoming defiled [by them.] 

Col. v (= 1 Enoch 10:3-4) 3 [■■ .Teach] the just man [what he had to do and the 

son of Lamech] to save [his soul for life] 4 [and to escape] for [ever. And] for 
him a plant will be planted and all the generations] of the world [will be 
founded.] 5 [He said to Raphael;] Go, [then, Raphael and bind Azael hand and 
foot and hur]l him into [darkness.] 

Col. vi (= 1 Enoch 10:21-22) j [And all the sons of men will succeed in being] 
just [and all of them w ill worship me; every nation] 4 [will bless me] and grovel. 
[The whole earth will be cleansed of all defilement and all] 5 [impurity. And] 
I shall [not again] send [upon them either anger or punishment for all the gen- 
erations] 6 [of the world...] 

4QEnoch / ’ (4Q202 |4QFn / ' ar]) 

Col. 11 (= 1 Enoch 5:9-6:4 + 6:7-8:11 1 [a]ll the days [of your life...] 2 It hap- 

pened that when [in those days the sons of men increased,] 3 pretty and attrac- 
tive [daughters were born to them. The Watchers, sons of the sky, saw them 
and lusted for them] 4 and said [to each other: Let’s go and pick out women 
from among the daughters of men and sire for ourselves] 5 [sons. However, 
Shemihazah, who was their chief, said to them: I am afraid you do not want to 
carry out] 6 [this deed and I alone will be guilty of a great sin. They replied and 
all] said [to him:] 7 We [all take an oath and all swear under oath to each other 
not to go back on this] venture [until] 8 we have performed [this deed...] 
9-14 [...] is [‘Anan’el, thirteenth to him; Sato’el, fourteenth] to him; 
[Shamshi’el, fifteenth] 16 [to him; Shahari’el, sixteenth to him; Tu]mi’el, seven- 
teenth to him; {Yomi’el} Turi’el, 17 [eighteenth to him; Yomi’el, nineteenth] to 
him; Yehadif’el, twentieth [to him. /They] are the chiefs of the chief-of- 
tens.]/ 18 [They and their chiefs all took for themselves] women, choosing 
(from?) among all and they began 19 [to penetrate them and be defiled by them 
and teach them] sorcery, incantations [and the cutting of roots] 20 [and to ex- 
plain herbs. They became pregnant by them and gave birth to giants, some 
three] 21 [thousand cubits tall, who were born upon the earth in keeping with 
their infancy and grew at the rate of their growth and] consumed 22 [the work 


4Q202 III — IV 


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249 


of all the sons of men, without the men being able to supply them. The 
giants] 23 [plotted to kill the men and to consume them and they began to sin 
and to . . . against] 24 [all the birds and animals of the earth and] the reptiles 
[which move upon the earth and in the sea] 25 [and in the skies and the fish of 
the sea/ and for some to consume the flesh of the others and] drink the 
blood./ 25b [Then the earth denounced the wicked for all] that had been 
done on it. 26 ‘Asa’el taught [men] to manufacture swords of iron and breast- 
[plates of copper and showed them] 27 what is dug up [and how] /they could 
work the go[ld to leave it reajdy;/ /and as for/ silver, /to emboss it/ for brace- 
lets [and other jewellery for women.] 28 [To the women he divulged] about 
antimony and eye-shadow [and all the precious stones] 29 [and about dyes...] 

Col. hi (= Enoch 812-9:4) 1 [wickedness became great and they] stray[ed in all 

their paths. Shemihazah] taught [incantations] 2 [and (how) to cut roots; 
Hermoni] taught (how) to remove magic, [sorcery, magic and skills; Baraq’el] 
taught [the signs of] 3 [the rays; Kokab’el] taught the signs of the stars; [Zeq’el 
taught the signs of the lightning; ...’el taught] 4 [the signs of ...; ’Ar’]taqof 
taught the signs of the earth; [Shamshi’el taught the signs of the sun; Sahari’el] 
5 [taught the signs of the moon.] And all began to reveal [secrets to their wives. 
Since] 6 [a section of men was expiring on the earth,] their outcry [went right 
up to the sky.] 7 [Then] Michael, Sariel, [Raphael and] Gabriel gazed from the 
sanctuary [of the heavens] to the earth 8 [and saw much blood spilt] upon the 
earth; [and all the earth was filled with the evil and violence perpetrated] 
g [upon it. Hearing this the four of them went and said to themselves that the 
outcry and the wail] 10 [for the destruction of the sons of the earth [went] right 
[up] to the gates [of heaven. And they said to the holy ones of heaven: It is now 
to you,] 11 [holy ones of heaven] to whom [the souls of the sons of men appeal 
saying: Take our case in front of the Most High] 12 [and our destruction in 
front of the Majestic Glory and in front of the Lord of all the lords in re- 
spect of majesty.] 13 [Ra]phael and Michael, [Sariel and Gabriel] went [and said 
in front of the Lord of the world:] 14 [You are] our great Lord, [you are] the 
Lord of the world; [you are the God of gods and the Lord of lords and the 
King of kings.] 15 [The heavens are the throne] of your glory for all the genera- 
tions which exist since eternity [and all the earth is the footstool in front of you 
for all of eternity] 16 [and your name is great and] holy and blessed for eve[r. . .] 

Col. iv (= 1 Enoch 10:8- 12) 1-4 [...]5 [all] sin. [And to Gabriel] the Lord [said]: 

Go [to the bastards and the sons of whoring and exterminate] 6 [the son]s of the 
Watchers [from among the sons of men; involve them in] a war of attrition [for 
there will not be) lo[ng days for them.] 7 [Absolutely no] re[quest in their favour 
will be granted to their fathers; for they hope to li]ve an [everlasting] life [or 
that] 8 [each one of them will live five hundred years. And to Michael the Lord 


250 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q204 I- II 


said: Go, Michael and] tell 9 [Shemihazah and all his friends] who coupled with 
[women to be defiled by them in their uncleanness that] 10 their sons will expire 
and they will [see the extermination of their loved ones; chain them up for] 
seventy generations in the valleys] ?/ of the earth until the great day [of his 
judgment. . .] 

Col. vi (= Enoch 14:4-6) 1-4 [. . .may your request] 5 [not be granted to you for 

all the days of eternity, and] the verdict against y[ou be decided and pro- 
nounced;] 6 [right from now may you not] return [to heaven or ascend for all] 
7 [eternity;] ver[dict is pron]ounced to shackle you in the prisons of the earth 
for all the days of eternity;] 8 [before this may you see] all your loved ones and 
all their sons [go to destruction] 9 and [not enjoy] the belongings [of your loved 
ones and their sons,] 10 may they fall before you by the destructive sword...] 

4QEnoch‘ (4Q204 |4QEn‘ ar]) 

Col. 1 (= 1 Enoch 1:9-5: 1) 1-15 [...] 16 [when he comes with] the myriads of his 

holy ones [to carry out the sentence against everyone; and he will destroy all the 
wicked] 17 [and he will accuse all] flesh for all their [wicked deeds which they 
have committed by word and by deed] 18 [and for all their] arrogant and wicked 
[words which wicked sinners have directed against him. Weigh up] 19 all the 
deeds [and notice] the work of [the heavens and the luminaries which do not 
alter their courses] 20 in the locations of their lights; how they all [rise and set, 
each one of them in its turn.] 21 Notice the earth and weight up its works, 
[from the first to the last; how none] 22 alters and everything is evident to you. 
[Notice the signs...] 23 [...] which all [...] 24 [...] apart from fourteen trees 
w hose] 23 [leaves survive until] two or three years [go by. Notice] 26 [the indica- 
tions of summer: how (in it) the] sun burns and warms [and you look for shade 
and relief] 27 [before it upon the] scorching [face] of the earth w ithout finding 
a way of walking through the dust or the stones owing to the heat. 28 [Notice 
and understand] all the trees; on all of them green [leaves sp]rout and on them 
29 [they become green, and all their fruits] are for decoration and show. Exalt 
and [contemplate all these works] 30 [and realise that the living God,] who 
[lives] for all the everlasting [centuries has made everything.] 

Col. 11 (= 1 Enoch 6:7) 1-23 [...] 24 These are the names of their chiefs: 

[Shemihazah, who was his chief; ’Ar c teqof, second to him; Rama’el,] 25 third 
[to him;] Kokab’el, fourth to him; [...-’el, fifth to him; Ra c ma’el, sixth to him;] 
26 Dani’el, sefventh to him;] Zeq’el, eighth [to him; Baraq’el, ninlth to him; 
‘■Asa’fel, tenth to him;] 27 and Hermoni, [eleventh to him; Matrafel, twelfth 
to him;] c Anan’el, thirteenth to him; Sato’el, 28 [fourteenth [to him;] 
Shamshi’el, [fifteenth to him;] Sahari’el, sixteenth to him; 29 Tu[mi’el, seven- 


4Q202 V-VI 


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251 


teenth to him; Turi’el, eighteenth to him; Yomi’ejl, nineteenth to him; 30 [Ye- 
hadi’el, twentieth to him. These are the chiefs of ten...] 

Col. v (= Enoch 10 : 13 - 19 + 12 : 3) 1 [and to] torture and to [confinement in the] 

everlasting [prisonf Everyone to be sentenced will be lost right from now; he 
will be shackled with them until the destruction] 2 [of his generation.] And at 
the moment [of the judgment by which] I shall judge they will die for all the 
[generations. Exterminate all the spirits of the bastards and of the sons of] 

3 [the Watchers, because they have caused evil to be done to men.] Exterminate 
the sin from [the face of the earth, make every evil deed disappear] 4 [and make 
the] plant of justice [appear; it will be a blessing and the deeds of just men will 
be planted in enjoyment for ever.] 5 [At that time all the just] will escape and 
live [until they sire thousands]. All the days of 6 [your youth and of] your old 
age will be achieved in peace. . .] 7 [Then all the earth will be tilled] in justice 
and it will all be planted [with trees and filled with blessing. All the trees] 8 [of 
the earth w hich they wish for will be planted in it and in it they will plant vines 
and each vine] planted in it 9 [will yield a thousand amphoras of wine and each 
seed sown in it will yield] a thousand [seahs for every] 10 [seah ...] 11-18 [...] 
19 [I, Enoch, was starting to bless the Lord of Majesty, the King of the Centu- 
ries, when] here there was the Watcher 20 [of the Great Holy One. . .] 21-30 [. . .] 

Col. vi (= 1 Enoch 13 : 6- 14 : 16) 1 with [all] their request for their souls for each 

and all of [their deeds and for all those who asked: for them there might be] 
2 [forgiveness and long life.] I fled [and sat next to the waters of Dan, in the 
country of Dan, which is to the south of] Hermonim at its Western side, 3 [and 

I was reading the book of records] of their requests [until I fell asleep. Behold, 
dreams came to me and visions fell upon me] so that [I lifted] 4 my eyelids to 
the portals of the [palace of heaven. . .] 5 And I saw a vision of the severity of 
the punishment. [And a voice came and said to me: Speak to the sons of heaven 
to admonish them. When I woke up I went] 6 to them. They were all assembled 
together and seated and [weeping in Abel-Maya (The Spring of Weeping) 
which is between the Lebanon and Senir, with covered faces.] 7 Blank In front 
of them I related all [the visions which I had seen in dreams and I began to 
speak] 8 with words of justice and of vision and to admonish the [heavenly] 
Watchers. 9 Blank Book of the words of truth |and of the admonishing of the 
Watchers who had always existed, according to the command of J 10 [the Great 
Holy One] in the dream which [I dreamt. In that vision I saw' in my dream 
what I now speak with a tongue of flesh, with the breath of my mouth,] 

II which the Great One gave the sons [of men so they can speak [with it and so 
they can understand in (their) heart. So just as God has intended and created 
the sons of men so they can understand] 12 the words of knowledge, he has 
intended and made and created me to adm[onish the Watchers, the sons of 


252 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q204 VIII -XI I 


heaven. I wrote down your request, Watchers,] 13 and in a vision was revealed 
to me that [your request will not be granted to you for all the days of eternity 
and that there will be a verdict against you by decision] 14 and pronouncement; 
that right from now [you will not return to heaven or ascend for all the ages; 
and that the verdict has been pronounced] 15 [to shackle you in the prisons of 
the earth] for all the days of eternity; [but that before you will see that all your 
loved ones will go to destruction with all] 16 their sons; and you will not enjoy 
use of the possessions of your loved ones [and of their sons; they will fall in 
your presence by the sword] 1 7 of destruction, for your request for [them will 
not be granted you just as it is not granted to yourselves. You will carry on] 
18 asking and entreating [. . .You are not to utter even one word] ig of the writ- 
ing which I have written. [This was revealed to me in the vision: Behold, in the 
vision, the clouds were calling me, the mists] 20 shouted to me and the thunders 
and lightnings [urged me and ... In the vision, the winds caused me to fly, they 
lifted me up] 21 on high, they took me and placed me in [the heavens. I entered 
them until I reached the wall of a building made of hailstones] 22 and encircled, 
so as to be completely surrounded by tongues of fire [which began to alarm me 
and to ... I entered through these tongues of fire] 23 [until] I reached a huge 
house [made of hailstones; the walls of this house were like stone planks; they 
were all] 24 [of snow and the floor w]as made of snow. [The roof was like thun- 
ders and lightnings and between them, cherubim of fire; and its sky was of 
water.] 25 [A burning fire surrounded] all the walls [encircling them completely. 
And the doors were of burning fire. I entered this house which was as hot] 
26 [as fire and as cold as] snow; [in it were none of the pleasures of life. Fear 
shrouded me and trembling clutched me.] 27 [I was shivering and shaking] and 
fell [on my face and a vision was revealed to me: Behold I saw another door 
which opened] 28 [in front of me and another house which] was larger than this, 
all of it [made of tongues of fire. All of it was so much better than the other in 
grandeur, glory] 29 [and majesty that I] cannot describe to you [its grandeur and 
majesty. Its floor was of fire,] 30 [its upper part was of thunders and lightnings 
and its roof of burning fire. It was revealed to me and in it I saw a raised throne 
and its appearance...] 

Col. viii (= 1 Enoch 18:8- 12) 1-12 [. . . the top] 27 of the throne was [of sapphire. 

I saw a burning fire; beyond those mountains there is a place on the other side 
of the great earth,] 28 and there [the heavens e]nd. [Then I was shown a great 
abyss between pillars of heavenly fire and I saw] 29 in it pillars [of fire which 
go down to the bottom: its height and its depth were immeasurable. And be- 
yond] 30 this afbyss ...] 

Col. xii (= 1 Enoch 30:1-32:1) 1-22 [...] 23 [.. .and beyond] them I went away, 

24 [very much to the east, and I saw another huge place with valleys with abun- 


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dant water inj which there were sweet-smelling reeds 25 [comparable to the 
mastic; and on the sides of these valleys I saw] the aromatic cinnamon. And 
beyond [these] valleys 26 [I went on to the East. I was shown] other mountains 
and in those, too, I saw trees from which issued 27 [the resin called tsaru and 
galbanum.] Further from this mountain I was shown [another] mountain 28 [to 
the East of the limits of the earth, and] all the trees were full of ..., which is 
comparable to almond peel. 29 [When ... in these trees] there comes from them 
a fragrant aroma; when these peels are ground up, 30 [they are superior to any 
fragrance. Beyond these mountains,] towards the North-east of them, I was 
shown mountains 

Col. xiii (= 1 Enoch 35 (?) + 36:1-4) 1-22 [. . .] 23 the open doors [. . .] 24 their 

number. Blank Then [...] 25 From there I was conveyed to the South of the 
e[nds of the earth, and there I was shown their three open doors] 26 for the 
South wind, for the dew and the rain [and for. . . From there I was conveyed to 
the East of the ends of the earth and there] 27 I was shown their three doors, 
[open to the East. . .] 28 of the sky. 29 Blank 30 Then ...[...] 

Frag. 4 (= 1 Enoch 89 : 3 1 -37) ,[.. .] And they were all startled and shaking [in 

front of him.] 2 [And they shouted to the lamb, which was its second,] which 
was in their midst: «We are unable to be in front [of the Lord».] 3 [Then the 
lamb w ho led them turned,] and climbed for a second time to the top of that 
rock. But the flock began to go blind 4 [and move off the path which he had 
indicated to them] without the lamb realising these matters. The Lord of the 
flock grew extremely angry against [the flock] 5 [and the lamb knew it and came 
dow n from the top of that rockj and came to the flock and found most of them 
blind 6 [and astray. When they saw him they began to get alarmed in fr]ont of 
him, trying to return to their pens. 7 [The lamb took other lambs with him and 
came to the] flock. They butchered all the strays and they began to tremble 
8 [in front of him . . . Then] this lamb made all the stray flock return to their 
pens. 9 [When the stray flock had returned to their pens, this lamb] busied 
himself with scolding, killing and punishing whoever had sworn by 10 [...I 
continued seeing this dream until] that lamb turned into a man, built a 
Taberfnacle ] , , [for the Lord of the flock and took all the flock to that Taberna- 
cle. I continued looking until] that lamb who had joined [him fell asleep.] 

Frag. 5 col. 1 (= 1 Enoch 104: 13- 106:2) 7-19 [...] 20 [... They shall believe in 

them and exult in them;] all [the just] will exult 21 [in learning from them all 
the paths of justice. In those days the Lord counted them] among the sons of 
the earth 22 [to read to them and to give them witness concerning their wisdom, 
saving: Show it to him si|nce you will be 23 [their guides and you will be re- 
warded among all the sons of the earth. You shall have] all 24 [reward. Exult, 


254 


PARA — BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q204 . 205 


then, sons of justice ...] 25 [...] 26 [After a time, I, Enoch, took a woman for 
Methuselah, my son and she bore him a son to whom I gave] the name Lamech 
27 [saying: «Surely justice has been demeaned until this day». When he reached 
adulthood, Methuselah took] a woman [for him] and she 28 [became pregnant 
by him and gave birth to a son for him. When the child was born his flesh was 
whiter than the snow and] redder 29 [than the rose and all his hair was white 
like pure wool, lush and shiny. When he opened his eyes he lit up the] whole 
30 [house like the sun . . .] 

Frag. 5 col. 11 (= 1 Enoch 106 : 13-107 : 2) 1-15 [. . .] [. . .Then I, Enoch, replied 

saying:] 1 7 Surely [the Lord] will [restore his law upon the earth, according to 
what I saw and related to you, my son.] In the days of Yared, my father, 18 they 
infringed [the word of the Lord . . . they si]nned and infringed . . . they changed 
in order to go ig [with women and sin with them; they married some of them 
who gave birth to creatures not like the spirits but made of flesh.] 20 There will 
be [great anger and flood over the ear]th [and there will be great devastation for 
a year. But this boy] 21 born to you [and his three sons] will be sa[ved when 
those there are above] the earth [die. Then will rest] 22 the earth, and it will be 
cleansed from the great corruption. [Now say to Lamech: He is your son] truly 
[and . . . this] 23 boy [who was born.] He is to be called [Noah, for he will be 
your repose when you repose in him;] 24 [and he will be your deliverance, for] 
he [and his sons] will be delivered [from the depravity of the earth -caused by 
the actions of all sinners] 25 [and by the wicked of the earth-which] will occur 
in his days. Subsequently there will be even worse wickedness [than this which 
will have taken place] 26 in his days. For I know the mysteries [of the Lord 
which] the Holy Ones have told me and have shown me [and which] 27 I 
read in [the tablets] of heaven. In them I saw written that generation after gen- 
eration will perpetrate evil in this way and there will be wickedness [until there 
arise] 28 generations of justice and the wickedness and corruption end and vio- 
lence [vanishes] from the earth, and until [goodness comes to the earth] 
29 above them. Blank Now, go to Lamech, your son, and [say to him] 30 that this 
boy is in truth and without lies his son. [Blank ]. 

4QEnoch‘ / (4Q205 [4QEn‘ y ar]) 

Frag. 1 col. I (= 1 Enoch 22 : 13-24: 1) 1 [. . .] on the day of judgment they will be 

tormented outside [of there and they will not be removed] outside of there. 
2 [Then I blessed the Lord of Majesty] and said: Blessed be the judgment of 
justice [and blessed be the Lord] of Majesty 3 [and Justice, who is the Lord of 
the World.] From there I was conveyed to another place, [to the West of the 
ends of the earth and I] was shown 4 [a fire which flows without resting] or 
interrupting its flow [either by day or by night,] remaining steady at the same 


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time. 5 [I asked, saying: What is that which has] no rest at all? [Ra’u’el answered 
me: This is its] purpose: this tire 6 [which flows towards the West directs the 
luminaries of the] sky. [And he showed me mountains:] the ground between 
them [was of burning fire] 7 [which flamed up at night . . .] 

Frag. 1 col. 11 (= 1 Enoch 25 '.7-2.7 : 1) ; [he gets up] in front of him, who pre- 

pares [such things for men, for the just ones.] These things [he has created and 
has promised to give them. From there] 2 [I was conveyed to the] centre of the 
earth and saw a blessed place] in which there were trees [whose branches blos- 
somed continuously.] 3 [There I was shown a holy mountain; and there was 
water coming out] from underneath [the mountain, from the East, and going 
down towards the South.] 4 [...] Blank [...] 5 [And 1 saw in the East another 
mountain, much higher] than this and between them a deep ravine [which had 
no breadth, through which flowed] 6 [the water which came from underneath 
the mountain. And to] its [West] another mountain [much lower than this, w ith 
no height,] 7 [and a deep, dry ravine beneath it and] between them [there was 
another ravine between the three mountains. All the ravines were deep] 8 [and 
of hard rock and there were no trees planted in them.] I was amazed at the 
mountains [and I was amazed at the ravines, I was absolutely amazed.] 9 [Then 
I said: Why is this land] blessed [and completely covered with trees...?] 

Frag. 2 col. I (= Enoch 89:11-14) 1-23 [...] 24 [... and they began to bite and] 

chase one 25 [another. The white bull which had been born in their midst sired 
a wild ass and also a white bullock.] And the wild asses 26 [increased in number. 
The white bullock, which had been sired by the white bull, sired] a black wild 
boar and a [white] ram. 27 [The wild boar sired several wild boars and the ram 
sired twel]ve [ewes.] 28 [When these twelve ewes had grown, they gave one ewe] 
from among them to the wild asses and the wild asses 29 [gave this lamb to the 
wolves. And the ewe grew up among wolves. The ram guided] all the ewes 

Frag. 2 col. 11 (= 1 Enoch 89:29-31) 7-26 [...] 27 [and then we climbed to the top] 

of a high [rock and the Lord of the flock sent her in the middle of the flock;] 
28 [and they all kept their distance.] Blank [. . .] 29 |Then I looked and behold the 
Lord of the flock got up in front] of the flock: his aspect was mighty, magnifi- 
cent and dreadful, [and all] 30 [the flock saw him and became afraid in front of 
him. They were all] quaking and frightened [in front of him] 

Frag. 2 col. in (= 1 Enoch 89:43-44) 7-25 [...] 26 [...and this ram began] 27 to 

butt [and to chase with his horns, to hit the foxes and then the wild boars; and 
he destroyed 28 many wild boars [and then set the dogs free. The ewe, whose 
eyes had opened, gazed] 29 at this ram [until he abandoned his path, and began 
to strike the flock and throw them to the ground and he began to walk off] 
30 the path. Blank [. . .] 


256 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q206 1-4 


4QEnoch‘ (4Q206 [4QEn' ar]) 

Frag. 1 (= 1 Enoch 22:3-7) 1 [the souls] of all the sons of men. Thus, then, 

these are the wells which function as a prison for them. 2 They are made in this 
way up to the day on which they will be judged, up to the instant of the last day 
on which 3 the Great Judge will deal with them. Blank There I saw the spirit 
4 of a dead man, blaming; and his lament rose up to heaven, shouting and 
blaming. 5 [Then I asked Raphael,] the Watcher and Holy One who [was with 
me] 6 [and said to him:] Whose is [this spirit which is blaming, whose groan in 
this fashion] 7 [rises up to heaven, shouting and blaming? He answered] me 
[saying: This is] 

Frag. 2 (= 1 Enoch 28:3-29:2 + 31:2-32:3) 1-2 [...] 3 [...] one [... which 

flowed towards the North-east, taking the water and the dew to every section.] 
4 [From there] I went to another place [in the desert and I moved away] 5 [a 
great deal] to the East [from this] location. [There I saw uncultivated trees 
which] 6 gave off [an aroma of incense and myrrh...] 7-13 [...] 14 [... in] it, it 
is full of resin and is like the bark] 13 [of the almond tree. When] their bark is 
crushed it is superior to any fragrance. Beyond] 17 these [mountains] towards 
the North-east of them, I was shown (still) other mountains 18 [full of] choice 
nard, mastic, cardamum and pepper. Blank From there I went on 1 9 [to the] East 
of all those mountains, far from them, to the East of the land; I was taken 

20 [above] the Red Sea and I moved very far from it; I crossed at the height of 

21 darkness, far from it, and was taken to the side of the Paradise of Justice. 

Frag. 3 (= 1 Enoch 32:3-6 + 33:3-34:1) 1 And I was shown fr[om afar, trees 

in it, over-abundantly numerous and huge trees] 2 differing [from each other. 
There I saw a tree which was different from all the others, very large] 3 and 
[beautiful and splendid...] 4-g [...] 10 [and] your first mother, and they learnt 
[wisdom and their eyes opened and they understood] 11 that they were naked. 
[...] 12-18 [...] ig [...Uriel, one of] the Watchers. And [he showed] me 20 [and 
wrote down everything for me; he even wrote down their names for me,] in 
accordance with their times. 21 [From there I was conveyed to the North of the 
edges of the earth] and I was shown great works. 

Frag. 4 col. 1 (= Enoch 88:3-89:6) 1-9 [. . .] 10 [. . . I continued watching in my 

dream, when, behold one] of 11 [the four who had left received a command 
from heaven and he took all the] numerous stars 12 [whose sexual organs were 
like those of horses, and he] bound [them] all hand and foot and hurled them 

13 [into an abyss in the earth. One of the four] went to one of the [white] bulls 

14 |and instructed him. He bu|ilt for himself a boat, and the boat was covered 
and roofed 16 [above them. I was] watching and behold, seven streams pouring 


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out 17 [abundant water over the earth.] And behold, the reservoirs in the inte- 
rior of the earth opened and they began 18 [to spout and lift up the water over 
it.] I continued to watch until the earth was covered by the water 1 g [and by 
darkness and mists (?) which] hung over it. The bulls were submerged and 
swallowed 20 [and destroyed by that w ater.] The boat floated on top of the wa- 
ter and all the bulls, 21 [the wild asses, the camels] and the elephants sank in the 
water. 

Frag. 4 col. 11 (= 1 Enoch 89:7 - 16) /[Once again I watched in] my dream, until 
[those streams shut off from that elevated roof ] 2 [and the sluices] of the reser- 
voirs closed [and other reservoirs opened. The water began] 3 to sink to its 
interior, until [the water] vanished [from the surface of the land, and it 
emerged, and the boat] 4 rested upon the land; [darkness withdrew and there 
was light. 5-8 [. . .] 9 [. . . and there was born] 10 in the midst [of them a white 
bull. And they began to bite and chase one] n another. [The white bull sired 
a wild ass and also a white bullock. And the w ild asses increased in number. | 
12 The [white] bullock, [which had been sired by the white bull, sired a black 
w ild boar and a white ram;] 13 [the wild boar sired several wild boars and the 
ram sired] 14 twelve ewes. [When they had grown, they gave one from among 
those ewes to the wild asses,] 15 and the wild asses gave [that lamb to the 
wolves. And that ewe grew up among the wolves.] 16 The ram took [all eleven 
ewes to live and graze with him] 17 among the wolves; and they increased [in 
number and changed into a flock with many ewes. And the wolves] 18 began to 
harass the flock [even causing their kids to die and to hurl their kids] ig [into 
a] stream of water. Then [the ewes began to shriek for their young and to wail] 

20 [in front of their Lord. One] ewe, which had evaded [the wolves, fled and 
went to the wild asses. And I watched while 21 [the flock groaned and shrieked 
horribly] until the Lo[rd of the flock] came down. 

Frag. 4 col. ill (= 1 Enoch 89:27-30) 1-12 [...] 13 [...] water [...] 14 [I continued 

watching until all the] wolves who went on chasing that flock [died] i$ [sink- 
ing and drowning, and] the water covered them. The fl[ock moved away from] 
16 [that water and we]nt to a barren place [in w hich there was no] 17 [water or 
grass] and their eyes opened [and they saw. I watched] 18 [until the Lord of the 
flock fed them] and gave them water and grass [and the ewe] ig [went and led 
them. The ewe] climbed to the top of a high rock and the Lord 20 [of the flock 
sent her to the middle of the flock and] they all kept their [distance. Then] 

21 [I watched and behold the Lord of the flock rose up in front of the flock] and 
[his aspect was mighty] 


25 « 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4 Q 207 . 212 


4QEnoch / (4Q207 [4QEn / ar]) 

Frag. 1 (= 1 Enoch 86:1-3) [■ • • Again I was] 1 [staring in the dream and I saw 

the heaven] above [and behold] a star [fell from the sky in the middle] 2 [of the 
great bulls and ate and grazed] in the midst of them. And then I saw |those 
bulls, large] 3 [and black; all of them exchanged their feeds,] their stables and 
their bullocks [and began to live with each other.] 4 [I looked again in my dream 
and watched the sky] and behold many stars [came down and fell from the sky] 
5 | in the middle of the first star and were turned into] bulls in the middle [of 
those bullocks and grazed with them and among them] 

4Ql’,noch' (4Q212 1 4QEn" arj) 

Col. 11 (= 1 Enoch 91: 18-92:2) 1-13 [...] 14 [...] and he will go [...] 15 [...] they 

will give it glo[ry...] 16 and the earth shall rest [...] 1 7 all future generations. 
[And now I am going to speak to you, my sons and show you all] 18 the paths 
of justice [and all the paths of violence and again I shall show you them so] 
19 you know what is going to happen. [Now, then, my sons, listen to me and 
choose the tracks] 20 of justice in order to walk on them and [...] 21 because 
they are going to utter destruction [all those who walk on the path of injustice.] 
22 What he wrote and gave to Methufselah, his son, and to all his brothers, 
Enoch, the celebrated scribe] 23 [and the wis jest of men, the chosen one among 
the sons of [the earth to judge their deeds. He wrote to the sons] 24 of their 
sons and to future generations, to all who [dwell on dry land so that they will 
achieve good] 25 [and peace: «Do not] upset yourselves [in your spirit on ac- 
count of the times] 26 [because the Great Holy One] has given [a time for ev- 
erything . . . ] 

Col. in (= 1 Enoch 92:5-93:4) 1-13 [...] if) [...] darkness [...] 17 [...] from this 

day [...] 18 [... When he was delivering his letter] Enoch resumed his speech 
and said: «I, [Enoch, was born] on the seventh day [in the] first [week] 24 and 
until my time justice [was] still] [strong. After me will come the] 25 second 
[week] when deceit and violence will increase. [...] 

Col. iv (= 1 Enoch 93:9-10 + 91:11-17) 1-10 [...] 11 [... but all] their deeds will 

be at fault. 12 [At its close] the chosen ones will be selected as witnesses of the 
justice of the plant 13 of everlasting justice; they shall be given wisdom and 
knowledge sevenfold. 14 They shall uproot the foundations of violence and the 
work of deceit in it in order to carry out [justice.] 13 After this, the eighth week 
w ill come, the one of justice, in which [a sword] will be given to all the just, for 
them to carry out just judgment against the wicked 17 who will be delivered 
into their hands. At its close, they w ill gain riches in justice 18 and there will be 


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259 


built the temple of the kingship of The Great One, in his magnificence, for all 
eternal generations. 1 g And after that, the ninth week. [In it] will be revealed 
jus[tice and just judgment] 20 to all the sons of the whole earth. All those who 
ac[t wickedly will vanish] from all 21 the whole earth and they shall be hurled 
into the [eternal] well. All [men will see] 22 the just eternal path. And after 
[that, the tenth week. In its seventh part] 23 there will be eternal judgment and 
the moment of the great judgment [and he will carry out revenge in the midst 
of the holy ones.] 24 In it, the first heaven will pass away [and there will appear 
a new heaven and all the forces] of heaven 25 will rise throughout all eternity, 
shining [seven times more. After that there will be] many weeks 26 [the number 
of which will not] have an end [ever, in which goodness and justice] will be 
achieved 

Col. v (= 1 Enoch 93: 11-94:2) j-jj[...] i^[... Who, among all men] 25 [ . . . ca]n 

understand the commandment of [. . .] ?6 can hear the words of the Holy One 
[ without being upset or can visualise his thoughts?] 17 Or who, among all men, 
[can consider all the works of the heavens or the] 18 angular [columns] upon 
which they rest; [or w ho sees a soul or a spirit and can] ig go back to tell about 
[it? Or go up and see all their extremities and think or act like them?] 20 Or who 
[among the sons of men can know and measure what is] 2/ the length and 
breadth of all the earth? Or [to whom has all its ... been shown] 22 and its 
shape? Who, among all men, can [know what the extent of the heavens is, and 
what] 23 their height is, or how they are supported, [or how large is the number 
of the stars?] 24 Now I tell you, my sons: [love justice and walk in it, because] 
25 the paths of justice [are worthy of being approved, but the paths of wicked- 
ness will be destroyed and will vanish. To the sons] 26 of men [. . .] 


260 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


IQ23 . 4Q203 


5 The Book of Giants 
iQBook of Giants" (1Q23 [lQEnGiants" ar]) 

Frags. 1+6 + 22 1 [...two hundred] 2 donkeys, two hundred wild asses, two 

hun[dred . . . ] 3 rams, two hundred he-goats, two hundred [ . . . ] 4 of each animal, 
of each [...] 5 of dilute wine [six] thousand, of [...] 6 [...] Then [...] 

Frags. (9+14+15 ?[...] 2 [.. .] and they knew the mysteries ... [...].?[...] great 

in the earth [...] 4 [...] in the earth [...]$ [...] the giants [...] of [...] 

4QBook of Giants" (4Q203 [4QEnGiants“ ar]) 

Frag. 1 1 When I arise [...] 2 Baraq’el [...] 3 my face still [...] 4 I arise [...] 

Frag. 2 1 over them [...] 2 Blank [. . .] 3 Mahaw[ai] replied [. . . ] 

Frag. 3 1 [. .,] 2 their friends [. . .] 3 Elobabes and adk [. . .] 4 What will he give 

me to ki[ll ...?] 

Frag. 4 1 [...] in them. [...] 2 [...] Blank [...] j [Then] ’Ohyah said to Ha[hyah, 

his brother . . .] 4 [. ..] on top of the earth [. . .] 3 [. . .] the earth. When [.. .] 6 [...] 
they bowed down and wept in front of [Enoch . . .] 

Frag. 5 1 [...]...[...] 2 [...] violence done to men [...] 3 [...] they were killed [...] 

Frag. 6 1 [...]...[..,] 2 [.. .] went for us [. ..] 3 [...] ... [. . .] 

Frag. 7 col. 1 1-2 [. . .] 3 and your power [.. .] 4 Blank [. . .] 5 Then ’Ohyah [said] to 

Hahyah, [his brother . . .] Then he punished not 6 us but Azazel and made him 
[. . . the sons] of the Watchers, 7 the Giants; and none of their [beloved beings] 
will be forgiven [. . .] he has seized us and has captured you. 

Frag. 7 col. 11 1-4 [. . J5 [. . .] to you, Mahafwai . . .] 6 the two tablets [. . .] 7 and the 

second has not been read up till now [. . .] 

Frag. 8 ? The book [. . .] 2 Blank [...].? Copy of the second tablet of the l[etter . . .] 

4 written by the hand of Enoch, the celebrated scribe [...] 5 and holy, to 
Shemihazah and to all his [companions . . .] 6 Know that [. . .] not 7 your deeds 
and those of your wives [...]<? they and their sons and the wives of [their sons 
• • •] 9 for your prostitution in the land. It will happen to you [. . .] 10 and accuse 
you regarding the deeds of your sons [...] 11 the corruption with which you 


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261 

have corrupted [. . .] 12 until the coming of Raphael. Behold, there will be de- 
struction [. . .] ij those who are in the deserts and those who are in the seas. The 
explanation of your task [...] 14 upon you for evil. Now, then, unfasten your 
chains [. . .] 75 and pray. Blank [. . .] 

Frag. 9 1 [. . .] and all [. . .] 2 [. . .] ... before the splendour of your glory 

your glo]ry, for you know all the mysteries [. . .] 4 [. . .] and nothing is stronger 
than you [. . .] 5 [. . .] before you. Blank Now, then, the Ho[ly One of the heavens 
■ ■■] 6 [...] your glorious rule for the [everlasting centuries ...] 7 [...] Blank [...] 

Frag. 10 1 [...] And now, my Lord [...] 2 [...] you have multiplied and [...] 

3 [. . .] your wishes and [. . .] 

Frag. 11 1 [■■■] 2 the dew and the frost [ . . .] 

Frag. 13 1 [They pros |t rated themselves in front of [Enoch . . .] 2 [Th]en he said 
to them: [...] 3 [may there not] be peace for you [...] 4 [...] to be [...] 

4QBook of Giants* (4Q530 [4QEnGiants* ar]) 

Col. 11 3 [. . .] Then two of them had nightmares, 4 and the dream fled from their 

eyes. They [arose ...] 5 and went [to Shemihazah their father and told him] 
their dreams 6 [...] In my dream which I saw tonight [.. .] 7 [...] gardeners; they 
were watering [...] 8 [...] numerous roots issued from its trunk [...] 9 [...] I 
watched until the springs closed up [...] 10 [...] all the water and the fire 
burned in everything [...1 n [...] 12 [...] Here the dream ended. 13 [...] the 
Giants were searching for someone who would explain 14 [the dream] to them 
[... to Enoch,] the celebrated scribe and interpret 15 the dream for us. Blank 
Then ’Ohyah, his brother, acknowledged and said in front of the Giants: 16 I 
also saw something amazing in my dream last night: The Power of the heavens 
came down to earth 77-79 [. . .] 20 [. . .] ... here the dream ended. [Then] all the 
Giants [and the Nephilim] became alarmed, 21 and they called to Mahawai and 
he came to them. They implored him and sent him to Enoch, 22 [the celebrated 
scribe] and they said to him: Go [...] ... and death for you, who 23 [...] hears 
his voice and tell him to [explain to you] and interpret the dream [. . .] 

Col. in 3 on one (tablet) the evidence of the Giants [and on the other (tablet) . . .] 

4 like the hurricane, and flew with his hands like an eagle [provided with wings 
• • •] 5 the earth and crossed Desolation, the great desert [. . .] 6 and saw Enoch, 
he called him and said to him: «An oracle [. . .] 7 here. For a second time I beg 
you for an oracle [...]§ your words, together with all the Nephilim of the earth. 
If he removes [. . .] 9 from the days of their [.. .] and may they be punished [. ..] 


262 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4 Q 53 i • 6q8 


10 [so] we know its explanation from you. [.. . Then Enoch said:] 11 [The two] 
hundred trees which have come from heaven [...] 

4QBook of Giants' (4Q53 1 [qQEnGiants')]) 

Frag. 1 ?[...] they were defiled [. . .] 2 [. . .] the Giants and the Nephilim and [...] 

3 they shall sire [...]. And if all [...] 4 [...] in his blood. And according to the 
power [. . .] 5 [. . . the Giants] which was not enough for them and for [their sons 
. . .] 6 [. . .] and they demanded much to eat [. . .] 7 [. . .] Blank [. . .] 8 [. . .] the Gi- 
ants destroyed it [. . .] 

Frag. 2 j [. . .] powerful. And with the strength of my powerful arm and with the 
might of my power 4 [...] all flesh, and waged war on them. But not 5 [...] I 
found support to strengthen me, for my accusers 6 [...] (they) reside in the 
heavens and live with the holy ones and not 7 [. . .for they] are more powerful 
than me. Blank 8 [. . .] the roar of the wild beasts has come and they bellowed a 
feral roar 9 [. . .] ’Ohyah spoke as follows to him: «My dream has depressed me 
10 [...] the dream [has fled] from my eyes at seeing the vision. Surely I know 
that 


6QBook of Giants (6 q8 [6(}EnGiants]) 

Frag. 1 1 [...] 2 [...] ’Ohyah, and said to Mahawai [...] 3 [.. .] and do not quake. 

Who has shown you everything? [. . .] 4 [. . .] Baraq’el, my father, was with me. 
[. . .] 5 [. . .] hardly had Mahawai finished telling what he [. . .] 6 [. . . said to him:] 
«I have heard wonders. If a barren person can give birth [. . .] 

Frag. 2 / its three roots [... and he was watching] 2 until [...] ca[me..] 3 this 

whole garden and not [. . .] 


!Qig . 4 Q 534-535 


THE BOOK OF NOAH 


263 


6 The Book of Noah 
lQNoah (iqiq [lQNoah]) 

Frag. 1 ;[...] he was [...] 2 [...] they increased in number upon the earth and 

[...] 3 [... because all men had lost] their path on the earth [...] 4 [... when they 
perished, they started to cry out] and their cries came before God and [...] 

Frag. 2 1 [Holy Ones] of heaven [...] 2 [saying: Present] our case to [the Most 

High . ..] 3 [.. .] 4 [and Michael, Sariel, Rapha]el and Gabriel [said to the Lord: 
. . .]j [Lord] of Lords and Mighty One [of Mighty Ones 6 [...] of the centuries 


4QElect of God (4Q534 [4QMess ar]) 

Col. I ; from the hand two [. . .] a mark; red is 2 his hair and he has moles upon 
[...] Blank 3 and tiny marks upon his thighs [...] different from each other. He 
will know ...4 During his youth he will be ...[.. . like] one who knows nothing, 
until the time when he 5 knows the three books. Blank 6 Then he will obtain 
prudence and will know [...] ... of the visions in order to reach the upper 
sphere. 7 And with his father and with his ancestors [...] life and old age. With 
him there will be advice and discretion 8 and he will know men’s secrets. His 
wisdom will extend to all the peoples. He will know the secrets of all living 
things. 9 All their plans against him will fail, although the antagonism of all 
living things will be great. 10 [. . .] his plans, for he is the one chosen by God. 
His birth and the exhalation of his breath 11 [...] his plans will last for ever. 
Blank 12 [...] lest [...] 13 the plan [...] 14-17 [...] 

Col. 11 ?[...] which [...] fell in ancient times. The sons of the pit [...] 2 [.. .] evil. 

The spot [. . .] 3 [..,] 4 [. . .] in order to go [...] 5 [. . .] fle[sh . ..] 6 [...] 7 and the 
exhalation of his breath [. . .] Sfor ever [. . .] g-10 [. . .] 12 and the cities [. . .] 13 and 
they will destroy [...] 14 The waters will end [. . .] they will destroy . . . from the 
heights. They will all come [...] 15 [...] Blank 16 [...] and they shall all be de- 
stroyed. His work will be like that of the Watchers. 17 Instead of his voice [. . .] 
he will establish his foundation upon him. His sin and his error 18 [. . .] the Holy 
One and the Watchers [...] to say ig [he will sp]eak against him [...] 

4QAramaic N (4Q535) 

Frag. 1 1 when ... [. . .] 2 Baraq’el [. . .] 3 my face once more [. . .] 4 I arose [. . .] 

Frag. 2 /[...] the time of birth [. . .] 2 [. . .] the walls of the house of [. . .] 3-4 [. . .] 


264 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q536 


Frag. 3 1 [...] he is born. They are joined in the evening [...] 2 [...] he is born 

in the night and comes out complete . .with] a weight of three hundred 

and fifty shekels [...] 4 [...] he sleeps until the middle of the day and ... [...] 
5 [•■•] during the day until he completes the years of [...] 6 [...] he separates 
from it for him [. . .] 


4QAramaic c (4Q536) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 1 [. . .] they will be [. . .] 2 [. . .the ho]ly ones will remem[ber] 3 [. . .] 

to him will be revealed the ligfhts] 4 [...] all their teaching which 5 [...] the 
wisdom of man, and every wise man 6 [...] in the region, and he will be great 
7 [...] the man will tremble and until 8 [...] he will reveal mysteries. Like 
Elyonin 9 [...] with the understanding of the mysteries 10 [...] and also n [...] 
in the dust 12 [...] firstly [...] the mystery goes up 13 [...] may he count me 
among the number of [. . .] the portion 

Frag. 1 col. 11 7 of [. . .] 8 he made. [. . .] 9 of which you are afraid for all ... [. . .] 

10 he will strengthen its concealment at the end of your powers. Their posses- 
sions [...] 11 and he will not die in the days of evil. And wisdom shall issue 
from your mouth. I will praise you [...] 12 is condemned to die. Who will write 
the words of God in a book which does not wear out? And my sayings [...?] 
13 You will go towards me, and in the time of the wicked he will know you for 
ever. A man who [...] your servants, [your] sons 

Frag. 2 ?[••■] he sleeps until the middle of the day 2 [. . .] during the day until 

he completes the years of [...] 3 [...] he separates from it for him [...] 


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7 Books of the Patriarchs 
a Visions of Jacob 

4QApocryphon of Jacob (4Q537 UQAJa ar]) 

Frag. 1 [And I had a vision at night. Behold, an angel of God came down from 
heaven carrying seven tablets in his hand, and he said to me: God has blessed 
you, you and] ; your descendants. And all just men will survive and the upright 
[. . .and absolutely no] 2 debauchery [is to be practised] and absolutely no deceit 
is to be found among [...] 3 And now, take the tablets and read everything 
[which is written on them. And I took the tablets and read. There were written 
all my privations] 4 and all my troubles and all that was to happen to me [over 
the one hundred and forty seven] years of my life. [Again he said to me: Take 
the tablets from my hands.] 5 [And I] took those tablets from his hand [and read 
everything.] And I saw written in them that [this place was not to be built as a 
temple,] 6 [for] you would leave there and on the [eighth] day [your offerings 
would not be] invalid before [the Most High God...] 7 [...] ... [...] 

Frag. 2 ?[•■■] And how the building will be [. . . And how its] priests will dress, 

and 2 [their hands] purified. [And how] they will offer sacrifices on the altar. 
And how, as food, they will eat a part of their sacrifices in the whole land. 
3 [. . .] who leave the city and from beneath the walls, and where they [. . .] 4 [. . .] 
Blank [. . .] 5 [...] before me a land of two quarter parts [...] 

B The Aramaic Testament of Judah 

3QTestament of Judah (?) (3Q7 [3QTJuda?]) 

Frags. 5 + 3 (Testjud 25:2?) /[...]...[...] 2 [Simeon, the] fifth; Issa[char, the 

sixth; and to all the remainder, each according to his rank. The Lord] praised 
[Levi;] 3 [to me, (Judah, he allocated)] the angel of the presence, [to Simeon, the 
power of the glory, to Reuben the heavens, to Issachar] the globe, to Zebu[lon 
the sea] 4 [...] ... [...] 

4QApocryphon of Judah (4Q538 [4QAJU ar]) 

Frag, a 1 [. . . T]hen he devised a plan a[gainst ...] 2 [ ... ag]ainst me/him; and 
why in their heart there is [. . .] against [me/him] 3 [...].. . together they entered 
... [...] 4 [...] they will revere. Then he knew that there was no [...]j [...] ... 
and he could not ... again [...] 6 [...]... on my neck and hugged me ... [...] 
7 [.. .] Joseph again; and all [...] 8 [...] ... [...] 


266 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q539 . 1Q21 


Frag, b 1 2 [. . .] Blank After I had been brought and introduced 3 [. . .] 

their heads, and before Joseph 4 [... an] evil [spjirit and he could not again 
5 [■••] [■■• ag]ainst his brothers 6 [...] fearing 7 [...1 and not 

C The Aramaic Testament of Joseph 
4QApocryphon of Joseph (4Q539 [4QAJ0 ar]) 

Frag. 2 1 [...] Jacob [...] 2 [And now, 1 listen, my son [...hear] me, my loved 

ones, [...] 3 [... the s]ons of my uncle Ishmael [...] my father Jacob observed 
mourning [...] 4 [...] count coins, and the slave [.. .] eighty of the kind [...] 
5 [. . .] to them; if he ask[s . . .] to scorn the messenger [. . .] 6 [. . .] this. Why do 
you [wait...] my brother, to scorn [ ] 7 [ ] mercy ... [...] the men [...] 

D Aramaic Testament of Levi 
tQAramaic Levi (1Q21 [tQTLevi ar]) 

Frag. 1 1 [...] for they will be threefold [...] 2 [...] the sovereignty of the priest- 

hood will be greater than the sovereignty of [ . . . ] 3 [. . .] ... [ . . . ] 

Frag. 3 / [and for the sovereignty of the] sword, [the war . . .] 2 [sometimes] you 

shall work and other times you sh[all rest. Sometimes ...] 3 [the greatness of] 
an eternal peace [...] 

Frag. 7 /[...] until you 2 [. . .] you shall rule with whomever 3 [. . .] he seeks 

Frag. 8 ?[...] and he rewarded. Blank And I [. . .] 2 [. . .] he rewarded, and every 

man [...] j [...] I [...] 

Frag. 30 /[...]...[...] 2 [...] not for fornication [...] 3 [...] to seek [...] 


4QAramaic Levi" (4Q213 ^QTLevi" ar]) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 1-5 [. . .] 6 [...] 1 7 [...I wajshed and all 8 [...] I lifted to heaven g [.. .] 

and the fingers of my hands and my arms 10 [...] and I said: Lord, you //[...] 
only you know 12 [. . .] paths of truth; remove 13 [. . .] evil, fornication; turn aside 
14 [...] wisdom in intelligence and strength 13 [.. to] find favour before you 
j 6 [. . .] what is beautiful and good before you iy[... may] no foe rule over me 
18 [. . .] to me, Lord, and approach me so that it may be for you 

Frag. 1 col. 11 1-5 [. . .] 6 Lord, you have blessfed . . .] 7 tr[ue] offspring [. . .] 8 the 


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prayer of your ser[vant ...]g true judgment for a[ll the centuries . . .] jo to the 
son of your servant bejfore me .. .] 11 Then I went to [...] 12 to my father Jacob 
and [...] 13 of Abel-Mayin. Then, [...] 14 I lay down and settled upon [...] 
15 Blank Then I saw visions [...] 16 seeing this vision, I saw' heaven [...] 17 un- 
derneath me. It rises to reach up to heaven [. . .] 18 to the gates of heaven, and 
an angel [...] 

Frag. 2 2 [...] the men 3 [ . . .] the woman and she will defile her name and her 

father’s name *[...] ... and all 5 [. . . the young] woman of the destruction of 
her name and of the name of her fathers for all her brothers 6 [. . .] her father, 
and the name of her disgrace will not be disclosed for all her people for ever 
7 [. . . it will be cu]rsed for all eternal generations. [. . .] the holy one of the peo- 
ple 8 [.. .] holy tithe, an offering for the God of 

Frag. 3 1 [. . .] your priesthood of all flesh 2 [. . .] I awoke from my dream. Then 

3 [... and I saw] this, too, in my heart and did not [reveal it] to any person. 

4 [...] When my father Jacob was separating the tithe 5 [...] and he gave to me 
among his sons 6 [. . .] ... 

Frag. 4 10 [. . .Again you shall wash your hands and] your feet [from the blood,] 

n [and you shall begin to offer the sal]ted [portions. The head [will be offered] 
12 [first; cover it with fat,] and [the blood of slaughter] 13 [of the cow should not 
be seen. Afterwards, the neck. And after the neck, the shoulder blades,] and 
after the shoulder blades, [the breast] 14 [with the ribs. And after the shoulder 
blades,] the hips and the b[ack.] 15 [And after the hips, the wa]shed [hooves,] 
with the entrails. And a[l|l 16 [salted with salt, in the way which] is fitting [for 
them.] Blank And afjter this,] 17 [flour mixed with oil. And] after everything, 
[pour] w ine, 18 [and incense should be wafted over them,] so that your service 
may be in or[der and all the offerings. . .] 

Frag. 5 col. 1 / [And in the year one hundred and eighteen of my life, the year] 

in which [my brother Joseph] died, 2 [I summoned my sons and their sons, and 
I began to explain] to them 3 [all that there was in my heart. I began speaking 
and said to my sons: «Listen to] the word 4 [of Levi, your father, and pay atten- 
tion to the precepts of the beloved of God.] I, to you 5 [my sons, give orders, 
and to you I show the truth, my beloved ones. The beginning of] all your deeds 
6 [should be the truth, and] justice and truth remfain for ever,] 7 [... go]od. 
Whoever sows goodness, harvests good, 8 [and whoever sows evil, against him 
his see]d [turns.] Blank But now, the book and the instruction and wisdom 
9 [teach them to your sons, and wisdom will be for you] for eternal honour. He 
who teaches wisdom will be honoured 10 [by it, but he who despises wisdom] 
will be given to insult and scorn. See them, my sons, 11 [. . .] wisdom for honour 


268 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4 Q 2 13 ■ 214 


and for greatness and for the kings 12 [...] Do not renounce wisdom for the 
teaching is [. . .] Every man who teaches wisdom, all 14 [his days will be length- 
ened and multiplied will be his re]nown. In each region and province to which 
he goes, is [he will have a brother, and will not be a foreigner] in it, and will not 
be likened in it to every alien, nor 16 [be likened to a foreigner. Instead, all] 
shall give him glory for it, for all desire 77 [to learn from his wisdom. His 
fri]ends are many, and numerous those who desire his good 18 [And they shall 
seat him upon a throne of glory, to] listen to the words of his wisdom. ig [A 
great richness of glory is wisdom for] whoever knows it, and a treasure 20 [for 
all who acquire it. If] powerful [kings come and a [great] people and an army 
21 [of horsemen and many chariots with them, and they take the possessions of 
the region and of the province] 22 [and steal everything there is in them, they 
cannot steal the treasure of wisdom, nor will they find] 

Frag. 5 col. 11 1 its secrets, nor enter its gates, nor [. . nor] 2 will they be able to 

destroy its ramparts, nor [. . .] j will they see the well of its treasure [. . .] 4 and 
there is no price compared to her [. . .] 5 seek wisdom [. . .] 6 which has hidden 
itself from it [. . .] 7 and there is no lac[k . . . J all those who seek 8 truth [. . .] the 
book and the instruction 9 and wi[sd]ont, teac[h them to them. . .] you will in- 
struct them 10 [...] great. You shall give n [...glo]ry. Blank 12 [...] also in the 
books is [...you sh]all be chiefs and judges 14 [...] and servants is [...] and also 
priests and kings 16 [. . .] your kingdom 1 7 [. . .] will have no end 18 [. . .] will pass 
from you until all 1 9 [...] with great glory 

Frag. 5 col. in 1 [. . .] all the peoples 2 [. . .] the moon and the stars j [. . .] of 4 [. . .] 
the moon 5 [ . . . ] you will become dark [ . . . ] 6 Did not Enoch accuse [...?]/[...] 
And upon whom will the blame fall, 8 [. . .] except upon me and upon you, my 
sons? Then you will know 9 [. . .] you will forsake the paths of justice and all the 
ways of 10 [. . .] you will renounce and you will walk in darkfness] 11 [. . .] a great 
tribulation will come upon you, and you will he delivered up] «[...] strong 
and [. . .] and they shall be for those knowing 

qQAramaic Levi* (4Q214 [4QTLevi* ar]) 

Frag. 1 1 [When you go to offer upon the altar, wash hands and feet again. Offer 

the] split [wo]ood; 2 [but scrutinise it fi]rst for all [the worms and af]terwards, 
[offer] it. [For] thus I saw Abraham, j [my father, looking out for] any obstacle. 
Blank [Twe]lve (kinds of) wood did [he show] me [of those] which can be offered 
upon the altar, 4 [whose aroma] rises, pleasing. And these are their nam[es: 
ce]dar, juni[per,] almond, 5 [tamarind, pine, ash, cypress, fig, olive, lau]rel, 
myrtle 6 [and balsam.] These are what he sho[wed] me, [from which one could 
make offerings] under the offering 7 upon the altar. Blank [When you offer] any 


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of these (kinds of) woofd] upon the al[tar and the fijre stjarts] 8 to burfn them, 
then you shall begin to sprinkle the blood] upon the sides of the altar. Again, 
[you shall wash] g [your hands and your feet from the blood and you shall begin 
to offer] the sal[ted portions, the hea[d, first.] 

Frag. 3 col. 11 1 and from the provinces [and they steal everything there is in 

them, they cannot steal the treasure of wisdom,] 2 nor will they find [its secrets 
. . .] 3 an d there is no pr[ice compared to her . . .] 4 from it, and [it has] not been] 
hidden from it [...] 5 ... the book and the [instruction and wifsdom, teach 
them to them . ..] 6 ... [...] 

4QAaronic Text A = Testament of Levi f (?) 

(4Q540 [4QAhA = 4QTLevi r ]) 

?[...] Again distress will come upon him and the little one will lack goods and 
will [ask ...] 2 [...] fifty-two weeks. Again, a famine will come upon him, and 
he will lack goods [. . .] 3 [. . .] and he will not resemble a merchant of goods, but 
instead like the great sea [...] 4 [...] he will leave the house in which he was 
bred, and another dwelling [,..]5 [.. .and he will rebuild, like] a servant of God, 
[with] his goods, another sanctuary which will be consacrated [...] 

4QAaronic Text A = Testament of Levi^ (?) 

(4Q541 [4QAhA = 4QTLevi‘ / ?]) 

Frags. 1 + 2 col. 1 3 the totality has meditated upon [...] ... 4 he will cause the 

idols to fall [ . . . ] 5 and all their sighs [ . . . ] he will utter words, and in conformity 
with the will 6 of God, he will keep [...he has ad]ded a further book for me 
7 and a second [...] and he will speak about him in enigmas 8 [...] and he ap- 
proached me, but remaining at the time far from me 9 [. . . such that] his vision 
[was not se]cret. And I said: the fruits of 

Frag. 2 col. 11 + 3 + 4 col. 1 + 5 1 uncertain. Behold [. . .] 2 from before God [. . .] 

3 you will take the smitten [...] 4 I will bless you. A holocaust [...] the founda- 
tion of his peace [...] ... 5 your spirit, and you will rejoice [...] To you I ad- 
dress my poems [. . .] ... 6 Behold a wise man who [rises] to st[udy the instruc- 
tion of wisdom] and understands the depths and utters enigmas. 7 ...[...] he 
will come before you whom you have taken from the nest, and the bird 8 he has 
hunted and he has asked it for [. . . ] to eat it. See, you will be very happy, and 
greatly the place of 

Frag. 4 col. 11 + 6 z [and| the earth [. . .] 2 to the son of Jos[eph .. .] those smitten 
for [...] j here [. ..] your judgment and you will not be gui[lty ...] 4 your blood 


270 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4 Q 54 1 • 215 


[ . . . ] the blows of your pains (?) which [ . . . ] 5 for the captives [ . . . ] your rest has 
not lessened and all [...] 6 of [...] your heart of [...] 

Frag. 7 1 and he will reveal [the secr]et of the abysses [. . .] 2 who does not un- 

derstand the written text [. . .] 3 and he will make the great sea be silent for [. . .] 
4 Then, he will open the books of wisdom [...] 5 his word. And, like the 
wicked, the wise [man ...] 6 [his] teaching ...] 

Frag. 9 col. 1 ?[...] the sons of the generation [...] 2 [...] his wisdom. And he 

will atone for all the children of his generation, and he will be sent to all the 
children of 3 his people. His word is like the word of the heavens, and his 
teaching, according to the will of God. His eternal sun will shine 4 and his fire 
will burn in all the ends of the earth; above the darkness his sun will shine. 
Then, darkness will vanish 5 from the earth, and gloom from the globe. They 
will utter many words against him, and an abundance of 6 lies; they will fabri- 
cate fables against him, and utter every kind of disparagement against him. His 
generation will change the evil, 7 and [. . .] established in deceit and in violence. 
The people will go astray in his days and they will be bewildered 

Frag. 9 col. 11 4 who has seen a [. . .] 5 seven rams (?) watc[hing. . .] 6 one part of 

their sons will go [. . .] 7 and they will be added to [. . .] 

Frag. 24 col. 11 1 [...]...[...] 2 Do not mourn for him [. . .] and do not [...] 3 And 

God will notice the failings [ ... ] the uncovered failings [ . . . ] 4 Examine, ask and 
know what the dove has asked; do not punish one weakened because of exhaus- 
tion and from being uncertain a[ll . . .] 5 do not bring the nail near him. And you 
will establish for your father a name of joy, and for your brothers you will make 
a tested foundation rise. 6 You will see it and rejoice in eternal light. And you 
will not be of the enemy. Blank 7 Blank 

4QTestament of Naphtali (4Q215 [4QTNaph]) 

Frag. 1 1 with the sisters of Bilhah’s father, my mofther . . . and] Deborah, who 

suckled Rebe[cca ...] 2 And he went to captivity, but Laban went and freed 
him; and he gave Hana to him, one of his maidservants [who begot for him the 
first] 3 daughter, Zilpah. He gave her the name of Zilpah, the name of the city 
in which he had been prisoner. [...] 4 And she conceived and gave birth to 
Bilhah, my mother. Hana gave her the name of Bilhah, for when she was born 
[straight away] 5 hurried to suck. And she said: ‘How my daughter hurries!’ 
And from then she called her Bilhah (hurried). 6 Blank When Jacob, my father, 
came to Laban fleeing away from his brother Esau, ... [...] 8 of the father of 
Bilhah, my mother. And Laban led Hana, my mother’s mother, and the two 


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daughters, [and he gave one] 9 [to Leah] and the other to Rachel. And as Rachel 
did not bear sons [...] 10 [... tojajcob, my father. And he was given Bilhah, my 
mother, and she bore Dan, my brother [. . .] 11 [. . .] to the two sisters [. . .] 

Frag. 2 col. 11 1 [...].. . from the well, a and the dread of the precipice, and the 

anguish of the pit. And they shall be refined in them to (be) chosen of justice 
... j on account of his pious ones; for the age of wickedness had expired and 
all injustice will pass [away.] 4 The time of justice has arrived, and the earth 
will be filled with the knowledge and the praise of God. In the da[ys . . .] 5 the 
age of peace arrives, and the laws of truth, and the testimony of justice, to 
instruct [them] 6 in God’s paths and in the marvels of his deeds [. . .] for eternal 
centuries. Every [creature ?] 7 will bless him, and every man will bow down 
before him, [and they will have] a single heart. For he [knows ?] 8 their actions 
before they were created, and [makes] of the service of justice the division of 
their frontiers 9 for their generations. For the dominion <of justice) of goodness 
has arrived, and he will raise the throne of [...] 10 and knowledge is exalted; 
intelligence, prudence and success are proved by the deeds of [his] holiness 
»[••■] [•••] 


Frag. 3 / of his holiness will establish them for [. . .] 2 he creates them to ren[ew 

. ..] 3 of their days. And the darkness [...] 4 for their feasts ... darkness [...] 
5 for the feasts before [...] 6 [...] his will [...] 

Frag. 4 )[...]...[...] to destroy the earth with his anger and to renew [. . .] 2 [.. .] 

the wall of his knowledge, because [. . .] j [.. .] the weak [. . .] 

e The Aramaic Testament of Qahat 
4QTestament of Qahat (4Q542 [4QTQahat ar]) 

Col. 1 ; and God of gods for all the centuries. And he will make his light shine 

upon you and make you know his great name 2 and you will know that he is the 
God of the centuries, the lord of all works, and has control j over all, to deal 
with them as he pleases. And he will give you glory and happiness to your sons 
in the generations of 4 justice for ever. And now, my sons, make note of the 
inheritance which has been transmitted to you 5 and which your fathers have 
given you, and do not give your inheritance to foreigners or your riches 6 to 
pretenders, to be induced into humiliation in their eyes, for they will scorn you 
because 7 they would be residents for you and they would be chiefs over you. 
Comply with the words of Jacob, 8 your father, and . . . the directives of Abra- 
ham and the justice of Levi and mine, and be holy and pure 9 from all [un- 
cleanness] ..., complying with the truth and walking in uprightness and not 


272 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4 Q 54 2 . 543 


with a double heart, jo but with a pure heart and with a truthful and good 
spirit. And you, my sons, will give me a good name, and there will be glory 

11 for Levi and joy for Jacob and rejoicing for Isaac and honour for Abraham, 
because you have kept 12 and taken the inheritance which your fathers gave 
you, truth, justice, uprightness, 13 perfection, purity, holiness and the priest- 
hood according to all that he commanded you and according to all that 

Col. 11 / I taught you in truth from now and for all [the centuries . . .] 2 all the 

word of truth will come upon you [...] 3 eternal blessings will rest upon you 
and will be [for you ...] 4 will be for all the eternal generations and there will 
be no more [. . .] 5 of your punishment and you will rise to make the judgment 
[. . .] 6 and to see the sin of all the sinners of the world [. . .] 7 in the fire and in 
the abysses and in all the caves so as not to [. . .] 8 in the generations of justice; 
and all the sons of wickedness will vanish [. . .] 9 And now, to you, c Amram, my 
son, I order you [. . .] 10 and your sons and their sons; I order you [. . .] 11 that 
they give to Levi, my father and which Levi, my father has gi[ven] me [...] 

12 all my writings as evidence, so that you will wait for them [ . . .] 13 for you in 
them great worth, using them to guide you. Bla[nk . . .] 

Col. in s [••■ > n order to] read and [...] 6 [...] their sons [...] 7 [...] men and li[fe 
. . .] 8-g [. . .] . . . [. ..] jo [upon] them and upon [...] n darkness and ...[...] 72 and 
the light, but [...] 13 and I ... [...] 

F Visions of Amram 

4QVisions of Amram" (4Q543 [4Q f Amram" ar]) 

Frag. 1 j Copy of the writing of the words of the visions of c Amram, son of 
[Qahat, son of Levi. All that] 2 he revealed to his sons and what he advised 
them on [the day of his death, in the year one hundred] 3 and thirty-six, the 
year of [his death: in the year one hundred] 4 and fifty-two of the ex[ile of 
Isra]el to Eg[ypt. . .]j upon him and he sent [and called to Uzzi’el] his youngest 
brother [. . .] 6 to him Miriam [his daughter and said: You (f.) are] thirty [years 
old.] 7 [And he gave a feast for seven days and ate and drank during] the fea[st.] 
8 [Then, when the days of the feast were completed, he s]ent [and called] 

Frag. 2 7 [. . .] from your lord will give you [. . .] 2 for ever will give you wisdom 

[...]j[...] 

Frag. 3 7 [. . .] you will be God, and angel of God will you be cal[led] 2 [. . .] and 

you will do in this land, and a judge [...] 3 [...] ... your name for all [...] 4 [...] 
for eternal generations [...] 5 [. . .] ... you will do [. . .] 6 [. . .] ... [. . .] 


4Q543 • 544 


BOOKS OF THE PATRIARCHS 


273 


Frag. 4 1 [. . . your fathers,] and [my father Qahat] left me [there . . .] 2 [. . .] from 

the land [of Canaan ...] 

Frag. 5 1 Therefore (?)[...] 2 and with all this my protection [...} 4 I have 

taken [...] 

Frag. 6 1 2 [. . . I ra]ised my eyes and saw that one of [. . .] 3 [. . . and 

his clo]thing was coloured and obscured [by darkness...] 4 [...] Blank And I 
looked at the other, and be[hold...] 5 [...] and his face was smiling and he was 
covered with [. . .] 6 [. . .] ... [. . .] and all their eyes [. . .] 

4QVisions of Am ram" (4Q544 |4Q‘Amram" ar]) 

Frag. 1 1 Qahat there to stay and to dwell and to buifld the tombs of our fa- 

thers...] 2 a man, and about our work it was very much until [we have buried 
the dead . . . and they retreat (?) 3 quickly, and they do not build the tomb which 
their fathers [...] 4 until we build. Blank And it was war between [. . .] 5- And they 
closed the [bor]der of Egypt and it was not possible to [. . .] forty-one years, and 
we could not [. . .] 7 between Egypt and Canaan and Philistia. Blank [. . .] ... [. . .] 
8 and she was not. Blank I, myself, ano[ther] woman [. . .] 9 all: that I will return 
to Egypt in peace and 1 will see the face of my wife [...] 10 in my vision, the 
vision of my dream. And behold, two were quarrelling over me and they said: 
[...] u and they entered into a great debate over me. And I asked them: You, 
why are you [...over me? And they replied and said: We] 12 [have received] 
control and control all the sons of Adam. They said to me: W hich of us do you 
[choose . . .? I lifted my eyes and saw] 13 [that one] of them had a dreadful ap- 
pearance [...] and his clothing was coloured and obscured by darkness [...] 
14 [And I looked at the other, and behold [...] in his appearance and his face 
was smiling and he was covered with [. . .] 75 a great deal, and all their eyes . . .] 

Frag. 2 1 [...] ruling over you [. . .] 2 [...] this, who are you? And he said to me: 

This [...] 3 [...] and Melki-resha c . Blank I said: My Lord: What [...] 4 [...] dark 
and all his work is dark, and in darkness he [. . .] 5 [. . .] you see. And he rules 
over all darkness, and I [...] 6 [... from the) upper [regions] up to the lower 
regions, I rule over all that is bright and all [. . .] 

Frag. 3 1 [of his favour and of his peace. And I] have acquired power [over all 

the sons of] light. I asked him and said to him: What [are your names?] 2 [. . He 
replied and] said to me: My three names [are . . .] 


274 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q545 ■ 547 


4QVisions of Amram' (4Q545 [4Q' Amram' ar]) 

1 Copy of the [writing of the words of the visions of 'Amram, son of Qahat, 
son of Levi. All 2 that [he revealed to his sons and what he advised] them on 
the day of [his death, in the] year 3 one hundred and thirty-six, the year of his 
death: [in the ye]ar one hundred 4 and fifty-two of the exile of Israel to Egypt. 
[... upon him and he sent] 5 and called Uzzi’el, his youngest brother [...] to 
him [Miriam,] his daughter [and said:] 6 You are thirty years old. And he gave 
a feast for seven [day]s 7 and ate and drank during the feast. Then, when 8 the 
days of the feast were completed, he send and called Aharon, his son. He was 
[...] years old 9 [...] to him: Call Malachiyah [...] from the house of to [...] 
above [...] him. 11 [...] I 12 [...] my father 13 [...] from 14 [...] growing 15 [...] 
... j 6 [...] he steals 17 [... you will be old, and an]gel of God 18 [you will be 
called . . . from] this [earth and] ig [a judge. . .] your name to all 

Frag. 1 col. 11 u in this land, and I went up to [...] 12 to bury our fathers. And 
I went up [... Qahat there] 13 to stay and to dwell and to build [...] 14 many 
from the sons of my uncle, together [...a man, and about] 13 our work it was 
very much un[til we have bu]ried the dead [. . .] 16 rumour of war, frightening 
those of us [returning to the land of Eg[ypt . . . and they retreat (?)] 17 quickly, 
and they do not bu[ild the to]mb which their fathers [. . .] 18 and to build and 
to obtain for them [...fr]om the land of Canaan [...] 1 9 we ourselves build. And 
war [broke out between Canaan and] Philistia and Egypt and was winning [. . .] 

Frag. 2 /[...] and I will show you [...] 2 [...] See, God ... and also (...] j and I 

w ill show you the mystery of his service, holy judgment [. . .] 4 holy for him will 
be all his descendants for all [eternal] generations [. . .] 5 the seventh of the men 
of His will [and he will] call and he will [. . .] 6 he will choose as eternal priest. 

Blank [ . . . ] 


4QVisions of Amram'' (4Q547 [4Q‘ Amram 1 ' ar]) 

Frag. 1 1 [...]...[...] 2 [...] I rescued [...] 3 [...] he built [...] 4 [...] in Mount 

Sinai [...]5 [■ ■ ■] great upon the bronze altar [.. .] 6 [. . .] the priest will be exalted 
among all my sons for ever. Then [...] 7 [...] and their sons after him for all 
eternal generations in tru[th ...]<?[...] And I aw oke from the sleep of my eyes 
and I wrote the vision [...] 9 [...] and from the land of Canaan. And it hap- 
pened to me as he said [...] to [...] ... and afterwards he took twen[ty ...] 
»[...]...[.•■] 

Frag. 2 1 [...].. . you w ill take off and when you rise [. . .] 2 [. . .] the first to the 

second [...] 3 [... over] his soul they were twisting between the two of them 
[. . .] 4 [. . .] ... [. . .] 5 [. . .] ... the friend and a great [. . .] 6 [. . .] the friend to [. . .] 


4Q548 • 549 


BOOKS OF THE PATRIARCHS 


275 


4QVisions of AmranU (4Q548 [4Q‘Amram / arj) 

/[...] staffs [. . .] to them and all (their] ways [...] 3 [...] them from their healers 
[. . .] 4 [.. .] them from death and from annihilation ...] 5 [...] for you, sons of 
the blessing [. . .] 6 [. . .] all generations of Israel for all [centuries ...] 7 
rejoice in me, because the sons of righteousness . ..] 8 you will be ca[lled ...] 
your [name?,] sons of lie and not sons of [truth ...] 9 I will [let you know the] 
desirable [way,] I would let you know [. . . For the sons of light] 10 will be bril- 
liant, and all the sons of darkness will be dark. [For the sons of light . ..] u and 
for all their knowledge they will be [...] but the sons of darkness will be de- 
stroyed [...] 12 For all senselessness and ev[il are dark,] and all [pea]ce and truth 
are brilliant. [This is why the sons of light] 13 will go to the light, to [everlast- 
ing] happiness, [to rejoicing;] and all the sons of dark[ness will go to the shades, 
to death] 14 and to annihilation. [. . .] There will be light for the people and they 
shall live [...] 15 And they will make kn[own ...] from darkness. For all [the 
sons of . . . and all ] 16 the sons of [ ... ] and all the sons of light [ . . . ] 

Frag. 2 col. I 1-8 [...]... 9 [. . .] to the East 10 [. . .] elect for the truth //[...] there, 
and the deeds of the truth 12 [...] all the end of dark annihilation 13 [...] the 
evil. And from every senseless 14 [. . .] he is [...] 15 [...] darkness [...] 16 [. . .] ... 
[...] 

Frag. 2 col. 11 1-6 [...] 7 they will be [...] 8 progeny [...] 9 to the month [...] 

10 ...[...] 11 weighed [...] 12 they will come from [...] 13 his portentous work 
from one to the [other . . .] 14 of the tenth day. And in [. . .] 13 [. . .] of the dawn; 
and the sons off...] 16 [...] ... [...] 17 [...] ... [...] 

Frag. 3 /[...] great [...] 2 and you will be strangled [. . .] 3 When the man from 

the likeness [. . .] 4 and he will see no more the shame [. . .] 5 [gr]eat [. . .] ... [. . .] 

G Hur ami Miriam 
4QHur and Miriam (4Q549) 

Frag. 1 / [...] ... [...] 2 [...] to Egypt [...] 4 [...] ... [...] 

Frag. 2 1 what he ate, he and his sons [...] 2 her husband eternal sleep [...] 
3 upon him and they found him [. . .] 4 his sons and the sons of his broth[er. . .] 
5 and they went back outside a moment, [. . .] 6 to leave for the eternal dwelling. 
[...]/ Blank And from [...]<? ten. And from Miriam he sired a people [. . .] 9 and 
to Sitri. Blank And Hur married [...] 10 And from her he sired Ur and Aa[ron 
...] 11 from her four sons [...] 


276 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


1Q22 I — II 


8 Pseudo-Moses 
A Words of Moses 

iq W ords of Moses (1Q22 [iqDM]) 

Col. 1 1 [And God spoke] to Moses in the year [forty] of the departure of the 

children of Israel from [the land of] Egypt, in the eleventh month, 2 the first 
day of the month, saying: [Muster] all the congregation, climb [Mount Nebo] 
and stay there, you .j and Eleazar, Aaron’s son. Blank- Interpret [for the heads of] 
families of the levites and for all the [priests] and decree to the sons of 4 Israel 
the words of the Law which I commanded [you] on Mount Sinai to decree to 
them. [Proclaim] in their ears everything 5 accurately, for [I will require] it 
from them. [Take] the heavens and the [earth as witnesses] for they will not 
love 6 what I have commanded them, they and their so[ns, all the] days [they 
live upon the ea]rth. [However] I announce 7 that they will desert me and 
chfoose the sins of the najtions, their abominations and their disreputable acts 
[and will serve] 8 their gods, who for them will be a trap and a snare. They will 
[violate all the] holy [assemblies], the sabbath of the covenant, [the festivals] 
which today I command [to be kept. This is why] I will strike them with a great 
[blow] in the midst of the land for 10 the conquest of which they are going to 
cross the Jordan there. And when all the curses happen to them and strike them 
until they die and until 1 1 they are destroyed, then they will know that the truth 
has been carried out on them. Blank And Moses turned towards Eleazar, son of 
12 [Aaron] and to Joshua [son of Nun, saying] to them: Speak [all the words of 
the Law, without leaving any out. Be silent,] 

Col. 11 1 Israel, and listen! On this day [you are going to become the peo]ple of 

God, your G[od. Ke]ep [my rules], my stipulations, [my commandments] 
which 2 today [I] am commanding you [to carry out. And when you cross the 
Jordan] for me to give you large [and good] cities, 3 houses full of every [wealth, 
vineyards and olive groves] which you [did not plant, weljls bored which you 
did not 4 dig, and you eat and become replete, [bew]are of raising your heart 
and fo[rgetting what] I command you today; 5 [for] it is your life and your old 
age. Blank [And] Moses [spoke] and [said to the sons of Is]rael: Forty 6 [years] 
have passed [from the] day of our departure from the land [of Egypt, and] to- 
day God, our G[od has caused these wo]rds [to issue] from his mouth 7 [all his 
pre]cepts {and all his precepts} How [shall I alone carry] your burden, [your 
weight, your qua]rrels? 8 [When] the covenant [has been established and the 
path [on which you must] walk has been decreed, [choose for yourselves wise 
men who] will explain 9 [to you and your sojns all the words of this Law. [Be] 
very [careful,] for your lives, [to keep them, lest] the wrath 10 [of your God] 


1 Q 22 . 29 


PSEUDO-MOSES 


277 


against you be enkindled and reach you, and it closes the skies above, which 
make rain fall upon you, and [the water] from under[neath the earth which 
gives you 11 [the harv]est. Blank And Moses [continued speaking] to the so[ns 
of Is]rael: Th[ese are the command]ments [which God] commands you to carry 
out 12 [...]... [...] 

Col. hi / [Every seven years you shall leave the land] at rest, [and the yield of 
the land’s rest will provide you] with food, you [and your animals and the 
beasts of the] field. 2 [...And what] remains will be for the po[or from among 
your brothers] who are in the la[nd. No]-one will so[w his field] or prune [his 
vine.] 3 [No-one will harvest his harvest or] gather [anything. Keep al[l the 
words of] this covenant 4 [carrying them out,] for [. . .] in order to do [. . .] And 
in this year you shall grant a release. 5 [Every creditor] who [has lent something 
to] someone, or [who possesses something from his brother,] will grant a 
release to his fell|ow for 6 [God], your [God, has proclaimed the release. You 
are to demand restitution] from the foreigner, but from your brother] you shall 
not demand restitution, for in that year 7 [God will bless you, forgiving you 
your si]ns . . .] 8 [. . .] in the year [. . .] of the month of 9 [. . .] on this day [.. .Be- 
cause your fathers] wandered 10 [in the wilderness until the tenth day of the 
month {the[... on the te]nth [day] of the month} 11 You shall refrain [from all 
work.] And on the tenth day of the month, you shall atone [...] of the month 
12 [. . .] they shall take [. . .] 

Col. iv 1 in the congregation of the gods [and in the council of the holy] ones, 
and in [. . . in favour of the sons of Isjrael and on behalf of the la[nd] 2 [And you 
shall] take [the blood and] pour [it] on the earth [...] 3 [...] and it will be for- 
given them [... And] Moses [spoke saying:] Do [...] 4 [...] eternal precepts for 
your generations [ . . . ] And on the [ . . . ] day 5 [ . . . ] he will take [ . . . ] the children 
of Israel [.. .] 6 [. . .] all that which [. . .] for all 7 [...] of the [. . .] year the person 
who [...] 8 [...] upon the book [...] the priest [...] 9 [...] he will lay his ha[nds 
...] all this 10 [...] in the [...] year these 11 [...] of the two ... [...] 

b Pseudo-Moses 

lQLiturgy of the Three Tongues of Fire (1Q29) 

Frag. 1 2 [.. .] the stone. When [. . .] 3 [.. .] by tongues of fire. [. . .] 

4 [ . . . until] the priest [ . . . ] stops speaking 5 [ . . . who] speaks to you . Behold [ . . . ] 
6 [...] who speaks. Dwell [...] 7 [...] yhwh, God of [...] 

Frag. 2 1 [...]...[...] 2 [... the] right st[one] when the priest leaves [...] 3 [...] 

three tongues of fire [. . .] 4 [. . .] And after he shall go up and remove his shoes 


278 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q374 ■ 375 


Frags. 3-4 1 2 [.. .] YHWH, your God, [. . .] 3 [...] all Israel [.. .] 4 [. ..] 

with all. Your name [.. .] 6 [. . .] the greatness of the power of the glorious ones 

[...] 


Frags. 5-7 ?[...] these words, according to all [...] 2 [.. .] the priest will explain 

all his will to all [...] 3 [...] the assembly. Blank [...] 4 [... Children of] Israel, 
keep these words [...] J [•■■] to do all [■ • ■] 6 [.. .] the number of . . . [...] 7 [...] ... 
[...] 


4QApocryphon of Moses a (4Q374 [4QapocrMoses a]) 

Frag. 2 col. 11 1 together and [...] 2 And the nations will rise in anger [...] 

3 through their deeds and through the impurity of their actions [. . .] 4 and for 
[you] there will be neither remnants nor survivor; and for their descendants 
[...] s and he planted for us, his chosen ones, in a land preferable to all other 
lands [. . .] 6 And he made him like God for the powerful ones, and a fright for 
the Pharaoh [...] 7 And their hearts melted and trembled and their entrails 
dissolved. [But] he took pity on [them...] 8 And when he made his face shine 
upon them for healing, to strengthen their hearts anew and 9 and no-one knew 
you, but they melted and trembled. They were startled at the voice [. . .] 10 [. . .] 
to them [...] for salvation 

4QApocryphon of Moses B (4Q375 [4QapocrMoses b]) 

Col. 1 [you shall do] ? [all that] your God commands you by the prophet’s 
mouth, and you shall keep 2 [all these pre]cepts, and shall return to yhwh, 
your God with all 3 [your heart and with all] your soul, and your God will re- 
pent of the fury of his great wrath 4 [in order to save] you from all your trou- 
bles. However, the prophet who rises up to preach 5 [apostasy] to you, [to make 
you] move far from God, shall die. And if the tribe 6 from which he comes 
should rise up and say: «He is not to die, for he is a just man, he is a 7 trust- 
worthy prophet)), you shall come with that tribe and your elders and your 
judges 8 to the place which your God will choose in one of your tribes before 
9 the anointed priest upon whose head the oil of anointing has been poured 

Col. II 1-2 [. . .] 3 and he shall take [a young bullock from the herd and a ram . . . 
and he shall sprinkle] 4 with his fingers [over the surface of the place of atone- 
ment . ..] 5 the flesh of the ram [...] and the he-goat 6 for the sin-offering, he 
shall ta[ke] it [and slaughter it, and at]one for all the congregation. And Aa[ron 
shall sprinkle with the blood] 7 in front of the veil of the curtain and shall ap- 
proach] the ark of the testimony and shall study [all the precepts of] 8 yhwh 
concerning all [... which] have been hidden from you. And he shall go out 
before a[ll the chiefs] 9 of the assembly [. . .] 


4Q376 • 3»7 


PSEUDO-MOSES 


279 


4QLiturgy of the Three Tongues of Fire (4Q376) 

Col. I [...in front of the anointed priest, upon whose head the oil of anointing 
has been poured] 1 [. . . and in front of the seco]nd of the anointed priest 2 [. . . 
a bu]llock, young of the herd and a ram [...] 3 [...] to the Urim 

Col. 11 1 they will provide you with light and he will go out with him, with 

tongues of fire; the stone of the left side which is at its 2 left side will shine in 
the eyes of all the assembly until the priest finishes speaking. And after [the 
cloud(?)] has been removed j [. . .] and you will keep and d[o al]l [that] he tells 
you 

Col. ill 1 in accordance with all this judgment. And if there were in the camp 
the Prince of the whole congregation [ . . .] 2 his enemies, and Israel is with him, 
or if he marches to a city to besiege it or in any affair which [. . .] j to the Prince 
[. ..]... [. . .] the field is far away [. . .] 

4QPseudo-Moses* (?) (4(33873) 

Frag. 1 ;[...]... so they serve me with all their heart 2 and with a[ll . . .] you will 

instruct them .j in the service of the deeds [. . .] until ten 4 jubilees of years are 
complete. And 1 will bring them to madness [. . .] ... and confusion 5 of heart 
and the destruction of the generation. I will liberate the kingdom from the hand 
of the powerful ones. 6 [...] ... [...] others of the people. Afterwards, he will 
govern 7 ... [. . .] all the country and the kingdom of Israel will perish in those 
tfdavs [. . .] a blasphemer and will perform abominations. And I will split 9 [the] 
kingdom apart [...] the kings, and my face the hidden ones of Isra<el> w [...] 
many peoples [. . .] Israel the cries /?[...] to them 

Frag. 2 ; [,.Isra]el from the people. [In their days] I will destroy the kingdom of 

[Egypt] 2 [...] and I will destroy Israel [and Egypt and deliver them up to the 
sword . . . ] j [ . . . coun]try, and I have removed the ma[n ...] 4 [...] the country 
in the hands of the angels of destruction. And I will hide [. . .] 5 [. . Is]rael. And 
this will be the sign for them in the day of abandonment of the la[nd . . . ] 6 [. . .] 
the priests of Jerusalem to serve other gods. [...] 7 [...] house of [...] 

4QPseudo-Moses‘ (4Q388 [4QpsMoses‘]) 

Frag. 1 1 ...[...] 2 the covenant which [I established] with Abraham, with Isaac 

[and with Jacob. In] those [days] j a blasphemous king will arise [for the 
na]tions and will do evil things. [...] 4 to Israel from the people. In his days 1 
will destroy the kingdom of Egypt [. . .] 5 1 will destroy Egypt and Israel and de- 


280 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q389 . 390 


liver them up to the sword [...] 6 I have removed the man and I have aban- 
doned the country into the ha[nds of the angels of destruction ...] 7 to serve 
other gods. [...] ... [...] 8 three who will re[ign . ..] 9 [the] sanctuary [...] 
10 [what is uprjight and what is just [. . .] 

4Ql , seudo-\loses l/ (4Q389 ^QpsMoses' 7 ]) 

Frag. 1 1 [...]...[...] 2 [. . .] and the reign will return to the peoples . . .] ... and 

the children of Israel 3 [...] a heavy yoke in the lands of their exile, and there 
will not be Blank a saviour for them 4 because and only because they have re- 
jected my precepts and their soul despised my law. For this I hid 5 my face 
[until] they make good their faults. Blank And this will be the sign for them that 
they have made good 6 their faults [.. .] I have abandoned the earth because they 
hardened their hearts against me and did not know 7 [...] and they did evil. 
Blank From [the] first [days] 8 [.. the covenant which I established] with 
Abra[ham, with Isa]ac and with 9 [Jacob ...] A blasphemous king will rise up 
for the nations and will do evil things 10 [...] I will destroy [...] 

C Pseudo-Moses Apocalypse 
4QPseudo-Moses Apocalypse 1 " (4Q390 [4Qps\loses' ]) 

Frag. 1 z[...]...[...]2 violating . . . And I will] go back [to deliver them] into the 

hand of the sons of Aa[ron. . .] seventy years [. . .] 3 And the sons of Aaron will 
rule over them, but they will not walk [in the pa]ths which I command you so 
that 4 you can caution them. And also they will do what is evil in my eyes, ev- 
erything that Israel did 5 in the earliest days of its kingdom, apart from those 
who were the first to go up from the land of captivity in order to build 6 the 
temple. But I will speak to them and send them precepts and they w ill under- 
stand all that 7 they have lost, they and their fathers. And when this generation 
passes, in the seventh jubilee 8 of the devastation of the land, they will forget 
the law, the festival, the sabbath and the covenant; and they will disobey every- 
thing and will 9 do what is evil in my eyes. And I will hide my face from them 
and deliver them to the hands of their enemies and abandon them 10 to the 
sword. But from among them I will make survivors remain so that they will not 
be exterminated by my anger and by the concealment of my face 11 from them. 
And over them will rule the angels of destruction and [. . .] and they will come 
back 12 and do [...] evil before my eyes and walk according to the desfires of 
their heart...] 13 [...] .... [...] 

Frag. 2 col. 1 1 [...]...[...] 2 [and my] house, [my altar and] my ho[ly] temple 

[. . .] 3 and so it was done [...], for all these things will happen to them [. . .] and 


2 Q 21 


PSEUDO-MOSES 


281 

there will come 4 the dominion of Belial upon them to deliver them up to the 
sword for a week of yea[rs. . . During] this jubilee 5 they will break all my laws 
• and all my precepts which I will command them [and I will send them by the 
hand of] my servants the prophets; 6 and they will begin to argue with one 
another for seventy years, from the day on which they break this vow and the 
covenant. And I shall deliver them 7 [to the hands of the an]gels of destruction 
and they will rule over them. And they will not know and will not understand 
that I am annoyed with them for their transgressions 8 [for they will des]ert 
[me] and do what is evil in my eyes and what I do not want them to choose: 
domineering for money, for advantage 9 [and for wickedness,] one stealing what 
belongs to his neighbour and one persecuting his neighbour; they w ill defile my 
temple 10 [they will loathe my sabbaths and] my festivals and with the sons of 
[foreigners] they will debase their offspring; the priests will rape 11-12 [...] ... 
[...] 

Frag. 2. col. 11 1-3 [...] 4 the asc[ents (?) ...I5 and with the word [...] 6 we [...] 

7 they shall know and I will send [...] 8 and with arrows in order to se[ek...] 
9 in the interior of the land and over ...[...] 10 their belongings, and they will 
sacrifice in [...] 11 they will desecrate it, and the al[tar... 

d Other Texts 

2QApocryphon of Moses (?) (2Q21 [2QapMoses ?]) 

1 [. . . Na]dab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ita[mar. . .] 2 [. . . in order to do you] jus- 
tice in truth, and in order to reprove with faithfulness [. ..] 3 [...] Blank [...] 
4 [And Moses went out]side the camp and pleaded with yhwh and bowed 
down [before . . .] 5 [And he said: yhwh God,] how can I look at you, and how 
can I lift my face [towards you...] 6 [...] in order to make a single people for 
your deeds [. . .] 7 [. . .] ... [. . .] 


282 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q378 


9 Pseudo-Joshua 

4QPsalms of Joshua" (4Q378 [4QPsJoshua"]) 

Frag. 3 col. 11 3 and he took out [. . .] 4 and this very day [. . .] 5 and we listen to 

Moses [. . .] 6 great and just man [. . . chiefs of ] 7 hundreds, chiefs of fiffties. . .] 
8 and (to) the inspectors [...] 9 and he heard and (did) not [•••Do not fear] 
10 and do not be afraid, be strong and reso[lute because you] will cause [this 
people] to take possession [... yhwh is not] 11 to leave you or desert you [...] 
the strength of his hand [...] 12 to leave [at the head of the people...] 

Frag. 6 col. 1 4 [. . .] a prayer for our sins 5 [...].. . Do not resemble the brothers 

who descend 6 [. . .] your evil deeds for ever, for during eternity (?) 7 [. . .] your 
fault. Woe, brothers, upon you 

Frag. 11 1 [. ..] because yhwh [your God] ...[...] 2 [... in order to] establish the 

word which he gave 3 [...] he swore to Abraham to give 4 good and spacious 
[...], a land of streams of water, 5 [of springs and well-heads which gush in] the 
plain and on the mountain, a land of wheat and grain, [of vineyards] 6 [of fig- 
trees and herds, a land of olive oil and] honey, for it is a land which flows with 
milk and honey 7 [. . . of st]ones of iron and of mountains of copper [...]§[...] 
to inspect and take possession of [...] 9 [...]...[...] 

Frag. 14 1 [...] And the sons [of Israel] wept [over Moses] in the steppes of 

Moab] 2 [above the Jordan, close to] Jericho, in Bet-hishimot [as far as Abel ha- 
Shittim, for thirty days and they completed] 3 [the days of lament] and mourn- 
ing for Moses. And the children of [Israel. . .] 4 [... the covenant] which yhwh 
established with [ . . . ] 5 [ . . . fe]ar and trembling before you [ . . . ] 

Frag. 22 col. 1 /[...] Moses, my God. And he did not destroy them for their 

faults 2 [...] with you by means of Joshua, minister of your servant Moses 
3 [■■■] by means of the oracle of God, Joshua, on behalf of your people 4 [...] 

. . . which he agreed with Abraham 5 [. . .] compassion with a thousand 

Frag. 26 1 [...] he has the knowledge of Elyon and sees [the vision of 

Shaddai . . .] 2 [. . .] compassion for us, man of God, according [ . . . ] 3 [ . . . ] and the 
assembly of Elyon; they heard the voice of Mo[ses . . . ] 4 [...]...[... ] God Elyon 
[...] j [...] vast and large; and in the heat he kept back [...] 6 [...] man of the 
pious ones and for ever may he remember [...] 7 [...] ... [...] 8 Blank 9 [...] ... 
[...] 


4 Q 379 


PSEUDO-JOSHUA 


283 


4QPsalms of Joshua* (4Q379) 

Frag. 1 1 [ . . .] and you made him exult with tweflve. . .] 2 [. . .] eternal to Levi, the 

beloved, [...] 3 [.. . | to Reuben and Jufdah. . . 4 [. . .] to Gad and Dan and [...] 
5 [. . .] the twelve tribes of [Israel. . .] 

Frag. 12 ? [. . .the waters] which come down ...[...] 2 [.. . the waters] which come 

down will linger in a barrier .?[...] they will cross drvshod in the 4 [fi]rst month 
of the forty-first year of their departure from the land of 5 Egypt; this was the 
year of the Jubilees from the start of their entry into the land of 6 Canaan; and 
the Jordan floods all its banks with water and overflows 7 its water from the 
month ... [...] until the month of the wheat harvest «[...] ... [...] 

Frag. 17 2 [...].. . and blessing [...] 3 [. . .] with his words and he was faithful to 

the Law [...] 4 [...] Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; to Moses 3 [...] Eleazar and 
Itamar. I will rejoice... 

Frag. 22 col. 11 5 Blessed be yhwh, God of [Israel. . .] 6 [...] 7 At the time 

when Joshua finished prafising and giving] thanks with his prai[ses, he said:] 
S«Cur[sed be the ma]n who rebuilds this city! With his first-born (son) [he will 
lay its foundations] 9 and with his [youngest so]n [he wil]l set up its gates» Blank 
So, then, curfsed be the man of Belial,] 10 [who rises] to be a bird-trap for his 
people and a reason for destruction by all his neighbours. And there will arise 
n [...] for both to be instruments of violence. They will return and rebuild 
12 [that city,] and will establish a wall and towers in it, to make it [a refuge of 
evil] 13 [in the land,] a great evil/ in Israel, a horror in Ephraim [and in Judah;] 
14 [they have made an abomination] in the land and a great sin / among the 
sons of Jacob; they have caused [blood to flo]w/ like wa[ter on top of the ram- 
parts of the daughter of Zion and in the precincts of Jerusalem.] 


284 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q160 . 6qq 


10 Pseudo-Samuel 

4QVision of Samuel (4Q160 [4QVisSam]) 

Frag. 1 1 [.. .] For I swore to the House of [Eli that the sin of the House of Eli 

would not be atoned for, either by sacrifices] 2 or by offerings, for ever.] Sam- 
uel heard the words of [...] 3 [...] Samuel was lying down before Eli, and he 
arose and opened the do[ors. . .] 4 [. . .] to explain the oracle to Eli. But Eli an- 
swered him: [. . .] 5 [. . .] Let me know the vision of God! Do not[ hide it from 
me, please! May] 6 [God do this to you, and this to you in addition] if you hide 
one wor[d of all the words which he told you. . .] 7 [. . .] Samuel [. . .] 

Frags. 3-5 col. 11 1 [. . .] your servant. I did not control my strength before this, 

because 2 [. . .may they be re]united, my God, with your people; be assistance 
for him and raise him up 3 [...] free his feet from the [clinging] bar and estab- 
lish for them a rock from of old, for your praise 4 [above all the pe]oples. Your 
people will take shelter [in your house] and [. . .] In the anger of those who hate 
your people you shall exalt your splendour 5 [and] over the lands and the seas 
[. . .] and your fear will be over every [. . .] and kingdom. And all the peoples of 
your lands will know [that] 6 you did create them. [...] your holy ones whom 
you made holy [. . .] 

Frag. 7 ?[...] and there will be [...] 2 I lived with him my feasts and joined 

/him/ [...] 3 [. . .] I did not solicit his favour with estates, riches or merchandise 
[. . .] 4 [. . .] my lord, and I chose to lie down in the presence of. . . [. . .] 

6QApocryphon on Samuel-Kings (6 qq) 

Frag. 21 1 [... to li]sten to his voice and kefep ...] 2 [...] his precept. [...] 3 [... 

in the bo]ok of the Law [...] 

Frag. 32 ?[•■•] the Philistines [. . .] 2 his heart, and they fought in front of [. . .] 

3 [-l ■■■[•••] 

Frag. 33 1 [...]...[...] 2 [•■•] and they delivered them into the hands of [...] 

3 [...] and fled from there to the king of Moab [...] 4 [...]... [...] 


4Q385 • 387 


PSEUDO-JEREMIAH 


285 


11 Pseudo-Jeremiah 

4QApocrvphon of Jeremiah c (4Q385b [4QapocrJer C) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 1 [. . .] Blank 2 [. . .] Jeremiah the prophet before yhwh, 3 [. . . w]ho 

were made prisoners of Jerusalem and were led 4 [. . .] to destroy Nabuzardan, 
chief of the escort, 5 [. . .] ... and he took all the vessels from the temple of God, 
and the priests 6 [ . . . ] the children of Israel and led them to Babylon . And Jere- 
miah the prophet went 7 [. . . | he laughed and told them what they had to do in 
the country of exile 8 [...] by the voice of Jeremiah, concerning the words 
which God had decreed for him. Blank 9 [. . .] they will keep the covenant of the 
God of their fathers in the country of w [exile ...] what they and their kings 
and their priests did 11 [...] God [...] 

Frag. 1 col. 11 1 in Taphnes [. . .] 2 And they said to him: «Intcrpret [. . .] 3 to them 

Jere[miah ... but] do not interpret these things for them [...] 4 entreaty and 
praver.» And Jeremiah settled [in Taphnes (?)...] 5 [and dwel]t in peace. Blank 
[...] 6 Jeremiah in the country of Taphnes which is in the land of E[gypt ...to] 
7 the children of Israel and the children of Judah and Benjamin [...] 8 ... and 
they will keep my laws and my precepts [...] 9 after ... of the nations, which 
[. . .] 10 He will not free [. . .] not [. . .] 

4QApocryphon of Jeremiah d (4Q387b [4QapocrJer d) 

Frag. 1 /[...] the land of [...] 2 [...] concerning [...] 3 [... a]ll who fall in the 

land of E[gypt . . ..] 4 [... Je]remiah, son of Hilkiah, from the country of Egypt 
5 [the xxx]-six years of exile from Israel. ... the words of [. . .] 6 [. . .] Israel con- 
cerning the torrent Sor. Blank In the position of [. . .] 


286 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q385 


12 Pseudo-Ezekiel 
4QPseudo-Ezekiel‘ < (4Q385 [4QpsEz"]) 

Frag. 2 1 [And they shall know that I am yhwh,] who rescued my people, giv- 

ing them the covenant. Blank 2 [And I said: «YHWH,] I have seen many in Israel 
who have loved your name and have walked 3 on the paths of [justice.] When 
will these things happen? And how will they be rewarded for their loyalty?». 
And yhwh said to me: 4 «I will make the children of Israel see and they will 
know that I am yhwh». Blank 5 [And he said:] «Son of man, prophesy over the 
bones and say: May a bone [connect] with its bone and a joint 6 [with its joint».] 
And so it happened. And he said a second time: «Prophesy, and sinews will 
grow on them and they will be covered with skin 7 [all over».] And so it hap- 
pened. And again he said: «Prophesy over the four winds of the sky and the 
winds 8 [of the sky] will blow [upon them and they will live] and a large crowd 
of men will rise and bless yhwh Sebaoth who [caused them to live.»] 9 [Blank 
] And I said: « 0 , yhwh, when will these things happen?') And yhwh said to 
me [...] 70 [...] a tree will bend over and straighten up [...] 

Frag. 3 ?[...] under my grief [... and my heart] 2 disturbs my soul. And the 

days will pass rapidly until [all the sons of] 3 man 2 say: 3 «Are not the days 
hastening on so that the children of Israel can inherit [their land?»] 4 And 
YHWH said to me: «I will not shun your face, Ezekiel; see, I measure [time and 
shorten] 5 the days and the years [...] 6 a little, as you said to [...] 7 [For] the 
mouth of yhwh has said these things»[. . .] 

Frag. 4 7 and my people will be [...] 2 with a whole heart and a [satisfied so]ul 

[...] 3 and hide a minute [...] 4 and cleaving [...] 5 The vision which Ezekiel 
saw [. . .] 6 the gleam of the chariot and four living creatures; a living creature 
[... and when they walk they do not turn] 7 backwards; each living creature 
walked on two, and their two fe[et. . .] 8 ... [. . .] was a spirit and their faces were 
each joined to the ot[her. And the shape of] 9 their fac[es was: one a lion, o]ne 
an eagle, one a calf and one a man. And each one [had a] w man’s [hand] at- 
tached at the back of the living creatures and fastened to [the wings] and the 
wh[eels. . .] 77 one wheel attached to another wheel while walking, and from the 
two sides of the whe[els streams of fire came out] 12 and there were living be- 
ings in the middle of the embers, like embers of fire, [like torches in the middle 
of] 7 3 the wheels and the living beings and the wheels. And [over their heads] 
there was [a vault like] 14 awful ice. And there was a sound [on top of the 
vault...] 


4Q386 


PSEUDO-EZEKIEL 


287 


4QPseudo-Ezekiel* (4Q386 4QpsEz , '|) 

Col. 1 (= 4Q385 2) 1 [And I said: «yhwh,] I have seen many in Israel who have 

ljoved your name 2 [and have walked on the paths of justice. When will these 
things happen? And] how will they be rewarded for their loyalty?*, j [And 
YHWH said to me: «I will make] the children of Israel see and they shall know 

4 [that I am yhwh». Blank And he said: «Son of man, prophe]sy over the bones 

5 [and say: «May a bone connect with its bone and] a joint with its joint*. And 
it happened] 6 [thus. And he said a second time: «Prophesy, and flesh will grow 
on th]em and they will be covered with skin 7 [all over...] and the sinews will 
grow on them 8 [. . . And so it happened. And again he said: «Prophesy ov]er the 
four winds 9 [of the sky and the winds of the sky will blow upon them and they 
will live, and] a large crowd of men w [will rise and bless yhwh Sebaoth who 
caused them to live.*] Blank 

Col. 11 1 And they will know that I an yhwh. Blank And he said to me: (Con- 

sider, 2 son of man, the land of Israel.* And I said: «I have seen, yhwh; behold 
it is desolate, j And when will you assemble them?* And yhwh said to me: «A 
son of Belial w ill plot to oppress my people, 4 but I will not allow him to and 
his dominion w ill not exist; but he will defile a multitude. Offspring will not 
remain. 5 And from the grapevine there will be no new wine, nor will the bee 
make honey. [. . .] And the 6 wicked man I will kill in Memphis and I will make 
my sons go out of Memphis. And I will turn myself toward their remnant. 7 
Thus, as they will say: «There is peace and order*, they will say «[. . .] the land, 
Sas there was in the days of ancient [...]». Then ... [...] 9 [to the fo]ur winds 
of the hea[vens . .. to [...] 10 [...] consuming [fi]re [...] 

Col. in 1 and he will not have pity on the poor, and will lead (him) to Babylon. 
Babylon is like a pot in yhwh’s hand, like dung 2 he will throw her [. . .] 3 in 
Babylon and there will be [. . .] 4 the dwelling of your fields. [. . .] 5 desolate [. . .] 
6 . ..[...] 


288 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q243 . 244 


13 Pseudo-Daniel 
A Pseudo-Daniel 

4QPseudo-Daniel" (4Q243 [4QpsDan" ar]) 

Frag. 1 1 [...] ... [...] 2 [...] over the tower and [...] 3 [...in order toj examine 

the sons of [...] 4 [.. .]. . . [. . .] 

Frag. 2 1 [,..fo]ur hundred [years...] 2 he [...] them ... and ... [...] all of them 

and they shall depart from within 3 Egypt at the hand of [...] he will cause 
them to cross the River Jordan 4 [. . .] and their sons [. . .] 

Frag. 3 /[...] the children of Israel preferred his presence to [God]’s 2 [and they 

sacrificed their sons to the devils of delusion. God grew angry against them 
and ordered them to be consigned 3 to the hands of Ne[buchadnezzar, king of 
Ba]bylon [to devastate their land] among them, from the hands of [...] 

Frag. 4 ?[...] oppressed (for) seventy years [. . .] 2 [. . . this] great [kingdom] and 

he will rescue them [...] 3 [...] strong (ones) and a kingdom of peoples [...] 
4 [. . .] This is the fi[rst] kingdom [. . .] 

Frag. 5 1 [... has] ruled [...] years 2 [...] blkrws [...] 

Frag. 6 1 [...] years [...] 2 [...] rhws, son of [...] 3 [...] ws, [...] years 4 [...] to 

speak [...] 

Frag. 7 1 [. . .] of sin, they made [. . .] stray 2 [. . .in] that [period] the ones called 

will reunite [...] 3 [. . . the kings] of the peoples, and from the day [.. .] there will 
be 4 [. . . the holy] ones and the kings of the peoples [. . .] 5 [. . .] slaves until the 
day [...] 

Frag. 8 1 They asked Daniel, saying: [. . .] 2 yhwh will give [...].? ... [. . .] 

4QPseudo-Daniel* (4Q244 [4QpsDan ; ' ar]) 

Frag. 1 ?[• • •] before the ministers of the King, and he said [. . .] 

Frag. 3 1 [...]...[...] 2 [...] after the flood 3 [...] Noah [.. .] from [Mount] Lubar 

[■■■]■#[■■■] a city 


Frag. 4 ;[...] the children of Israel preferred his presence to [God’s] 2 [and they 


4Q245 ■ 242 


PSEUDO-DANIEL 


289 


sacrificed their sons to the de]vils of delusion. God grew angry against them 
and orfdered them] 3 [to be consigned to the hands of Nebuchadnezzar, king 
of Bajbylon, and to devastate their land among them by the hands of [. . .] 4 [. . .] 
the sons of the exile [...] 

4QPseudo-Daniel‘ (4Q245 [4QpsDan‘ ar]) 

Frag. 1 col. I 7 [...]... 2 [...] and what 3 [...] Daniel 4 [...] a book that he gave 
5 [...] Qahat 6 [...] ... Uzzfiah] 6 [...] A[bia]thar 7 [...] ... 8 ... 9 [...] Simeon 
10 [...] David, Solomon 11 [...] ... 

Frag. 2 7 2 [...] in order to eradicate sin 3 [. . .] those shall stray in 

their blindness 4 [. . . th]ey shall arise5 [. . .] the holy ones and return 6 [. . .] iniq- 
uity. Blank 


B Prayer of Nabomdus 

4QPrayer of Nabonidus (4Q242 [4QPrNab ar]) 

Frags. 1-3 7 Words of the prayer w hich Nabonidus, king of the la[nd of Baby- 

lon, [a great] king, prayed [when he was afflicted] 2 by a malignant inflamma- 
tion, by decree of the G[od Most] High, in Teiman. [I, Nabonidus,] was af- 
flicted [by a malignant inflammation] 3 for seven years, and was banished far 
[from men, until I prayed to the God Most High] 4 and an exorcist forgave my 
sin. He was aje[w] from [the exiles, who said to me:] 5 Make a proclamation in 
writing, so that glory, exal[tation and honour] be given to the name of the G[od 
Most High. And I wrote as follows: When] 6 [I was afflicted by a maligfnant] 
inflammation, [and remained] in Teiman, [by decree of the God Most High, 
I] 7 prayed for seven years [to all] the gods of silver and gold, [of bronze and 
iron,] 8 of wood, of stone and of clay, because [I thought] that they were gods 
[...] 

Frag. 4 7 [...].. .1 had a dream 2 [. . .] has gone far off, the peace of [...] 3 [...] my 

friends. I could not [. . .] 4 [. . .] as you were like [. . .] 

c Daniel-Susannah (?) 

4QDaniel-Suzanna (?) (4Q551) 

Frags. 1 + 3 7 [...] knowledge [...]... 2 [.. . t]hen an old man[. . .] it is from 3 [...] 

son of Jonathan, son of Jeshua, son of Ishmael, son of [ ... ] After this 4 [ . . . ] and 
all the men of the city gathered in front of the house and said to him: «Make 


290 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q551 


[...] come out [...] God». And they said: 5 [...] ... He [said] to them: «My 
brothers, do not do evil [. . .] here 6 for them 7 [...] which 8 [...] my 

spirit 


4 Q 55 ° 


ARAMAIC PROTO-ESTHER 


291 


14 Aramaic Proto-Esther 
4 Q 55 ° 

4QProto Esther" (4QprEsth a ar) 

1 [and they ob]eved your father Patireza [. . .] 2 and among the attendants of the 
royal wardrobe [. . .] performing 3 the service of the King according to all that 
[ . . . ] ... At that time 4 the lengthening of the King’s spirit .. . [ . . . ] the books of 
his father were to be read in front of him; and among 5 the books was found a 
scroll [sealed with] seven seals of the ring of Darius, his father. The matter 

6 [. . .] ... [. . . of Da]rius the King to the attendants of the Empire of the whole 
earth, peace». I read the beginning and found written in it: «Darius the King 

7 [. . .] will rule after me and to the attendants of the Empire, peace. Know that 
every tyrant and deceitful 

4QProto Esther* (4QprEsth* ar) 

1 a man; but the King knows whether there is [. . .] 2 and his good name will not 
pass away, and his loyalty [...] 3 of the King will be for Patireza, son of 
Ya’[ir...] 4 there fell upon him the dread of the house of Safra [...]5 herald of 
the King. May it be said and it will be given [. . .] 6 from my house and from my 
belongings and all that which [...] 7 be measured; and you shall receive your 
father’s service [. . .] 


4QProto Esther' (4QprEsth‘ ar) 

1 [. . .] herald of the King. He must say to the princess [...] bani[shed . ..] 2 [.. .] 
Patireza [your] father, of Hama who rose above the attendants of the [kingdom] 
before the King [...] 3 [...] he served with justice and with [...] before her [...] 
4 [...] and the herald said [...]5 [...] the purp[le ...] 6 [...] ... [...] 

4QProto Esther^ (4QprEsth‘ / ar) 

Col. 1 1 Look, you know [. . . ] and for the failings of my fathers 2 who had sinned 

before you, and [. . .] peaceful [...] and left [.. . of his attendants, a 3 Jew, from 
the chiefs of Benjamfin. . .] one of the diaspora, stands up for an accusation and 
wishes [... a] good divifner], 4 a good man, [...] attendant. What can I do for 
you? You know [. . .] possible 5 to a Kutean man the return [. . .] of your king- 
dom, rising after you rise [...] 6 However, what you wish command it of me 
and when you die I will bury you in [. . .] 7 ravaging (?) everything. Is it possible 
that the rise of my service means [...] all that [...] 


292 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4 Q 55 ° 


Col. 11 1 [...] the decision of [...And] the second ones will pass [...] 2 [... the 

plagues and the third ones will pa[ss...] in the [royal] wardrobe [...] j [...] the 
crown of g[old upon his h]ead, And five years will pass [...] 4 [...] alone and 
[... and the sixth] ones will pass, bl[ack] 5 [...] all silver and all gold and all 
the wea]lth which belongs to Bagoshe, doubled, [...] 6 and the seve[nth ones 
will pass...Th]en Bagasro entered in peace into the court of the King [...] 
7 Bagoshfe returned to [...] his judgment was judged [and the verdict] an- 
nounced and he was executed. Then Bagasro entered the sevfenth] court of the 
King [...] 8 And he took his hand [...] on his head [...] and hugged him, an- 
swering him and saying: «In [ . . . ] Bagasro of [ . . . ] 

Col. Ill 1 [. . .] the Most High who you revere and venerate, is the one who gov- 
erns [the whole] earth. All that one who approaches should wish [...] 2 [...] 
every man who utters a bad word against Bagasro [. . .] will be killed, because 
he has nothing [.. .] j [. . .] a barrier for ever. [. . .all] that he had seen in the two 
[...]. And the King said to him: «Wri[te.. . ] 4 [...] Emp[ire...] they in the inner 
courtyard of the royal palace [. . J5 [. . .] they shall rise after Bagasro, the readers 
of this written text [...] 6 [,..ev]il, evil has returned against his [head...] 7 [... 
his descendants. Blank 


4QProto Esther 1 ' (4QprEsth f ar) 

1 [...] before the King [...] 2 walk in the area [...] 3 [...] upon [your] faces [...] 
4 [...Ba]gasro [...] 


4QProto Esther^]?) (4QprEsth^ ar (?)) 

1 [...] Look, from the North comes the evil [...] 2 [...] founded the building of 
Zion, and there all the unassuming of his people will take refuge. 3 [...] Blank 
4 [they] rose above him, they grew great between Media and Persia, Assyria and 
the Sea. 5 [...] Blank 


4Qig6 


TOBIT IN ARAMAIC AND HEBREW 


293 


15 Tobit in Aramaic and Hebrew 
4QTobit a (4Q196 1 4QTob'' ar]) 

Frag. 1 (= Tob 1:17) 1 [...] the wall of Nineveh [...] 

Frag. 2 (= Tob 1:19-2:2 / [And one of] the Ninevites [went] and informed the 

king that I [was bu]rying [them,] but I found out. And when I knew that 2 [the 
king] knew [about me] I took fright and hid. [And] all that I had [was seized], 
and I was left with no relations 3 [... except An]na, my wife, and Tobias, my 
son. However, [fort]y days had not [passed] 4 [when his two so]ns [killed him.] 
And they fled to the mountains of Ararat and af[ter him] 5 [Esarhaddon, his 
son] ruled. And to Ahikar, son of my brother Anael, he gave power over all the 
6 [treasures of the kingdom, so that he held control] over them and over all the 
king’s finances. And Ahikar interceded 7 [for my life and I could return to 
Nineveh. Ahikar was the chief of the cupbearers and the keeper of the seals and 
the treasurer 8 [and] the administrator before Asharyarib, king of Assyria, while 
Esarhaddon made him his second-in-command. See, 9 he was my brother’s son 
and from my father’s house and from my family. And in the days of king Esar- 
haddon, when I had returned w [to my ho]me and Anna, my wife, had been re- 
turned to me, and Tobias, my son, on the day of the Feast of Weefks, they pre- 
pared for me] 1 1 a good banquet, and I reclined to [eat.] They brought the table 
near, in front of me, and I saw that the dishes that they placed 12 upon it were 
many. And I sa[id to Tobias, my son: My son, go and fetch all those you find 
from among our brotfhers] 13 [...] My son, go and fetch them, so they may 
come and eat [together with us ...] 

Frag. 5 (= Tob 3:11-15) 1 [. . .and may my father not hear re]proaches again in 

my lifetime. 2 [And then she spread her hands] towards the window [and 
prayed] 3 [saying: Blessed be you, merciful God, and blessed (be)] your holy 
and glorious name [for ever, and] may 4 [all your works] bless you [for ever. 
And now,] to you I lift my face and my eyes: say that I may be freed from 5 [the 
earth and not return to hear reproaches. You kn]ow that I am clean in my bones 
from every [impurity] 6 [of a male, that I have not def]iled my na[me or my 
father’s name in all the land of deportation; 7 [I am my father’s only daughter, 
he has no] other son to be his heir, nor (has he) a brother or a relative 8 [that I 
should keep] my soul for a son, [to be] his wife. Already there have been 

Frag. 1 1 col. 1 (= Tob 6:14-17) 2 [. . . And I have heard that the people said that 

a demon] killed them. 3 [And now I am afraid to die and that sorrow for me 
bring to the grave the li]fe of my father and of my mother. 4 [And they have no 
other son] who could bury them. 5 [And he said to him: Do you not remember 


294 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Qi96 


the precepts of] your father who commanded you 6 [to take a wife from your 
father’s house? Now,] listen to me, my brother, 7 [do not fear this demon and 
take her. I know that in] this night 8 [she will be given to you as a wife. And 
when you enter the bridal chamber, ta]ke some of the heart 9 [of the fish and 
(some) of its liver, place it upon the embers of the incense and the smell will 
come out,] the demon will [smell it,] fl[ee] 

Frag. 11 col. 11 (= Tob 6:19-7:3) / much [and his heart grew fond of her. And 

when they arrived within Ecbatana, Tobias said to him:] 2 Azarias, my brother, 
[take me straight to the house of Raguel, our brother. And he took him and 
they entered the house of Raguel.] 3 And they found Raguel seated in [front of 
the door of the courtyard, and first they wished him peace. And he said to 
them:] 4 In peace you came and in peace shall you go, [my brothers. And he 
made them enter his house. And he said to Edna, his wife,] 5 How [like Tobit, 
my uncle’s son, is this young man! And Edna] aske[d them and said: Where are 
you from, brothers?] 6 And they said to her: [From the sons of Naphtali, from 
the exiles in Nineveh . . .] 

Frag. 15 col. 11 (= Tob 13:6 - 14) 1 your heart and [with all[ your soul to [act 

truthfully before him. Then, he will turn to you] 2 and no [longer hide his face] 
from you. [And now, consider what he has done for you and give him thanks] 
with your whole mouth, 3 and ble[ss the Lord of] justice and exaflt the eternal 
king. I, in the land] of exile, give you thanks 4 and declare] his power and his 
greatfness to a nation of sinners. Turn, you sin]ners, and with all your heart 
ac[t]i just[ly] before him. [...]...[...] 6 [.. .] my soul to the k[ing of heaven ...] 
all the days [. . .] 7 [. . . ] his greatness. They will chant psalms #[...] the holy city 
... 9 [...] of justice. Give thanks [...] 10 [...] ... [...] 11-12 [...] 13 [...] genera- 
tions will pass on to generations [their joy] for you 14 [and ] the name of your 
greatfness to] eternal [generations. Cursed be all those who say] harsh things 
and all those who against you i$ [...] Cursed be those who [...] and all [...] ... 

Frag. 15 col. in 1 [...] and all those who make [your towers] fall [...] 2 [...] be 
happy and rejoice in the sons of [...] 3 [...Blessed] those who love you and 
bles[sed . . .] 4 [. . . ajll those who suffer for you [. . .] 5 [. . .] the great king who 
[...] 6 [...] from my descendants [...] 7 [...] you will be built of sapphire [...] 
8 you will be built [of go]ld and your wo[od ...] 9 [...] and stone from [Ophir 
...] 10 [...] for all eternity [...] 11 [...] for ever. Those who are in you will bless 
[...] 12 [...To]bit and died in peace [...] 13 [. . ,eigh]ty-five years [...] 14 [...] his 
eyes he lived well and with all [...] 15 [...] *** and praise the grfeat ...] 16 [...] 
his sons and he commanded [...] 


4Q196 


TOBIT IN ARAMAIC AND HEBREW 


295 


4QTobit / ' (4Q197 1 4QTob ; ’ arj) 

Frag. 3 col. 1 (= Tob 5:19-6:12) 1 [. . . May] our son’s money not be added [to 

our money]! And now [it is not enough] 2 [to live as has been granted us by the 
Lord to live.] He said to him: Do not fear, my sons will leave in peace 3 [and 
he will return to us in peace. Your eyes will see him on the day when he returns 
to you] in peace. Do not fear and do not be worried for him, my sister, 4 [for 
a good angel will go with him, his path will be successful and he will return in 
peace.] And she wept no more. Blanks [The young man left and the an]gel went 
with him; [the dog left with them, and the two walked] together. And 6 [the 
angel] commanded them [to spend the night close to the river] Diqlat (the Ti- 
gris). And the young [man] went down [to the river Tigris to bathe his feet, 
and] a great fish [leapt] from the 7 [water which tried to con]sume the young 
man’s foot. [The young man shouted, but the angel said to him: Catch and] 
grasp the fi[sh. And] the young man caufght] 8 [the fish and grasped it and 
brought it] out on dry land. [And the angel said to the young man: Splijt it and 
remove [its skin, its heart] 9 [and its liver, and keep them in your] hand, but 
[throw away] its guts, [for its skin, its heart] and its liver [are a good medicine.] 
And [the young man [split the fish] 10 [and removed the skin, the he]art and 
[the liver. The young man cooked part of the] fish and ate it, and also [for the 
journey he prepared another part] 77 [with salt. And] the two walked together 
[until they appro]ached Media. Blank [Then] 12 [the young man questioned the 
angel and] said to him: Azarias, my brother, what good medicine is there in the 
heart of the fish and in its liv[er and in its skin? And he said to him:] 13 [As for 
the heart of the fish and its liver] make it depart in smoke before a man or a 
woman attacked by a demon or by an [evil] spirit [and from them will flee] 
14 [every kind of attack and] they will [not] approach them and their vicinity 
ever. As for the skin, it is to anoint the ey[es of the man on whom burns had 
been caused,] 13 the burns [shall fall away from him] and they shall be cured. 
And when they came within Media and were now [going] to Ecbatana] 16 [Ra- 
phael said to the young] man: Tobias, my brother. And he answered him: Here 
I am. And he said to him: [We are going to spend the night] in Raguel’s house] 
77 [tonight, for] he is a man from your father’s house and has a beautiful daugh- 
ter [whose name is Sarah. Blank ] 18 [And] he has [no] other son or daughter 
except Sarah, and you are the closest relative to h[er from all men| 79 [... and 
to take her] for yourself as a br[ide] and you have the right [to inherit all the 
property] 

Frag. 3 col. 11 (= Tob 6:12-19) 7 [of her father, the young woman is sensible, 

and vivaci]ous and very beautiful, and her father loves her [and . . .] 2 [. . .] of her 
father. And as for you, a lawful right has decided [that you take her. And now] 
3 [listen to me, my brother.] Tonight we will speak about this young woman, 


296 


PARA-BIBLICAL LITERATURE 


4Q197 


we will install her so that you take her for a wiffe, and when we return] 4 [from 
Rages we will celebrate] the nuptial feast. I know that Raguel will not be able 
to deny her to you because he knows 5 [that it pertains to you to secure] and 
take his daughter more than to any other ma[n, and he also] knows that if he 
gives her to another man 6 [he deserves death according to the sentence of the 
book of Mo]ses. And now, [listen to me and we w ill speak about this young] 
woman tonight, we will install her 7 [so that you accept her as a wife and take 
her to your home. And Tobias answered and said to Rajphael: Azarias, my 
brother, I have heard 8 [that she has already been given to seven men who died 
in her bridal chamber. In the night in which] they approached her, they g [died. 
And I have heard that the people said it was a demon who killed them. And 
now,] I am afraid [of the] demon who 10 [did no harm to her, but kills everyone 
who tries to approach her. I am an only son for my] father and for my mother 
1 1 [and I am afraid of dying and that sorrow for me might bring to the grave the 
life of my father and of my mother. And they have no] other son 12 [who could 
bury them. And he said to him: Do you not remember the pre]cepts of your 
father who commanded you 13 [to take a wife from your father’s house? Now,] 
listen to me, my brother, do not fear] this demon and take her. 14 [I know that 
in this night she will be given to you as a wife. And when you enter her bridal 
chamber, take some of the heart of the fish and of its liver,] 1 5 [place it upon the 
embers of the incense and the smell will come out, the demon will smell it, flee 
and will not return to appear near her ever again.] 16 [And when you go to be] 
with her, [first stand up, both of you, to pray; ask the Lord of heaven that upon 
you may come mercy] 17 [and salvation. And] do not fear, [for] she has been set 
apart and to you [she belongs from eternity. Blank \ 18 [And you will sa]ve [her 
and she will walk with you; and] think that for you there will be [sons from her, 
and] that they will be ig [like brothers for you. So, then, do not be afraid. And 
when] Tobias heard the words of Rapha[el that Sarah was] his sister and from 

Frag. 3 col. in (= Tob 6: 19-7: 10) 1 [the descendants of his father’s house] he 

loved her much and his heart grew fond of her. And when they arrived within 
Ecbatafna,] 2 Tobias [said to him:] Azarias, my brother, [take me straight to the 
house of Raguel, our brother. And he took him and they entered [the house] 
3 of Raguel. And they found Raguel seated in front of the door of the court- 
yard, and first they wished him peace. And he said to them: In peace 4 you 
came and in peace shall you go, my brothers. And he made them enter [his 
house.] 5 And he said to Edna, his wife, How like Tobit, my uncle’s son, is this 
young man! And Edna asked them and said: Where are you from, brothers? 6 
And they said to her: From the sons of Naphtali, from the exiles in Nineveh. 
And she said to them: Do you know Tobit, our brother? 7 They said to her: We 
know him. Is he well? They said to her: [He is well and healthy. And] Tobias 
[said:] 8 He is my father. Raguel jumped up, kissed him and wept. [And he 


4Qig8 


TOBIT IN ARAMAIC AND HEBREW 


297 


answered him and said to him: Be blessed, my son, son of the] 9 good man! A 
pity [that] a just man [has gone blind! [... And he sprang] 10 into the arms of 
Tobias [his brother and wept. And Edna his wife and Sarah his daughter also 
wept for him. And he killed] 11 a splendid bull calf [...] 12 to eat and to drink 
[...] 13 [...] And he heard [...] 

Frag. 4 (= Tob 8:21-9:4) / [...] you shall take her with you to your father’s 

house [...] 2 my son, I am your father and Edna [is your mother . . . ] 3 [ . . . do 
not] fear, my son. Blank [...] 4 [Then Tobias called Raphael and said to him:] 
Azarias, my brother, take with you from here fo[ur servants and two camels] 
5 [and go to Raguel.] Approach Gabael, give him the document, [receive the 
money, and take it with you for the wedding,] 6 [for you know that my father] 
is counting the days, and if I delay [one day . . .] 

4QTobit‘ (4Q198 [4QTob‘ arj) 

Frag. 1 (= Tob 14:2-6) 1 justice and continued fearing God and prais[ing ...] 

2 his sons and he commanded him and sa[id] to him: [. . . because he trusted in 
the word of] 3 God who sa[id . . .] 4 ...[...] 5 Everything will happen in its time 
[. . .] 6 in all that God has said, [everything will occur and will hapfpen . . . And 
our brothers] 7 who dwell in the land of Israel, all of them [will be deported . . . 
And all the land of] 8 Israel will be deserted and Sama[ria . . . until] 9 the time 
when he will cause them to return [...] 10 [and] not like the first time. Blank [. . .] 
11 [they will build] Jerusalem with glo[ry ...] 12 [as the prophets saidj of her 
[...] 13 [. . .] and they shall cast away all their idols [...] 

Frag. 2 (= Tob 14 : 10 ?) 1 not [. . .] 2 he left [. . .] 3 ... [■■■] 4 fell into the trap of 

[death ...] s ... [...] 

4QTobit l/ (4Q199 [4QTob </ ar]) 

Frag. 1 (= Tob 7:12?) 1 [. . .And To]bias [said:] I shall not eat anything here [. . .] 

4QTobit' (4Q200 [4QTob‘ ! hebr]) 

Frag. 1 col. I (= Tob 3:6) 1 [. . . and may I return to the] dust; 2 [for it is better for 

me to die] than to live, for 3 [I have heard false] reproaches [and there is much 
sorrow] with me. Command that I be freed 4 [from this conflict . . .] ... 

Frag. 1 col. 11 (= Tob 3 : 10- 1 1) 1 they may reproach [my father . . .] 2 whether for 

you [. . .] 3 concerning me. It is not convenient [. . .] 4 1 will hear and he will not 
hear [. . .] 5 [the wi]ndow and begged [. . .] 


298 


PARA-BIBI.ICAL LITERATURE 


4Q200 


Frags. 2-3 (= Tnb 4:4-7) 1 2 [. . .] and she carried you in her wo[mb 

. . .] 3 [. . .] Blank And all your days /my son/ God [. . .] 4 of his word. Blank [Act] 
truthfully all the days [of your life] 5 [and do not walk on pat]hs of deceit, for 
in the practice [of the truth success will be] with you. 6 [...] According to the 
size of your hands, my son, be [generous in doing] just deeds (alms), and do not 
withdraw] 7 [your face from any poor] person, so that from you [the face of 
God does] not [withdraw.] If, my son, you have [much,] 8 [do] ju[st] deeds with 
it. [Blank ] If you have little, according to the litftle] 9 [do just deeds, and do not 
fear to do a small] just deed: a [good] store 

Frag. 5 (= Tob 10:8-9) 1 [When] the fourteen days of [the wedding feast] ended 

2 which Raguel had sworn to have for Sarah, his daughter, Tobias came [to 
him] 3 and said to him: Allow' me to leave, for I know that [my father] 4 [and 
that] my mother also do not believe that they are going to see me again. /And 
now/ I beg you, 5 [yes you], my father, that you allow me to leave and I will go 
to my father. Already 6 I have told you how I left him. And Raguel said to 
Tobias: My son, 7 stay with me and I will send messengers to Tobit, your 
fat[her and they shall] tell [him] 

Frag. 6 (= Tob 11:10-12) 1 [. . .] to approach his son until [...] 2 [... the sk]in of 

the fish in his hand, and he destroyed [...] 3 [... he said] to him: Do not fear, 
my father. [...] 4 [...] his eyes, and rubbed [ ] 5- [ ] his eyes, and he saw [...] 

Frag. 7 (= Tob 13 :) ?[...] this event and what has happened to you. Blank [...] 

2 [...] to him. And they {were astonished} blessed [. . .] 3 [...] his great deed, and 
they were astonished that there had appeared [to them [...] 4 [...] Blank Thus 
spoke Tobit and wrote a hymn with praises to G[od, and he said:] 

5 [Blessed be the] living [God], 

whose kingdom is for all the centuries; 

6 he is the one who [punishes 
and he is the one who] has pity, 

he brings down to the deepest Sheol 
and brings up from the abyss 

7 [immense and great.] 

Who escapes from his hand? Blank 
Give him thanks, children of Is[rael,] 

8 [before all the nations,] 

for he scattered you among them; 
and there tell [his greatness,] 

9 [and exalt him before every] living creature, 
for he is your Lord, 

and he is your God. 


4Q200 


TOBIT IN ARAMAIC AND HEBREW 


2 Q 9 

Frag. 8 col. 1 (= Tob 13 : 15 ?) ?[...] Then shall you be happy and rejoice 2 [. . .] 

and blessed be 3 [ . . . ] all 

Frag. 8 col. 11 (= Tob 13 : 18 ?) /Jerusalem a hymn [...] 2 the God who [.. .] j who 

[...] 4 And. 

Frag. 9 (= Tob 14:2 ?) 1 [... Jerusalem [...] 2 [... and he die]d in peace [...] 

j [. . .] eighty-five [years] old [. . .] 4 [. . .] and after fo[ur . . .] 


Poetic Texts 


302 


POETIC TEXTS 


Due to our ignorance concerning the actual development of liturgical practice 
in the Qumran Community, it is not possible to make a precise distinction 
between verse compositions intended for liturgical use, and others which seem 
rather to have been written in order to inspire collective or individual medita- 
tion, or to express personal feelings. The fact that compositions such as the 
Community Rule also include sections in verse obviously intended for the com- 
munal celebration of the feast of covenant renewal and the use of various liter- 
ary forms within a single composition, as happens in the Hymns of Cave 1 
( 1 QHodayoth), makes any attempt at classifying the texts even more specula- 
tive. 

The arrangement of the texts in this chapter and the next is, then only a 
suggestion and is based on the predominance within one composition of one 
element or other. 

The texts in this chapter are poetic in character without a shadow of doubt, 
though their liturgical nature is not actually stated. 

Due to the bad state of preservation of part of this material, there is no point 
in setting it out in strophic form. Nevertheless, the layout highlights the poetic 
nature of the best preserved texts, leaving the more fragmentary parts as con- 
tinuous text. 

The origin of these texts varies enormously. While there is no doubt at all 
that the Hodayoth originate from within the Qumran Community, the origin 
of the other compositions, in particular the different Apocryphal Psalms , is 
rather more uncertain. The use of the compositions, here called Psalms against 
demons , as psalms of exorcism, seems to be certain. 

For the Hymns from Cave 1, the reconstruction of the original manuscript 
suggested by E. Puech has been used, and this applies also to the insertion of 
a large number of isolated fragments within the original scroll. See E. Puech, 
‘Quelques aspects de la restauration du Rouleau des Hymnes (iqH)’, JJS 39 
(1988) 38-55. Due to the different arrangement and the insertion of fragments, 
the line numbering does not always match that of Sukenik’s editio princeps. To 
assist the reader the correlation with the columns of the editio princeps has been 
indicated in parentheses. 


4 Q 88 vii-ix 


APOCRYPHAL PSALMS 


3°3 


1 Apocryphal Psalms 

A Apocryphal psalms included in copies of the biblical psalter 
4QPsalnW (4Q88 [qQPs^]) 

Col. vii ( Hymn to Zion = 11Q5 xxii, 1-3) 14 [Blank I remjember you, [Zion] for 

blessing; 

15 I have loved you [with all my powers.] 

[May your memory be blessed for ever!] 

16 Great is your hofpe, O Zion;] 

1 7 [peace will come and the prosp]ect [of your salvation.] 

Col. viii (Hymn to Zion = 11Q5 xxii, 8-15) 1 [Your hope does not die, O Zion] 

2 [nor is your wait forgotten.] 

3 [Who] is it [that died being just] 

4 [or who] is the one who has been saved [in his iniquity?] 

[Man is examined] according to his path 

5 each one is rewarded according to his de]eds. 

6 All round you, O Zion, your enemies are quelled 

7 and all those who hate you are scattered. 

8 It is pleasant to hear your praise, O Zion, 
throughout the whole world. 

9 Many times I remember you 
w [and I bless you] Zion; 

with all my powers I love you. 
u You shall receive everlasting justice 

12 and accept the blessings of the glorious ones! 

13 Accept a vision spoken in your regard 

14 a prophets’ dream requested for you! 

May you be glorified and magnified, O Zion! 

1 5 [Praise the Mos]t H[igh, your Saviour!] 

16 [May my soul be happy in your glory!] 

Col. ix (Eschatological hymn) 1-3 ...[...] 

4 [■•■] many [...] 

5 and may they praise the name of yhwh. 

Because he comes to judge all things, 

6 to obliterate evil-doers from the earth; 

7 [the sons] of wickedness will find no [rest]. 

8 The heavens [will give] their dew, 

9 and there will be no corrupt dealing in their frontiers. 


304 


POETIC TEXTS 


11Q5 XVIII 


10 The earth [will give] fruit in its season, 

11 its crops will not fail. 

12 The fruit-trees [. . .] of their vineyards, 

13 and their springs will not deceive. 

14 The poor will eat 

and those who fear yhwh will be replete. 

Col. x (Hymn to Judah) 4 

5 [...] meanwhile the heavens and earth will exult together. 

6 May all the stars of dusk, then, rejoice. 

7 Be happy, Judah, be happy! 

8 Be happy and burst with joy! 

g Observe your feasts, fulfil your vows 

10 because within you there is no Belial. 

11 Lift up your hand, strengthen your right hand! 

See, your enemies perish 

12 and all who work evil will be scattered. 

13 And you, yhwh, for ever! 

14 Your glory shall be for ever and ever! 

liQPsalms" (11Q5 [iiqPs"]) 

Col. xvm (Psalm 154) [With powerful voice give glory to God, 
in the assembly of the Many proclaim his Glory; 
among the throng of the just give glory to his Name 
and with the faithful sing his greatness.] 

1 [Unite] your souls with the good ones and with the perfect ones 
to glorify the Most High. 

2 Join together to make his salvation known 
and do not hesitate to proclaim his power 

3 and his glory to all ordinary people. 

For, wisdom has been granted 

so that YHWH’s glory can be proclaimed 

4 and so that his many deeds can be recounted 
has she been taught to man: 

so that his power can be proclaimed to ordinary people 
3 so that his might can be explained to those lacking judgment: 
those found to be far from his gates, 

6 removed Blank from his entrances. 

For the Most High is the Lord 

7 Blank 

8 Blank 


11Q5 XVIII-XIX 


APOCRYPHAL PSALMS 


305 


g of Jacob 

and his glory beyond all his deeds. 

The man who gives glory to the Most High 
10 is accepted like one who brings an offering 
like one who offers goats and bullocks. 

;; like one who makes the altar greasy with many holocausts, 
like the sweet fragrance of the just man’s hand. 

12 Her voice is heard in the gates of just men 
and in the assembly of devout men, her song; 

13 they speak about it when they eat to bursting, 
when they drink, all meeting together; 

14 their meditation is on the Law of the Most High, 
their words, to proclaim his power. 

13 How distant from the wicked is his word 
from all the arrogant his knowledge! 

16 See, yhwh’s eyes 

have pity on good people; 

he increases his compassion on those who give him glory; 

1 7 he frees their soul at the instant of danger. 

Bless YHWH 

who ransoms the humble from the foreigner’s hand 

18 [and frees the perfect from the wicked man’s hand; 
who raises a horn from Jacob] 

and judges [the peoples from Israel, 
who pitches his tent in Zion 
and remains for ever in Jerusalem.] 

Col. xix (Entreaty for deliverance = 1 iqPs h frags, a + b) 

1 For not even a maggot could give you thanks, 
or a worm tell of your goodness. 

2 The living, the living Blank can praise you, 
even the ones who stumble extol you. 

You teach them, revealing to them 

3 your goodness and justice, 

for in your hand is the soul of every living being; 

4 you give all flesh its breath. 

Deal with us, O yhwh, according to your kindness, 

5 according to your abundant compassion 
and the great number of your just acts. 

6 yhwh has heard the outcry of those loving his Name 
and has not denied them his goodness. 

7 Blessed be yhwh who performs just deeds 


3°6 


POETIC TEXTS 


11Q5 XIX-XXI 


8 and crowns his devout with goodness and compassion. 

Cry out, my soul, to extol /your/ Name 
to announce your good deeds with shouts, 
g to proclaim your loyalty; 

your praise is mysterious. 

10 For my sins I was on the point of dying 
and my iniquities sold me to Sheol. 
u But you, yhwh, saved me 

according to your abundant compassion 
and the great number of your just acts. 

12 I too have loved your Name 

and I have looked for sanctuary in your shade. 

The memory of your power strengthens my heart 
is I relax in your goodness. 

Pardon my sins, yhwh, 

14 and cleanse me from my iniquity. 

Bestow on me a faithful and knowing spirit; 
may I not be disgraced in the calamity. 

15 May Satan not rule over me 
or an unclean spirit; 

may neither pain nor evil purpose 

16 take possession of my bones. 

Because you, yhwh, are my praise 
and in you I hope all day. 

17 May my brothers be happy with me 
and my father’s house, 

whom you baffled by your favour 

in you shall I be happy for ever. 

Col. xxi (Hymn to wisdom - Ben Sira 51 : 13 - 19) 11 Aleph Although still young, 

before going astray 
I searched for her. 

Beth Beautiful she came to me 

12 when at last I found her. 

Ghimel As falls the flower when grapes are ripening 
making the heart happy, 

13 Daleth directly walked my foot 

for since my youth I have known her. 

He Hardly my ear I bent 

14 and found great allure. 

Wam Wet-nurse was she for me 


11Q5 XXI-XXII 


APOCRYPHAL PSALMS 


3°7 


on my mistress I conferred my honour. 
is Zam Zealous for good, 

I decided to enjoy myself 
ceaselessly. 

Heth Charred was my soul for her 

16 I did not give in. 

Teth Torrid my desire for her 
and on her heights I was not serene. 

17 Yodh Yes, ‘my hand’ opened [her doors] 
and I inspected her nakedness. 

Kaph Cleansed then ‘my hand’ [. . .] 

Col. x\u(Hymn to Zion = 4QPS1 i/vii-vm) 1 (Aleph Blank Ah, I remember you, 
Zion, for blessing; 

2 Beth beloved to me with all my powers. 

May your memory be blessed for ever! 

Ghimel Great is your hope, O Zion; 
j peace will come and the longing for your salvation. 

Daleth Dwell shall generation after generation in you, 
generations of the devout shall be your splendour; 

4 He hungering for the day of your salvation 

Waw with the greatness of your glory shall they rejoice, 

5 Zam suckle shall they at your splendid breasts, 
they shall scamper about your marvellous squares. 

Heth Cherish w ill you the goodness of your prophets 

6 you will revel in the deeds of your devout ones. 

Teth (Then purge ferocity from within you, 

7 may lying and sin be eradicated from you. 

Yodh Your sons will rejoice within you 

and your loved ones will be united with you. 

8 Kaph Keenly they have waited for your salvation; 

how your perfect ones have observed mourning for you! 

Lamed Lo, your hope does not die, Zion, 

9 nor is your longing forgotten. 

Mem Might anyone have died through being just? 

Might anyone have been saved in his sin? 

10 Nun Anent his path is a man examined 
each one rewarded according to his deeds. 

Samek Suppressed, O Zion, are your enemies around you 
and all those who hate you are scattered. 

Ain A lovely scent, O Zion, is your praise 
12 which rises in all the world. 


3°8 


POETIC TEXTS 


11Q5 XXIV 


Peh Past counting the times 1 remember you for a blessing, 
with all my heart I bless you. 

13 Sade Secure eternal justice 

and receive the blessings of the glorious ones! 

14 Qoph Acquire the vision spoken in your regard 
the prophets’ dreams requested for you! 

Resh Rank glorified and magnified, O Zion! 

15 Praise the Most High, your Saviour! 

Tau Thrill may my soul in your glory! Blank 

Col. xxiv (Psalm 155) 3 yhwh, I call to you, listen to me; 

4 I extend my hands to your holy dwelling; 
bend your ear and grant my plea, 

5 and my entreaty, do not reject it; 

Beth} build up my heart and do not erode it 
or forsake it in the presence of wicked men. 

6 Ghimel Grant that the judge of truth 
turn away from me 

the recompenses of evil. 

7 O YHWH, do not judge me by my sin 
because no-one living is just in your presence. 

8 He Have me instructed, yhwh, in your law, 
and teach me your precepts 

9 Wam whereby many hear your deeds 
and the peoples honour your glory. 

10 Zam Recognize me and do not forget me 
or lead me into difficulties. 

1 1 Heth From me childhood sin remove 

and may my offences not be remembered against me. 

12 Teth Turn me pure, YHWH, from the evil taint 
may it stop coming back to me; 

13 Yodh dry up its roots in me 

may its leaves not become green again over me. 

Kaph Glory are you, yhwh, 

14 therefore my plea is achieved in your presence. 

Lamed To whom may I shout and he would grant it to me? 
13 The sons of men: what can their strength do? 

Mem Mv trust is in you, YHWH. 

16 I called «yhwh» and he heard me 
[and healed] my broken heart. 

iy Nun Now I slumbered and slept; 

I dreamt and, well: [woke up!] 


11Q5 XXVI-XVII 


APOCRYPHAL PSALMS 


309 


Same k? [Sustained me, yhwh, you have 
and I called to you], yhwh, [my deliverer.] 

18 Ain? [And now I rejoice in his shame; 

1 trusted in you and have not been disillusioned. 

Peh Pay for Israel, your devoted ones, O yhwh, 
and the house of Jacob, your chosen ones.] 

Col. xxvi (Hymn to the Creator) 9 Great and Holy are you, yhwh, 
the Holiest of Holy Ones, from generation to generation. 

In front of him walks glory 

10 and behind him boom copious waters. 

Goodness and truth surround his face, 

11 truth, uprightness and justice are the base of his throne. 

He separated light from darkness 

established the dawn with the knowledge of his heart. 

12 Then all his angels saw him and sang 

for he showed them what they had not known. 

13 He covered the mountains with produce 
perfect nourishment for all the living. 

14 Blessed be he who made the earth with his strength 
establishing the world with his wisdom. 

With his knowledge he spread out the heavens 

15 and brought out [the wind] from his storehouses: 

[with (the) lightning flashes] he unleashed [the rain] 
and made the clouds from the end [of the earth] go up. 

Col. xxvn (Compositions of David > 2 Sam 23:7) 1 and the haft of his spear 

and he cast them in the fire 
leaving no trace of them. 

2 Blank And David, son of Jesse, was wise, a luminary like the light of the sun, 
learned, 3 Blank knowledgeable, and perfect in all his paths before God and 
men. And to him 4 Blank yhwh gave a wise and enlightened spirit. And he 
wrote psalms: 5 three thousand six hundred; and songs to be sung before the 
altar over the perpetual 6 offering of every day, for all the days of the year: 
three hundred 7 and sixty-four; and for the sabbath offerings: fifty-two songs; 
and for the offering for the beginning 8 of the month, and for all the days of the 
festivals, and for the day of atonement: thirty songs. 9 And all the songs which 
he composed were four hundred and forty-six. And songs 10 to be sung over 
the possessed: four. The total was four thousand and fifty. 11 He composed 
them all through the spirit of prophecy which had been given to him from 
before the Most High. Blank 


3io 


POETIC TEXTS 


11Q5 XXVIII 


Col. xxviii (Psalm 151) 3 Halleluia of David, son of Jesse. 
I was smaller than my brothers 
and younger than my father’s sons; 

4 he put me as shepherd of his flock 
and master of his kid goats. 

My hands made a flute, 
my fingers a lyre, 

5 and I gave glory to yhwh. 

I said to myself: 

the mountains do not witness in his favour, 

6 nor do the hills proclaim on his behalf, 
nor the trees his words 

or the sheep his deeds. 

7 Who, then, is going to announce 
and who will speak 

and who will narrate the deeds of the Lord? 

God saw everything 

8 he heard everything 
and listened. 

He sent his prophet to anoint me 

9 Samuel, to make me great. 

My brothers went out to meet him 

well built, 

very presentable. 

They were quite tall, 

10 they had attractive hair, 

but yhwh God did not choose them, 

instead he sent to fetch me from following the flock 

11 and anointed me with holy oil 
and set me as leader of his people 
/and chief of/ the sons of his covenant. 

12 Blank 

13 Beginning of David’s exploit, 

after God’s prophet had anointed him. 

Meanwhile I saw a Philistine 

14 threatening from [...] 

![■■•] 


tiQPsalms* (iiq6 [iiqPs*]) 

Frag, a (= tiQ5 xix, 1-9) 1 [poor] and weak am I, 

for [...] 


i iq6 . 4Q380 


APOCRYPHAL PSALMS 


3H 


2 [For] not even a grub can give you thanks 
[or a maggot narrate your goodness.] 

3 [The live person,] the live person can praise you. 

[They shall extol you those who stumble.] 

4 [You teach them, revealing to them] 
your goodness and your justice, 

[for in your hand is the spirit of every] living thing; 

5 you give all flesh its food. 

[Deal with us, O yhwh, in accordance with your kindness 
in accordance with your abundant comp]assion 

6 and your numerous just deeds. 

[yhwh has heard the cry of those loving his Name] 

7 [he has not removed] from them his goodness. 

Blesfsed be yhwh who performs just deeds] 

8 [and crowns his devoted ones] with goodness and compassion. 

[May my soul shout to extol your Name,] 

9 [to proclaim] with cheers your acts of goodness 
to annfounce your constancy;] 

Frag, b (= 1 1Q5 xix, 12- 15) /[and in your shade] I have looked for shelter. 
The memory of [your power strengthens my heart,] 

[I rest in your acts of goodness.] 

2 Forgive my sins, yhwh, 

[and cleanse me from my iniquity.] 

3 Adorn me [with a spirit of loyalty and knowledge;] 
may I not be disgraced in the calamifty.] 

B Independent collections of apocryphal psalms 

4QNon-Canonical Psalms A (4Q380) 

Frag. 1 col. 1 ?[...] 2 [. . .Jerusalem is 3 [the city chosen by yh]wh for ever and 

ever 4 [. . .] holy ones j [Because the Na]me of yhwh is invoked over her, 6 [and 
his glory] is seen over Jerusalem 7 [and] Zion. Who will utter the Name of 
8 yhwh? And who shall proclaim all [his] praise? 9 yhwh [remem]bered him 
in his favour and visited him 10 in order to make him see the good u [of his 
chosen] ones in order to che[er him in the joy of his people.] 

Frag. 1 col. 11 / Fie made a man for you [...] 2 Because he is the one [whose 

wojrds they keep [. . .] 3 which is for all the children of Israel [. . .] 4 May your 
hand rescue you, for God’s power [...] 5 doing good and hating the wicked. 
Until [when. . .] 6 will you take pleasure in doing evil? Unless the wicked person 


3 12 


POETIC TEXTS 


4Q38l 


expires [...] 7 Blank 8 Hymn of Obadiah. God [...] 9 the truth in it and his kind- 
ness [...] 

Frag. 2 1 2 [. . .] mountains and hills [. . .] j [. . .] those who rely on 

them shall shudder [. . .] 4 [. . . and they shall shout to] yhwh in their distress. 
From their difficulties ...] 5 [... and he will free them. For] with the devout 
yhwh is compassionate. [...] 6 [...] to the man [ ] 7 [ ] ... [...] 

Frag 4 z Hymn of [. . .] 2 You shall repel the [. . .] j He will make [. . .] wise 4 and 

...[...] 


4QNon-Canonical Psalms b (4Q381) 

Frag. 1 z [...] I proclaimed. 

And I reflected on his wonders 

which for me shall be (the) teaching of justice. 

2 [. . .] my mouth; 

and to the simple, and they shall understand, 

and to those without heart, and they shall know yhwh. 

How powerful. . .] 

3 wonders! 

He, in his day, made the heavens and the earth. 

With a word from his mouth [. . .] 

4 and torrents; 

they shall channel their streams (?), 
pools and every whirlwind, 
and ... [...] 

5 the night, the stars and the constellations; 
and he caused [. . .] to shine (?) [. . .] 

6 tree and every fru[it of the vi]ne 
and all the produce of the field. 

And according to his words ... [. . .] 

7 to [his wi]fe. 

And by his spirit he established them 
to control all of them in the earth, 
and with all [...] 

8 month by month, feast by feast, day by day, 
to eat its fruit ...[.. .] 

9 [---] 

and the birds and all that is theirs 
to eat the best of everything. 

And also [...] 


4Q38i 


APOCRYPHAL PSALMS 


313 


10 [. . .] in them 

and all his armies and his anfgels...] 

11 [. . .] in order to serve man 
and help him and [ . . .] 

Frag. 15 »[...] you shall change my heart and [. . .] 

2 [...Turn your face to me 
and have pity on me, 

give your strength to your servant] 
and save the son of your maidservant. 

3 Show me [a sign for good, 

so that those who hate me see it and are bewildered, 
because you,] my God, did help me 
and I made my case to you, my God. 

4 [. . .You control the de]pths of the sea 
and you calm its waves; 

5 you [crushed Rahab like a corpse, 

with your powerful arm you scattered your enemies. 

The world and] what fills it, you established 

6 You have a [powerful] arm; 

[strong is your hand; 
upraised is your right. 

Who in the heavens is like you] my God? 

And who among the sons of gods? 

7 And in the whole [company of the holy ones? . . . 

For you] are the glory of its grandeur, 

and I, your anointed, have understood. 

Frag. 24 4 Hymn of the man of God. 

YHWH God [...] 

5 He has redeemed Judah from all hardships, 
and of Ephraim [. . .] 

6 generation. 

The mighty shall praise you and say: 

‘Arise, my God [...]...[...] 

7 Your Name is my salvation; 

my rock, my fortress and my deliverer [is yhwh...] 

8 On the day of [my hardship] I will call to yhwh 
and my God will answer me; 

my help [...] those who hate me. 

And [...] will say: 9 because [...] to the people, and I [... (may) my sh]out be- 
fore him reach his ears. 


3H 


POETIC TEXTS 


4Q38l 


Frag. 31 1 [...] in the net which they hide I will sing to you, yhwh, 

[...] 2 [...] I will praise your wonders [...] before you. [...] You will rescue me 
and extricate me from the teeth of death. And you [...] (to) the heights of all 
[...] 3 [• ••] of all his path [...] in a holy place. [...] Blank 

4 [Prayer of . . .] King of Judah: 

Listen, [my] God [. . .] ... my strength 

[. . .] I will narrate before those who fear you 
[. . .] ... with me [. . .] 

5 [... Your thjoughts, 

who can understand them? 

For my enemies are before you. 

You have humiliated them and the ones who detest my life 
you have overturned them before your eyes, 

I shall live, for, [...] 

6 [...You will not] hide (the) sin from those who have knowledge. 

You will destroy them. 

God of my salvation, the days of my service are counted. 

What can I do? 

Here I am, weak, 

7 [...You will deliver] to the sword those waiting for me; 
on the day of w rath, those who say . . . 

They have plaited a crown for my head. 

I shall know the fruits of their glory, 

8 and their ornaments [. . .] 
a question on my lips [. . .] 
from the book of life [. . .] 
those who bully me will stop 
my enemies will die, 

and not [...] 

9 [...]... song of thanksgiving 
[. . .] with you [. . .] Blank 


Frag. 33 ?[■■■] and for her there will be no offspring [...] ... [...] 2 And you will 

establish for my times and ... [...Above the heavens, rise, yhwh, and ... [...] 
3 and we will revel in your might, because [your wisdom] is unfathomable [. . .] 

. . . your reproach will be 4 eternal [. . .] for me and for your glory. For my faults 
are too many for me and [. . .] ... But you, my God, will send your spirit and 
[have pity] 5 on the son of your maidservant, and compassion on the servant 
who approaches you. And [. . .] I will sing and rejoice in you in the presence of 
those who fear you, for [you will judge] f> your servants in your justice accord- 
ing to your compassion [...] to set free ... [...] (to) you. Selah. Blank 7 Blank 
8 Prayer of Manasseh, king of Judah, when the King of Assyria put him in 


4Q38i 


APOCRYPHAL PSALMS 


315 


prison. [...] 

My God [...] near, 

my salvation is in front of your eyes; 

[...] 

g I await the salvation of your presence. 

I yield to you for my sins, 

for you have incr| eased your compassion], 

whereas I have added to my fault, 

and so [have separated myself ] from everlasting joy. 

10 You have not looked at the goodness of my soul, 
for]...] 

Frag. 45 1 And I shall understand and teach whoever does not understand. Him 

[. . .] and I shall fear you and purify myself 2 from all the abominations that I 
am aware of. And I shall humble my soul in your presence [. . .] They increased 
sin, plotted against me 3 to confine me. But I trusted in you [. . .] 4 Do not pro- 
nounce sentence against me, my God [. . .] 5 Those conniving against me open 
a deceitful tongue [...] 6 for me. The deeds of [...] 7 ... [...] 

Frag. 46 /[...] against me [. . .] 2 Your abundant favours [. . .] ... [. . .] a horn is 

given to me [. . .] 3 with you. And I ...[.. .] idols. Your laws, your splendour and 
your beauty [...] 4 will spread out like clouds over the face [of the earth . ..] and 
our sandy places, and they will be scattered in great numbers, until [. . .] 5 Man 
will not be prevail, nor will | . ..] arise [. . .] you test everyone. The chosen (ones), 
like the offerings, you will purify in your presence. Those who are hated 6 you 
will reject like uncleanness. A storm wind [. . .] their deeds. But those who fear 
you will be before you forever. Their horns are horns of 7 steel with which they 
gore many. They will gore [...] You will make their hooves of bronze, and 
sinners 8 will be trampled like dirt on the face of the earth. [...] They will be 
hurled from before [...] And your spirit [...] 9 [...] and a searing fire [...] ... 
[...] 

Frag. 69 1 [. . .] (to) them because [. . .] When he saw that the peoples of the earth 

behaved abominably 2 [. . .] all the earth went from impure defilement to impure 
defilement. And wonderfully, from the beginning, 3 [...] conferred with his 
heart to destroy them from upon it and to create on it a people for himself 

4 [. . .] And through his spirit he gave you prophets to teach you and show you 

5 [. . .] /he came down from heaven and spoke to you to teach you and keep you 
away from the deeds of the inhabitants of/ he gave you laws, instructions and 
commandments of the covenant which he established through the hand of 
[Moses . . .] 6 [. . .] to reside on the earth. Then it will be purified and [. . .] 7 [. . .] 
to consider among yourselves if you will be for him, or if [...] 8 [...] and break 


316 


POETIC TEXTS 


4Q38l 


the covenant which he established with you, and act like foreigners and [...] 
9 [■■•] against wickedness and alter his words from his mouth. [...] m [...] ... 
[...] 

Frags. 76-77 /[...] for me. Animals and birds, be gathered [...] 2 [...] with the 

sons of man, following the inclination of the thoughts of their heart . . .] 3 [. . .] 
will be destruction [...] 4 [...] fire and annihilation. And [...] not 5 [...] the 
people of its belongings. [...] 6 [...] ... [...] Blank 7 [...] congregation of the 
Holy of Holies, lot of the King of Kings [...]£ [...] my word. You will pay 
attention to the wisdom which issues from my mouth, and will understand [. . .] 
9 [. . .] and the honest judge and the reliable witness. Do you perhaps have the 
strength to answer him? [...] 10 [...] to proclaim. Who among you will reply 
and dispute with him.' [...] n [...] because those who judge you are many and 
those who bear witness against you are countless. But is [. . .] 12 [. . .] yhwh will 
sit in judgement with you to judge in truth and without injustice [...] 13 [...] 
his spirits, to render you judgments of truth. Is there knowledge, for you to 
learn it? [. . .] 14 [. . .] Lord of Lords, hero, wonderful. There is no-one like him. 
He has chosen you [...] 75 [... from among] many [peoples] and from among 
great nations so that you will be a people for him, to rule over everyone [...] 
16 [. . .] heaven and earth, and to be at the summit of all the nations of the earth, 
and to [...] 


iqH iii-iv 13 


THE HYMNS 


317 


2 The Hymns 

iQHvmns“ (lQHodayoth" [iqH"]) 

Cols. 1- hi [ Nothing has been preserved.] 

Col. hi (= frags. 16 + 11) 

Frag. 16 / [...] turning himself round [...] 2 [...] the oppressed [...] 3 [...] his 

gentleness with the poor [...] 4 [...] And who can measure [ ] j [...] ? And 

who can measure the strength of [...] 6 [...] eternal. Who plots [...] 7 [...] pre- 
vious [...]<?[...] ... [...] 

Frag. 11 j 2 [...] it has stood for all the years of eternity 

from your hand every seal 4 the sons of man according to their 

intelligence [...]5 [...1 his kingship. Who has made all these things? [...] 6 [...] 
for you the pleasure. In justice shall you place [...] 7 [...1 in your presence [.. .] 
and the creature of clay [...] 8 [...j he will answer. You are glorified above all 
the go[ds . . .] 9 [. . .] holiness, and according to what there is in your soul [. . . J 
10 [ . . . ] for your name. You [ . . . ] in the congregation of the holy [ones . . . ] 

Col. iv (= xvii + frag. 14) 1 [...] a low measure [...] 2 [...] revealed, without 

judg[ment, for] by the spirit 3 [...] a fire which consumes the fl[esh of] their 
dead without 4 [. . .] in the dry earth [. . .] without judgment 5 [. . .] striking sud- 
denly, unexpectedly [...] as wax 6 [melts in front of the fire ...] judgment by 
the spirit which seeks you. And there will arise 7 [. . .] you shall throw into [. . .] 
the commandment. Blank By the spirit [...]... 8 [. . .] by the blows of [...] Blank 
[. . .] Blank 

9 [I give you thanks, Lord,] 
for the secrets which [...] 
which do not [. . .] reach 

10 [... ] and by the judgment of [. . . ] 
thoughts of wickedness [...] 

11 [...] and by the judgment [...] 

[You have purified] your servant from all his sins 
[by the abundance of your co]mpassion, 

12 [as y]ou said through the hand of Moses, 

[forgiving rebellion,] iniquity, sin, 
atoning for [failings] and disloyalty. 

13 [Even though you burn] the foundations of mountains 
and fire [sears] the base of Sheol, 

those who [keep] your regulations [are saved.] 


POETIC TEXTS 


iqH iv 14-25 


318 

14 [You protect] the ones who serve you loyally, 
so that their posterity is before you all the days. 

You raise an [eternal] name for them, 

15 [forgiving them all] sin, 

eliminating from them all their depravities, 
giving them as a legacy all the glory of Adam 
and plentiful days. Blank 

16 Blank 

17 [I give you thanks, Lord,] 

for the spirits you have placed in me. 

I shall find the reply on (my) tongue 
to recount your (acts of) justice, 

18 the patience [of your judgments,] 

the deeds of your mighty right (hand), 
to confess my former sins, 
to bow low and beg favour 
ig for [...] of my deeds 

and the depravity of my heart. 

Because I wallowed in impurity, 

[I separated myself] from the foundation [of truth] 
and I was not allied with [...] 

20 [...] 

To you does justice belong, 
blessing belongs to your Name for ever! 

[Act according to] your justice, 

21 free [the soul of your servant,] 
the wicked should die! 

However, I have understood 

that [you establish] the path of the one whom you choose 

22 and in the insight [of your wisdom] 

you prevent him from sinning against you, 

you restore his humility through your punishments, 

and by your ord[eals strengthen his heart. Blank 

23 [You, Lord, prevent] your servant 
from sinning against you, 

from tripping over all the words of your will. 

Engrave your com[mandments in him,] 

so that he can hold himself up against [fiendish] spirits, 

24 so that he can walk in all that you love 
and loathe all that you hate, 

[so he can do] w hat is good in your eyes 

25 [...] in my vitals, 


iqH iv 26-v 18 


THE HYMNS 


319 


for your servant is a spirit of flesh. Blank 
26 [I give you thanks, Lord, because] you have spread your holy spirit upon your 
servant his heart 27 [. . .] and I will consider every human treaty [. . .] 

they shall find it 28 [. . .] and those who love it [. . .] for ever and ever. 

Col. v (= xiii + frags. 15 + 31 + 17 + 20 + 33) [Chant for the Instructor for [...] 
God’s deeds 2 [...] and to make the simple understand [...] eternal 3 [...] of 
knowledge, to make the man [...] of flesh understand, and the council of the 
spirits [. . .] they walked 4 [. . .Blessed] are you, Lord, because the spirit of flesh 
is forgiven through your mer[cies ...] with the strength of your power, 5 [the 
greatness of] your favour, with the abundance of your goodness, [the slowness] 
of your wrath and the zeal of your judgment [... without] limit. Every6[one 
w ho has been chosen by] the knowledge of all intelligence will understand [. . .] 
and the mysteries of your plan and the beginning of [. . .] you have established. 
/ [For] to you belongs holiness before the centuries and for ever and ever. You 
are [. . .] holy ones 8 [. . .] And in your wonderful mysteries you have instructed 
me for your glory, and the depth of [...] of your knowledge (does) not 9 [...] 
But you have revealed the paths of truth and the deeds of evil, wisdom and 
folly, [...] 10 [...] their deeds: truth and insight, sin and folly. They have all 
walked [. . .] 11 [comp]assion and everlasting favour for all the periods of peace, 
and ruin for all [...] 12 his judgments. Everlasting glory, delight and unending 
enjoyment for a [good] deed [... but ...and punishment for 13 a bad de[ed.] 
Blank 

These are those you fou[nded before] the centuries, 

14 to judge through them all your works before creating them, 
together with the host of your spirits and the assembly of [the gods,] 
with the holy vault and all its hosts, 

15 with the earth and all its produce, 
in the seas and in the deeps, 

according to all their designs for all the eternal ages 

16 and the final visitation 

For you have established them 
before the centuries, 

and [in them you have enha]nced the action of [man] 
ij so that they can recount your glory throughout all your kingdom; 
for you have shown them what they had never seen, 

[overcoming] what was there from of old 
and creating new things, 

18 demolishing ancient things 

and erecting what would exist for ever. 

For you have established them 
and you will exist for ever and ever. 


320 


POETIC TEXTS 


iqH v 19-vi 5 


lg In the mysteries of your insight 
you have apportioned all these things, 
to make your glory known. 

However, what is the spirit of flesh 
to fathom all these matters 

20 and to appreciate your great and wondrous secret? 

What is someone born of a woman among all your awesome works? 

21 He is a structure of dust shaped with water, 
his base is the guilt of sin, 

vile unseemliness, source of impurity, 
over which a spirit of degeneracy rules. 

22 Blank 

If he brings about evil it will be an eternal [sign,] 
a portent for generations, 
shame for all flesh. 

23 Only by your goodness is man acquitted, 

[purified] by your abundant compa[ssion.] 

You embellish him with your grandeur, 
you install him in your abundant pleasures, 

24 with everlasting peace and lengthy days. 

For [you are the truth,] 

and you do not go back on your word. Blank 
And I, your servant, have known 

25 thanks to the spirit you have placed in me 

[...] 

and all your deeds are just, 

and you do not go back on your word, 

26 and all your periods are fixed 
[...] chosen for their pleasures. 

And I know [. . .] 

27 the wicked [...] so that he may realise [...] 28 [...] your spirits [...] 29 [...] ... 
[...] 

Col. vi (= xiv + frags. 15+18 + 22 + 44 + 9) 1 [...] his instructions [...] in your 

people [...]... 2 [...] our ears [...] 

[Fortunate,] the men of truth, 

those chosen by justice, those probing the] mind, 

3 those searching for wisdom, those bui[lding . . .] 

[those who l]ove compassion, the poor in spirit, 

4 those refined by poverty and those purified by ordeal, 

the comfpassionate . . . those who keep thejir nerve until the time of judgment, 

5 those alert for your salvation. 


iqH vi 6- 17 


THE HYMNS 


321 


And you [...] have strengthened your precepts through their hands 

6 to make judgment on the world, 
so that all inherit your jus[tice...] 
holy for everlasting generations. 

7 And all [. . .] of their deeds, 

with [. . .] the men of your vision. Blank 

8 Blank 

[I give you thanks,] Lord, 

for putting wisdom in the heart of your servant 

9 to know these matters, 
to understand...] 

to be encouraged in the face of the assaults of evil, 

10 to bless, in justice, all the chosen ones of your will 
[. . . to love all th]at you love, 

and hate all that you [loathe.] 

11 You teach your servant 

[. . .] of the spirits of man, 

for corresponding to the spirits 

you allot them between good and evil, 

12 and set over them [. . . 

to sho]w them their actions. 

But I, 

I have known, thanks to your insight 

13 that in your kindness towards man 

you have enlarged his share with the spirit of your holiness. 

Thus, you make me approach your intelligence, 

H and to the degree that I approach 

my fervour against all those who act wickedly 
and (against) men of guile increases; 
for everyone who approaches you, 
does not defy your orders, 
is and everyone who knows you 
does not change your words. 

For you are just, 

and all your chosen ones are truth. 

All sin and wickedness 

16 you obliterate for ever, 

and your justice is revealed to the eyes of all your creatures. 

Blank 

17 But I, 

I have known, thanks to the wealth of your goodness, 
and with an oath I have enjoined my soul 


322 


POETIC TEXTS 


iqH VI 17-vn 7 


not to sin against you 

18 and not to do anything which is evil in your eyes. 

In this way I force all the men of my counsel 
to make progress in the community. 
ig According to his intelligence I promote him, 

I love him in proportion to his abundant inheritance. 

I do not lift my face to evil, 
or consider a wicked gift. 

20 I do not exchange your truth for wealth, 
or for a gift all your judgments. 

Quite the reverse, to the degree [. . .] I love him, 

21 and to the extent that you remove it from him, I hate him. Blank 
I will not admit into the council [of your truth] 

22 someone distant from your covenant. 

Blank 

23 I give you thanks, Lord, 
according to your great strength 
and your abundant wonders 
from eternity and for eternity. 

You are lofty, great, lavish in favours, 

24 you are someone who forgives those who turn away from sin 
and someone who punishes the depravity of the wicked. 

[You love the truth] with a generous heart 

25 and you hate depravity, for ever. 

And myself, your servant, you have favoured me 

with the spirit of knowledge 

[so that I can love] truth [and justice,] 

26 so that I loathe all the paths of wickedness. 

1 love you liberally, with (my) whole heart, 

27 [with (my) whole soul I look for] your wisdom, 
because these things happen at your hand 
and without [your approval nothing exists.] 

28 [...] flesh will rule it [...] ... [...] 29 [...] him, and he will construct with help, 
the [. . .] 30 [. . .] of the vault upon the wings of the wind [. . .] 

Col. vii (= xv + frags. 10 + 32 + 34 + 42) 1 [...] ... [...] 2 [.. .] ... I have received 

intelligence [. . .] 3 [. . . to your wonjders what reply shall we make? For you have 
dealt [kindly] with us and have done wonders [with us...] 4 [...] they will not 
gather the strength to know [in] your glory [or to tell] of your wond[ers...] 
5 [...].. . according to their intelligence. And in accordance with this knowledge 
[and by] your glory [. . .] 6 below [. . .] unceasingly. And from age to age he will 
make . . . hear [. . .] 7 [. . .] And we have collected together as a Community, and 


iqH vii 8-26 


THE HYMNS 


323 


with those who know [...] ... /for you/ ... 8 your compassion [...] the people 
of your heroes, and before your wonders we shall sing together g at the 

time of [...] our harvests [...] sons of man. And among [the sons of] Adam 
10 because [...] wonderful to the utmost. Blank [...] Blank u in [...] ... 72 [...] 
>3 [■■•! they will love you for all days [...] 14 [...] I love you lavishly, with (my) 
whole heart and with all (my) soul I purify [...] 75 [... not] to turn aside from 
all that you have commanded. I have joined the Many [. . . so as not] 16 to desert 
all your precepts. Blank 
But I, 

I have known, thanks to your intellect, 

that it is not by a hand of flesh that the path of man [is straightened out,] 

77 nor can a human being establish his steps. 

I know that every spirit is fashioned by your hand, 

18 [and all its travail] you have established 
even before creating him. 

How can anyone change your words? 

You, you alone, have created the just man. 

79 For him, from the womb, you determined the period of approval, 
so that he will keep your covenant and walk on all (your paths), 

20 to [empty] upon him your plentiful compassion, 

to open all the narrowness of his soul to eternal salvation 
and endless peace, without want. 

27 Upon flesh you have raised his glory. Blank 

But the wicked you have created for the time of wrath, 

from the womb you have predestined them for the day of annihilation. 

22 For they walk on paths that are not good, 
they reject your covenant, 
their soul loathes your decrees, 
they take no pleasure in what you command, 

2j instead they choose what you hate. 

You have established all those [who hate your law] 
to carry out great judgments against them 

24 in the eyes of all your creatures, 
so they will be a sign and an omen 
[for] eternal [generations,] 

so that all will know your glory 

25 and your great might. 

What, then, is flesh, to understand [your wonders?] 

And how can dust direct its steps? 

26 You have fashioned the spirit 
and have organised its task. 

From you comes the path of every living being. 


324 


POETIC TEXTS 


iqH vii 27-vm 17 


But I, I have known 

27 that utter wealth cannot compare to your truth, 
and I have [. . .] your holiness. 

I know that you have chosen them above all 

28 and they will serve you forever. 

You do not take [gifts for evil deeds,] 
or accept a bribe for wicked acts. 

29 For you are God of truth 
and you [destroy] all sin. 

[...] 

will no longer exist in your presence. 

I know that [. . .] belongs to you 

30 [...] ... [...] 31 your holiness [...] 32 because in [...] 

Col. VIII (= XVI + frag. 13) /[...] all [. . .] 2 [. . .] admits into the number of 3 [.. .] 

in heaven and on earth 4 | . . .] and in your hand is the judgment of all ,-[...] and 
what he think of them? ... 6 [. . .] and nothing is done 7 [. . .] according to your 
advice you visited them 8 [ . . . ] with ... g [...]... 10 for your spirit of hofliness 
...] ... [...] and 11 your spirit of holiness 10 is unable to 11 [...] the fullness of 
heaven and earth [...] your glory. The fullness [...] 

72 I know that in your kindness towards man 
you have multiplied [. . .] 

your truth in all [...] 

73 and the stance of justice [. . .] 

which you have positioned over him [. . .] 
to stumble in all [. . .] 

14 Through my awareness of all this 
my tongue will find a reply 
to [. . .] my sin 
to look for the spirit [. . .] 

75 to be strengthened by the spirit of holiness, 
to adhere to the truth of your covenant, 

to serve you in truth, with a perfect heart, 
to love your [will.] 

7 6 Be blessed, Lord, 
creator [of all things,] 

[mighty] in acts, 
everything is your work. 

You have resolved, in fact, to take pity [on your servant,] 

77 to show me favour by the spirit of your compassion 
and by the splendour of your glory. 

To you belongs justice 


iqH viii 18-ix 7 


THE HYMNS 


325 


because you done all [this.] 

18 And since I know that you have recorded the spirit of the just man, 

I have chosen to purify my hands in accordance with your will 
and your servant’s soul detests every work of sin. 

1 g I know that no-one besides you is just. 

I have appeased your face by the spirit which you have given me, 

20 to lavish your favour on your servant for [ever,] 
to purify me with your holy spirit, 

to approach your will according to the extent of your kindnesses. 

21 ...[...] 

the stance of your will which you have chosen 

for those who love you, 

and for those who keep your precepfts ...] 

22 in your presence for ever. 

[May . . . not] 

associate with the spirit of your servant 
or with all their works for [ever!] 

23 [■■•] 

May no affliction [come] upon him 

so he does not stumble on the precepts of your covenant! 

For [...] glory. 

24 And you, you are [a lenient] and compassionate [God,] 
slow to anger, full of favour and of truth, 

who forgives sin [. . .] 

25 and has pity on the [evil of those who love you] 
and keep your precepts, 

those who turn to you with trust 
and a perfect heart [. . .] 

26 to serve you [and to do what] is good in your eyes. 

Do not turn your face away from your servant, 

[do not reject] the son of your maidservant! 

[...] 

27 [...] 

And I, through your word I have approached 

[...] 

2S[...] 

Col. ix (= 1) 1- 2 ... [. . .] 3 eternal [. . .] 4 in it, and the judgment [. . .] for [. . .] ... 

5 source of po[wer . . .] great counsel [. . .] without number, and your zeal 6 be- 
fore [...] long for (the) anger in the judgment [...] just in all your works. 

7 In your wisdom you established] eternal [...]; 
before creating them you know all their deeds 


326 


POETIC TEXTS 


1QH IX 8- 19 


8 for ever and ever. [. . .] 

[Without you] nothing is done, 

and nothing is known without your will. 

9 You have fashioned every spirit 
and [...] 

and the judgment of all their deeds. 

Blank 

10 You have stretched out the heavens for your glory. 

Everything [which it contains you have established] according to your approval: 
powerful spirits, according to their laws, 

11 before they changed into [holy] angels [in their residences,] 
into eternal spirits in their realms, 

the luminaries in their mysteries, 

12 the stars in their circuits, 

the stormy winds in their roles, 
lightning and thunder in their duties 

13 [you have established] the deposits of the computations in th[eir] purposes 
[.. .] in their secrets. 

Blank 

You have created the earth with your strength, 

14 seas and deeps [. . .] 

you have founded them with your wisdom, 
everything which is in them 
is you have founded with your will. 

[...] 

so that the spirit of man rules over the world 

16 for all days everlasting and unceasing generations, 
so that [. . .] in their seasons. 

You have shared out their tasks in all their generations 

17 and the regulation at predetermined times 
to ru[le. . .] 

generation after generation 

just like the visitation of this punishment 

18 with all its agonies. 

[...] you share it out 
among all their descendants 

according to the number of their eternal generations 
ig for all the endless years. 

[...] 

And in the wisdom of your knowledge 
you have determined their course 
before they came to exist. 


iqH ix 20-31 


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327 


20 And with [your approval] everything happens, 
and without you nothing occurs. 

Blank 

21 These things I know' through your knowledge, 
for you opened my ears to wondrous mysteries 
although I am a creature of clay, fashioned with water, 

2a foundation of shame, source of impurity, 
oven of iniquity, building of sin, 
spirit of mistake, astray, without knowledge, 

23 terrified by your just judgments. 

What will I be able to say which is not known? 

What will I be able to declare which has not been told. 

24 Everything has been engraved in your presence 
with the stylus of remembrance 

for all the incessant periods 

in the eras of the number of everlasting years 

in all their predetermined times, 

and nothing will be hidden, 

nothing will remain away from your presence. 

25 How will a man count his sin? 

How will he defend his infringements? 

26 How w ill he answer every just judgment? 

To you, God of knowledge, 

belong all the works of justice 

27 and the foundation of truth; 
to the sons of man, 

the service of sin and the deeds of deception. 

Blank 

28 You created breath on the tongue, 
you know its words, 

you instituted the fruits of lips, 

before they came to be; 

you placed a rhythm for words, 

29 and a cadence to the puff of breath from the lips; 
you make the rhythms emerge by their mysteries 
and the puffs of breaths by their measures, 

30 to declare your glory and tell your wonders, 

in all the deeds of your truth and of your just judgments, 
to praise your name through the mouth of all. 

31 And they will know you by your intellect 

and they will bless you for [everlasting] centuries. 

Blank 


3 28 


POETIC TEXTS 


iqH IX 32 -X 9 


And you, in your compassion, 

32 and in the vastness of your mercy, 
have strengthened the spirit of man 
before his miseries, 

you have [...] him 

you have purified him from abundant evil 

33 so that he can tell your wonders before all your works. 

Blank 

[...] 

the judgments which torment me, 

34 and to the sons of man, all the wonders 
which you have achieved [...] 

Blank 

35 Listen, wise men, 

and you, meditating with knowledge, 
and (you) cowards, 
be of staunch purpose! 

[...] increase caution! 

36 Just men, finish with injustice! 

And all of you, of perfect way, 
strengthen [...] the poor! 

37 Be slow to anger, 
and do not spurn [...] 

his heart does not understand these matters 

38 Blank 
[••■] 

3g [and the brujtal will grind their tee[th ...] 

Col. x (= 11) 1-2 [. . .] ... [. ..] 3 [...] all the deeds of wickedness [. . .] 4 [...] ... [.. .] 

[of truth] /of justice/ in all [. . .] 5" [■■■] overwhelmed [...] those who announce 
joy to the mourner, the [...] 6 [...,] to all destruction [. . .] the strong, to mollify 
my heart, the dynamic, 7 before the [calamity. 

But you give the tongue’s reply 
to my uncircumcised lips, 
you support my soul 
strengthening my kidneys 

8 and increasing strength; 

you guide my steps on the frontier of evil. 

I am a trap for offenders, 

9 medicine for everyone who turns away from sin, 
discretion for simple folk, 

staunch purpose for the timorous at heart. 


iqH x 10-23 


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329 


10 You have set me as a reproach and a mockery of traitors, 
foundation of truth and of knowledge 
for those on the straight path. Blank 
On account of the offence of the wicked 
nl have been the target of slander in the mouth of violent men, 
and the scoffers grind their teeth. 

You have made me into a laughing-stock for sinners, 

12 the assembly of the wicked is roused against me, 
they roar like the turbulence of the seas 
when their waves beat 
ij and spew out ash and mud. 

But you have set me like a flag 
for the elect of justice, 
like a wise sower of secret wonders. Blank 
14 To put to the test [all the men of] truth, 
to refine those who love learning. 

To those who spread fallacies I am a man of dissent, 
is [but a man of peace] to all true observers. 

I have turned into an ardent spirit 

against all the interpreters of flat[tering] things. 

16 [All] arrogant men mutter against me 
like the mighty din of turbulent water; 

[all] their thoughts are devilish schemes. 

// They throw the life of a man into the ditch 

the one whom you established through my mouth 
and to whom you have imparted knowledge. 

18 In his heart you have put the opening of the source of wisdom 
for all those w'ho understand. 

But they have changed them 
ig by uncircumcised lip and weird tongue 
into a people without understanding, 
and so they go astray in their delusions. Blank 

20 Blank 

I give you thanks. Lord, 

because you put me in the bag of life 

21 and have protected me from all the traps of the pit, 
for vicious men have ambushed my soul 

22 when I relied on your covenant. 

They are a council of futility, 

a devilish assembly. 

They do not know that through you I subsist 
2j and in your compassion you have saved my life, 


33 ° 


POETIC TEXTS 


| 

iQH x 24-35 

because from you come my steps. 

They -they attack my life on your account, 

24 so that you will be honoured by the judgment of the wicked, 
and you will make yourself great through me 

before the sons of man 

25 because through your compassion I do subsist. 

I have said: 

heroes have set up camp against me 
surrounded by all their weapons of war; 

26 they loose off arrows without any cure; 

the tip of the spear, like fire which consumes trees. 

27 Like the crash of turbulent water 
is the roar of their voices, 

like a hurricane storm 
which destroys many. 

Right up to the stars 

28 burst emptiness and nothing 
when their waves heave upwards. 

But you, when my heart turned to water 
confirmed my soul in your covenant. 

29 And the net which they spread for me 
has entangled their feet, 

in the trap they set for my life 
they have fallen. 

«My foot remains on the right path, 

30 in his assembly I shall bless your Name». 

Blank 

31 I give you thanks, Lord, 

for your eye [keeps watch] over me. 

You have freed me from the zeal of the sowers of deceit, 

32 from the congregation of the interpreters of flattering things. 

You have freed the life of the poor person 

which they thought to finish off, 

pouring out his blood while he was at your service. 

33 But they did not know 

that my steps come from you. 

They have put me as a mockery and a reproof 

34 in the mouth of all the interpreters of trickery. Blank 
But you, my God, 

have freed the soul of the poor and needy 

35 from the hand of someone stronger than him; 

from the hand of the powerful you have saved my soul. 




iqH x 36-xi 13 


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331 


and at their taunts you have not let me lose heart 

36 so as to desert serving you 

from fear of destruction by the wicked 
and exchange a firm purpose for follies 

37 which [...] 

the edicts, and by witness given to their ears 

to all their descendants 
39 [•■•] 

among your followers. 

Col. xi (= hi + frag. 25) 1-2 [. . .] ... [. . .] 3 [. . .] you have made my face shine [. . .] 

4 [...] to you, with everlasting glory, together with all [...] 5 [...] your mouth, 
and you have freed me from [...] and from [...] 

6 Blank Now, my soul [. . .] 

they have counted me, and have put the soul 
like a boat in the depths [of the sea], 

7 like a besieged city positioned opposite [its enemies], 

I was in distress 

like a woman giving birth the first time 
when her birth-pangs come on her 

8 and a pain racks her womb 

to begin the birth in the «crucible» of the pregnant woman. 

Since sons reach the frontiers of death 

9 and the woman expectant with a man is racked by her pains, 
for from the shores of death 

she gives birth to a male, 

and there emerges from the pains of Sheol, 

70 from the «crucible» of the pregnant woman 
a splendid counsellor with his strength, 
and the man is freed from the womb. 

Into the woman expectant with him rush all the spasms 

11 and the wrenching pains of his birth; 
terror (seizes) those giving birth, 

and at his birth all the pains come suddenly, 

12 on the «crucible» of the pregnant woman. 

And she who is pregnant by the serpent 
is with a wrenching pain; 

and the edge of the pit 
is with all the deeds of terror. 

13 The foundations of the wall shake 
like a ship on the surface of the sea, 


332 


POETIC TEXTS 


iqH xi 14-24 


and the clouds echo with the uproar. 

And both he who lives in the dust 

14 and he who sails upon the sea 

are terrified by the din of the water. 

For them their wise men are like sailors on the deeps, 

15 for all their wisdom is perplexed 
by the roar of the sea, 

by the welling up of the deeps 
upon the springs of water; 

[they churn] to form huge waves, 

16 the gates of the water, with clamorous sound. 

And when they are wild, [Sheol and Abaddon] open; 
all the arrows of the pit 

17 make their voice heard while going down to the abyss; 
the gates of [. . .] open 

[...] the deeds of the serpent. 

18 And the gates of the pit close 

upon the woman expectant with wickedness, 
and the everlasting bolts 
upon all the spirits of the serpent. Blank 
ig Blank I thank you, Lord, 

because you saved my life from the pit, 

and from Sheol and Abaddon you have lifted me up 

20 to an everlasting height, 

so that I can walk on a boundless plain. 

And I know that there is hope 

21 for someone you fashioned out of clay 
to be an everlasting community. 

The corrupt spirit you have purified 

from the great sin 

so that he can take his place 

22 with the host of the holy ones, 
and can enter in communion 

with the congregation of the sons of heaven. 

You cast eternal destiny for man 
with the spirits of knowledge, 

23 so that he praises your name together in celebration, 
and tells of your wonders before all your works. 

And I, a creature of clay, 

24 what am I? 

Mixed with water, with whom shall I be counted? 
What is my strength? 


iQH xi 25-37 


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333 


For I find myself at the boundary of wickedness 

25 and with those doomed by lot. 

The soul of the poor person lived amongst great turmoil, 
and the calamities of hardship are with my footsteps. 

26 When the traps of the pit open 

all the snares of wickedness are spread 

and the nets of the doomed are upon the surface of the sea. 

27 When all the arrows of the pit fly without return 
they hit without hope. 

When the measuring line for judgment fails, 
and the lot of anger against the forsaken 

28 and the outburst of wrath against the hypocrites, 
and the period of anger against Belial, 

and the ropes of death approach with no escape, 

29 then the torrents of Belial will overflow their high banks 
like a fire which devours all those drawing water (?) 
destroying every tree, green or dry, from its canals. 

30 He revolves like flames of fire 

until none of those who drink are left. 

He consumes the foundations of clay 
ji and the tract of dry land; 

the bases of the mountains does he burn 
and converts the roots of flint rock 
into streams of lava. 

It consumes right to the great deep. 

32 The torrents of Belial burst into Abaddon. 

The schemers of the deep howl with the din 
of those extracting mud. 

33 The earth cries out at the calamity with overtakes the world, 
and all its schemers scream, 

and all who are upon it go crazy, 

34 and melt away in the great calamity. 

For God thunders with the thunder of his great strength, 
and his holy residence echoes with the truth of his glory, 

35 and the host of the heavens adds its noise, 
and the eternal foundations melt and shake, 

and the battle of heavenly heroes spans the globe, 

36 and does not return until it has terminated 
the destruction decided forever. 

There is nothing like it. Blank 
J7 Blank 

I give you thanks, Lord, 


334 


POETIC TEXTS 


1QH XI 38-xn 15 


for you are a massive rampart for me 

38 [. . .] against destroyers and against all [. . .] 3g [. . .] you hide me from the calami- 
ties of the commotion [...] 40 [...] steel bars they shall not enter [...] 41 [...] 
around it, unless ... [...] 

Col. xii (= iv + frag. 43) 1-2 [...]... [...] 3 [...] my foot upon the rock [...] 4 [...] 

eternal path, and /on/ the tracks which you have chosen [. . .] 5 Blank 
I give you thanks, Lord, 

because you have brightened my face with your covenant 

6 and [. . .] I have looked for you. 

Like perfect dawn you have revealed yourself to me with your light. 

But (to) them, your people, 

7 [interpreters of deceit, with their wo]rds they lure them, 
sowers of fraud [misdirect them] 

and make them fall without them being aware. 

8 For in folly they carry out their deeds. 

Because I have been an object of ridicule for them, 

and they do not esteem me 

when you make yourself great through me. 

For they evict me from my land 

9 like a bird from the nest; 

all my friends and my acquaintances have been taken away from me, 
and rank me like a broken jug. 

But they are sowers of deceit 

10 and seers of fraud, 

they have plotted evil against me {...} 

to alter your Law, which you engraved in my heart, 

by flattering teachings for your people; 

11 they have denied the drink of knowledge to the thirsty, 
in their thirst they have given them vinegar to drink 

to consider their mistake, 

12 so they may act like fools in their feasts 
so they will be caught in their nets. 

But you, O God, abhor all the scheming of Belial 

13 and your counsel remains, 

and the plan of your heart persists endlessly. 

But they, hypocrites, plot intrigues of Belial, 

14 they look for you with a double heart, 
and are not firmly based in your truth. 

There is in their thoughts a root which produces poison and wormwood, 

15 with stubbornness of heart they inquire, 
they look for you among the idols, 


iqH xii 16-27 


THE HYMNS 


335 


place in front of themselves the stumbling-block of their offences, 

16 they go to look for you in the mouth of prophets of deceit 
attracted by delusion. 

They speak to your people with stuttering lip and weird tongue 

17 to convert to folly all their deeds with tricks. 

For they have not chosen the path of your heart 
nor have they listened to your word. 

18 They said of the vision of knowledge: It is not certain! 
and of the path of your heart: It is not that! 

But you, O God, will answer them, judging them with your power 

19 according to their idols and their numerous sins, 
so that in their schemes are caught 

those who deviate from your covenant. 

20 At the judgment you will annihilate all the men of deception, 
there will no longer exist seers of delusion. 

For there is no folly in all your acts, 

21 and there is no deception in the intentions of your heart. 

Those in harmony with you, 

will persist in your presence always; 
those who walk on the path of your heart, 

22 will be established permanently. 

And I, when I lean on you, 

I remain resolute and rise above those who scorn me, 
and my hands succeed against all those who mock me; 

23 for they do not value me, 

even though you exhibit your power in me 

and reveal yourself in me with your strength to enlighten them. 

You have not covered in disgrace 

24 the face of all those looking for me, 

those who unite /together/ for your covenant. 

Those who walk on the path of your heart have listened to me, 

25 they have aligned themselves with you in the council of the holy ones. 
You will make his right triumph, 

and truth through justice. 

You will not mislead them at the hand of the doomed 
2b as they have schemed against them; 

instead you will put their fear into your people 
and the scattering of all the peoples of the lands, 
to destroy, at the judgment, all who violate your word. 

27 Through me you have enlightened the face of the Many, 
you have increased them, even making them uncountable, 
for you have shown me your wondrous mysteries. 


336 


POETIC TEXTS 


iqH xii 28-40 


28 By your wondrous advice you have strengthened my position 
and worked wonders in the presence of the Many 

on account of your glory, 

29 and to show your power to all living things. 

What is flesh compared to this? 

What creature of clay can do wonders? 

He is in sin from his maternal womb, 

30 and in guilty iniquity right to old age. 

But I know that justice does not belong to man 
nor the perfect path to the son of man. 

31 To God Most High belong all the acts of justice, 
and the path of man is not secure 

except by the spirit which God creates for him 

32 to perfect the path of the sons of man 

so that all his creatures come to know the strength of his power 
and the extent of his compassion 
with all the sons of his approval. 

S3 And dread and dismay have gripped me, 
all my /bones/ have fractured, 
mv heart has melted like wax in front of the fire, 
my knees give way like water which flows down a slope, 

34 for I have remembered my faults 
with the disloyalty of my ancestors, 
when the wicked rose up against your covenant 

33 and the doomed against your word - 

I said «For my sin I have been barred from your covenant*. 

But when I remembered the strength of your hand 

36 and the abundance of your compassion 
I remained resolute and stood up; 

my spirit kept firmly in place 
in the face of my distress. 

37 For you have supported me by your kindnesses 
and by your abundant compassion. 

Because you atone for sin 

and clefanse man] of his fault through your justice. 

38 It is not possible for man [. . .] 
you made [. . .]. 

For you created the just and the wicked 

[...] 

j9 [...] I will tie myself to your covenant until [...] 

40 [...] for you are the truth 
and all [your deeds] are justice. 


iqH xiii 1-16 


THE HYMNS 


337 


Col. xiii (= v + frag. 29) 7 on the day of a people [...] 2 your pardons and the 

great number of [your (acts of) compassion ...] 3 And when I knew this I 
gained comfort [. . .] 4 by your approval, and in your hand is the judgment of 
all. Blank 

5 I give you thanks, Lord, 

because you did not desert me when I stayed among a [foreign] people [. . .] 

6 [and did not] judge me on my fault, 

nor did you abandon me to the plottings of my desire 
but you saved my life from the pit. 

You put [the soul of the poor and wretched] 

7 right among lions, 
intended for the sons of guilt, 

lions which grind the bones of strong men, 
and drink the blood of champions. 

8 You made my lodging with many fishermen, 

those who spread the net upon the surface of the sea, 
those who go hunting the sons of iniquity. 

And there you established me for the judgment, 
g and strengthened in my heart the foundation of truth. 

The covenant, therefore, for those looking for it. 

You closed the mouth of the lion cubs, 

70 whose teeth are like a sword, 

w hose molars are like a sharpened spear, 

they are vipers’ venom, 

all their scheming is to lay waste. 

11 They lay in wait for me, but did not open their mouths against me. 

For you, my God, hid me from the sons of man, 
concealed your law in me, 

72 until the moment of revealing your salvation through me. 

For in the distress of my soul you heard my call, 

7 3 you identified the outc